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With Introduction, Notes 
and Vocabulary 



Author of ** On the Sources of Ovid's Heroides " 



^ ■/ 

\ ' 



LelMud Stmnford, Jr. 




This book is designed primarily to serve as an introduction to 
Latin poetry, for which Ovid seems to be peculiarly well adapted 
because his style is comparatively easy and his subject matter inter- 

The text of the Metamorphoses is in the main that of Magnus 
(1896). The Heroides were printed from the critical edition of 
Sedlmayer (1886). In certain cases I have not hesitated to deviate 
from these editions in favor of a reading that seemed to be better. 
Where it seemed desirable to explain these changes more fully, I 
have done so in the Commentary or in the Critical Notes at tlie end 
of the Commentary. 

In the Commentary I have endeavored to give all the information 
necessary to an intelligent reading of the text, without the addition 
of extraneous matter unsuitable for those students for whom the 
book is intended. At the same time, remembering that the place of 
Ovid in College curricula is not yet fixed and that many read him in 
more advanced classes, I have tried to prepare an edition wliich 
might be profitably used by that class of students also. 

The Proverbs and Short Selections at the close of the text have 
been added, not only for their own intrinsic merit but also to afford 
material for sight translation where the teacher may find it desirable. 

The Commentary on the second part has been made as full as thut 
on the first part, so that teachers who feel so disposed may begin with 
the Heroides instead of the Metamorphoses. 

All the most important editions have been consulted in the 
preparation of this edition. For the Metamorphoses, the editions of 
Magnus (1896), Harder (1897), Meuser-Egen (1896), Siebelis-PoUe 
(1888), and Haupt were found most useful. For the Heroides, I have 
drawn most from Palmer (2d ed., 1898), Schuckburgh (1879), and 
Loers (1829). For the Vocabulary, I am under especial obligations 
to Siebelis-Polle (1893) and Peters (1894). 

Acknowledgments are due to Professors Gildersleeve and Lodge, 
the editors-in-chief of this series, for their assistance in reading the 
proof and for various suggestions in the Commentary. 

James N. Anderson. 
-WiLLiAMSTON, S. C, Jfav 15, 1899. 

^ 7W 



I. Fkom thb Metahosphoses : 

1. The Four Ages (Met. I. 89-160) 1 

2. The Flood of Deucalion (Met. L 262-415) 3 

8. PhaSthon (Met. II. 1-328) 7 

4. Battus(Met. II. 680-706) 13 

6. The Divinity of Bacchus (Met. 111. 582-691) 14 

6. Pyramus and Thisbe (Met. IV. 55-166) , 17 

7. Perseus and Atlas (Met. IV. 631-662) 20 

8. Ceres and Proserpina (Met. V. 885-571) 21 

9. Daedalus and Icarus (Met. VIII. 183-235) 24 

10. Philemon and Baucis (Met. VIII. 626-720) 26 

11. Orpheus and Eurydice (Met. X. 1-77) 28 

12. Midas (Met. XL 85-145) 30 

13. The Contest for the Arms of Achilles (Met. XII. 612 

-'XIII. 398) 32 

14. The Deification of Caesar (Met. XV. 746-860) 43 

15. The End of the Metamorphoses (Met. XV. 871-^79) 46 

II. Feom the Minor Woeks : 

1 . Penelope to Ulysses (Her. I.) 47 

2. Medea to Jason (Her. XII.) 50 

3. A Proposal (Am. I. 3) 56 

4. The Tablet (Am. I. 12) 57 

5. A Defense of Poesy (Am. I. 15) 58 

6. Elegy on the Parrot (Am. II. 6) 59 

7. The Poet's Dilemma (Am. II. 10, 1-14) 61 

8. Elegy on the Death of Tibullus (Am. III. 9) 61 

9. Roman Girls (A. A. 1. 1-66) 63 

10. Letter- Writing (A. A. I. 459-486) 64 

11. The Remedies of Love and the Pleasures of Life (Rem. Am. 

149-212) 05 

12. A Storm at Sea (Trist. L 2) 67 

13. Ovid's Last Night at Rome (Trist. L 3) 70 

14. An Autobiographical Sketch (Trist. IV. 10) 78 

15. Proverbs and Short Selections 76 


I. Ovid's Life and Works.. 

PtTBLlus OviDius Naso was born at Sulmo, now Sul- 
mona^ a small town ninety Roman miles east of Rome in the 
well-watered, hilly district of the Paeligni. 

The date of his birth is March 20, 43 B.C. He had a 
brother of great promise, exactly a year older than himself, 
but he died in his twenty-first year. 

Ovid^s father belonged to an ancient equestrian family, 
and was possessed of considerable property. Though eco- 
nomical and money-loving, he was ambitious for his sons, 
and decided to give them the best education that the world 
afforded. To this end he moved to Rome while they were 
quite young, and put them under the best masters there. 

Education in those days was largely rhetorical and legal, 
preparatory to civil preferment. Ovid's father wished to 
make a lawyer out of him ; but the boy, unlike his brother, 
developed no especial fondness for his intended calling, al- 
though he showed talent in the schools and his writings 
show strong traces of rhetorical training. 

To please his father, Ovid continued these distasteful 
studies for some time. He afterwards studied in Athens, as 
was the fashion in those days, travelled in Asia Minor, and 
spent some time in Sicily, visiting famous scenes and laying 
up information which was to be useful to him in future 
years. He returned to Rome, and held several minor judi- 
cial positions before he gave up the career to which his 
father destined him. 

From his earliest youth he had been strongly attracted by 


the Muses^ and now the success of some early love-poems 
fired his genius and changed his life. Henceforth he de- 
voted himself to poetry and a life of literary ease. Such a 
life he loved above all others, and fortunately his circum- 
stances were such that he was able to indulge himself. The 
greater part of his life was passed under exceptionally happy 
circumstances. The conscious production of immortal works 
must in itself have • been the source of great satisfaction to 
the author. Besides this, Ovid had friends and congenial 
companions among the poets and other prominent men of 

After two unhappy marriages, Ovid found in his third 
wife a companion upon whom he bestowed great praise in his 
poems. He had a daughter, it is uncertain by which wife. 

When the poet was fifty years old and his hair was well 
sprinkled with gray, suddenly there came upon him, like a 
thunderbolt from a clear sky, a decree from the hand of Au- 
gustus banishing him to the town of Tomi, on the Black Sea, 
near the mouth of the Danube. The cause of this decree is 
not known. Ovid everywhere says that his fault or mistake 
did not amount to a crime. 

Ovid took a sorrowful farewell of his friends and family 
and of the city which he loved so well. After a long and 
tedious journey he arrived at his destination, the home of 
the barbarous Getae. There, amid very uncongenial sur- 
roundings, he passed the remaining years of his life ; and 
there he died, unpardoned, in the year 17 a.d. (according to 
some, 18 A.D.), at the age of fifty- nine (or sixty). 

Ovid's chief works were as follows : 

1. Amoves, three books of short poems on various subjects, 
but mainly love-poems addressed to Corinna, the fictitious 
name of Ovid's mistress. 

2. Heroides, twenty-one epistles, mainly imaginary love- 
letters from famous women of the heroic age to their absent 
husbands or lovers. 

3. Ars Arnatoria, in three books, in form didactic, cour 
veying instructions to men and women how to gain the affec- 
tions of the opposite sex. 


4. Remedia Amoris, containing instructions how to over- 
come the passion of love. 

5. Metamorphoses, in fifteen books, consisting of about 
two hundred and fifty stories on various subjects, from the 
creation of the world to the deification of Caesar, loosely but 
cleverly joined together, and having only this in common, that 
they all contain some transformation, some scene in which 
something^ is changed to something else. " Metamorphoses " 
is a Greek word (fierafMpix&creis), meaning transformations, 
and is paraphrased by Ovid in the phrase mutatae formae. 
It usually happens that men are changed by the gods, as a 
reward or a punishment, into the lower animals, or into 
trees, flowers, stones, stars, etc. Other transformations also 

6. Fasti, in six books, corresponding to the first six 
months of the year and containing accounts of the Boman 
festivals that took place in those months, together with the 
origin of those festivals and any myths connected with them. 

7. Tristia, in five books, laments and entreaties written in 
banishment to his friends in Eome, but without mentioning 
names, for fear of compromising the persons addressed. 

8. Epistulae ex Ponto, in four books, similar to the Tristia, 
but mentioning names. 

9. Ibis, an invective against some enemy at Rome. 

10. Medea, a tragedy, famous at the time but lost to us. 
It belonged to Ovid^s earlier works. 

11. Besides these, we have a fragment De Medicamine 
Faciei, giving instructions how to beautify and preserve the 


Ovid was one of the cleverest tale-tellers that ever told a 
tale : a poet of vivid imagination and fine descriptive power, 
a master of language and a skilful versifier, a close observer 
of life and a careful analyzer of character, well versed in 
Greek and Boman literature and appreciative of the best, 
polished and well acquainted with his Rome, he drew pic- 
tiires which won the admiration of his contemporaries and 


have been a source of unending enjoyment to after genera- 

H Th6 Metres of Ovid. 

Greek and Latin versification is based on t&e length of 
syllables, and not on the word-accent as in our language. 
Syllables are either long (— ) or short {^), or common (some- 
times long, sometimes short, ^). One long syllable is equal 
to two shorts. The length of a syllable is called its quantity. 
The Latin quantities must usually be learned by careful 
observation, but some useful rules may be given : 

1. A vowel before another vowel (or separate^ from it 
only hy h) is usually short, e.g. mdus, p^er. 

2. A short vowel coming before two consonants, either in 
the same word or in different words, counts as long, and the 
syllable is said to be long hy position. A double consonant 
{x or z) has the same effect as two consonants. 

3. If these two consonants be a mute and a liquid (tr, br, 
etc.), the syllable may remain short; e.g. tenSbrae. Such 
syllables are usually common. 

4. All diphthongs are long. 

Some other rules may be conveniently subjoined here : 

5. Sometimes two vowels, not naturally forming a diph- 
thong, are in pronunciation run together into one syllable, 
e.g. delude. This process is Q2i\e& Synizesis or Synaeresis. 

6. Hiatus is the coming together of two vowel sounds, 
one at the end of a word, the other at the beginning of the 
next word. In Ovid this is, as a rule, permitted only when 
the first word is a monosyllabic interjection or a polysyllabic 
proper name ending with the ictus-syllable of the fifth foot. 
In other cases this unpleasant juxtaposition of vowel sounds 
is avoided by eliminating one of those sounds. 

a. Usually the first vowel sound is omitted by Elision ; 
e.g. pronounce perqne hiemes as perqoiemes. 

b. When the second word is cs or cat of the verb sum, the 
e is omitted by Aphaeresis ; e.g. pronounce itum est as ituinst. 

Note 1. Notice that h never counts as a consonant in Latin. 

Note 2. Notice thatllnal am, em, and nm are elided, just like vowels. 


Note 3. It is not probable that these elided sounds were completely 
omitted in Latin, but they did not count in the verse, and may be most 
conveniently omitted by us. 


The metre in which the Metamorphoses is written is 
called the Dactylic Hexameter, or Heroic Hexameter, or 
simply Hexameter. 

The Dactyl is a foot consisting of one long and two short 
syllables, thus : -t v^ w. The rhythmical accent on the 
first syllable of this foot is called the Ictus, and the syl- 
lable upon which the Ictus falls is called the Thesis, The 
remainder of the foot is called the Arsis.* The Dactylic 
Hexameter is, theoretically, a verse consisting of six Dactyls. 
The last foot, however, always consists of but two syllables, 
^ yj or JL — The fifth Dactyl is very rarely replaced by 
a Spondee (^ — ). When this occurs, the verse is called a 
Spondaic Verse. Any of the other four Dactyls may be 
freely replaced by Spondees. So the feet and syllables of a 
Dactylic Hexameter would be as follows : 

This long verse, if read without a pause, would grow monot- 
onous. Usually there is a pause near the middle of the 
verse, giving the effect rather of two short verses. Tliis 
pause usually coincides with the Principal Caesura. Caesura 
{cutting) takes place whenever the end of the word does not 
coincide with the end of the foot. When the Caesura comes 
immediately after the ictus-syllable, it is called masculine ; 
when it comes after one of the short syllables, it is called 
feminine. The Principal Caesura is the Semiquinaria, or 
Penthemimeral, occurring in the middle of the third foot. 
The next in importance is the Semiseptenaria, or ffephthe- 
mimeraly in the middle of the fourth foot. When this occurs, 
there is usually combined with it the Semiternaria or Trihe- 
mimeral Caesura in the middle of the second foot. Often 
there is a choice of Caesuras, and the reader in selecting the 
pause should have regard for the punctuation and sense. 

* These terms are sometimes used in just the opposite signification. 



'Anrea prima 8ata(e)8t aetas, quae vindice ntdlo, 
sponte sua, sine lege fidem rectnmque colebat. 
Poena meta8qn(e) aberant, nee verba minantia fixo 

aere legebantur, nee snpplex tnrba timebat 

iiidicifl 6ra sni, f sed er&nt sine iiidiee tiiti. 
' Ndndum cae'sa sois, f peregrin(um) ut viseret 6rbem 
m6ntibus in liqnid&s f piniis desc6nderat iindas, 
ntUlaque m6rtal6s f praet6r sua litora ndrant 


The measure of which Ovid was most fond and which he 
developed to its greatest perfection is the Elegiac Distich. 
This he used in all his surviving works except the Meta- 
morphoses, It is a couplet consisting of an Hexameter fol- 
lowed by a Pentameter. The latter verse is a mutilated 
Hexameter, formed by the omission of the last half of the 
third and sixth feet. There is, however, this additional dif- 
ference : No spondees are admitted into the second half of 
the verse. The scheme, then, will be as follows : 



H&nc tua P6nelop6 || lent6 tibi mittit, TJlixe : 
nil mihi r6scrib&s, || &ttamen ipse veni 

Tr6ia iac6t cert6 || Danais invisa pu^llis : 
vix PriamtLS tanti || t6taque Tr6ia fait. 

6 utin&nL torn, ctun || Lacedae'niona cl&sse pet6bat, 
6bnitn8 insanis || ^sset adtlter aqnis ! 




MET. I. 89-150. 

A n r e a prima sata est aetas^ quae yindice niillo^ 
spoiite sua, sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. 90 

Poena metusqne aberant, nee verba minantia fixo 
aere legebantur, nee supplex turba timebat 
iudicis ora sui^ sed erant sine iudice tnti. 
Nondum caesa suis, peregrinum ut viseret orbem, 
montibus in liquidas pinus descenderat uadas^ 95 

nullaque mortales praeter sua litora norant. 
Nondum praecipites cingebant oppida fossae; 
non tuba directi, lion aeris cornua flexi, 
non galeae^ non ensis erant: sine militis usu 
moliia securae peragebant otia gentes. 100 

Ipsa quoque inmunis rastroqne intacta nee ullis 
saucia vomeribus per se dabat omnia tellus; 
contentique cibis nullo cogente creatis 
arbuteos fetus montanaque fraga legebant . 
cornaque et in duris haerentia mora rubetis 105 

et quae deciderant patula lovis arbore glandes. 
Ver erat aeternum, plaeidique tepentibus auris 
mulcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 
Mox etiam fruges tellus inarata ferebat^ 
nee renovatus ager gravidis canebat aristis; 110 

fiumina iam lactis/iam flumina nectaris ibant, 
flavaque de viridi stillabant ilice mella. 


Postqnam, Saturno tenebrosa iii Tartara misso^ 
sub lovo mnndus erat, eubiit argentea proles, 
auro deterior, fulvo pretiosior aere. 115 

luppiter antiqui coutraxit tempora veris, 
perque liiemes aestusquo et iuaequales autumnos 
et breve ver spatiis exegit quattuor annum. 
Tunc primum siccis aer fervoribus ustus 
canduit et ventis glacies adstricta pependit. 120 

Tunc primum subiere domus. Domus antra f uerunt 
et densi frutices et vinctao cortice virgae. 
Semina tunc primum longis Cerealia sulcis 
obruta sunt, pressique iugo gemuere iuvenci. 

Tertia post illam successit a e n e a proles, 125 

saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma, 
non scelerata tamen. De duro est ultima f o r r o . 
Protinus inrupit venae peioris in aevum 
omne nefas: fugero pudor verumque fidesque. 
In quorum subiere locum fraudesque doliquo 130 

insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus liabendi. 
Vela dabat ventis, nee adhuc bene noverat illos, 
navita; quuequo diu steterant in montibus altis, 
fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae. 

Communemque prius ceu lumina solis et auras 135 

cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor. 
Nee tantum segetes aiimeutaque debita dives 
2)oscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae: 
quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris, 
effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum. 140 

lamque nocens ferrum ferroque nocentius aurum 
prodierat: prodit bellum, quod pugnat utroque, 
sanguineaquo manu crepitantia concutit arma. 
Vivitur ex rapto: non hospes ab hospite tutus, 
non socer a genero; fratrum quoque gratia rara est. 145 

Inminet exitio vir coniugis, ilia mariti; 
Inrida terribiles miscent aconita novercae; 
filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos. 
Yicta iacet pietas, et virgo caede madentes, 
ultima caelestum, terras As traea reliquit. 150 



MET. I. 262-415. 

Protinus Aeoliis Aquilonem claudit in antris 
et quaecumque f ugant inductas flamina nubes^ 
emittitque Notnm. Madidis Notus evolat alis, 
terribilem picea tectus caligine yultum: 265 

barba gravis nimbiB^ canis fluit iinda capillis, 
f ronte sedent nebulae, rorant pennaeque sinusque. 
Utque manu late pendentia nubila pressit, 
fit fragor; hinc densi fanduntur ab ae there nimbi. 
Nuntia lunonis varios induta colores 270 

concipit Iris aquas alimentaque nubibus adfert. 
Sternuntur segetes et deplorata colonis 
Yota iacent, longique perit labor inritus anni. 

Nee caelo eontenta sue est lovis ira, sed ilium 
caeruleus frater iuvat auxiliaribus undis. 275 

Conyocat hie amnes. Qui postquam tecta tyranni 
intra vere sui, ^ Non est hortamine longo 
nunc 'ait * utendum. Vires effundite vestras, 
sic opus est; aperite domos ac mole remota 
fluminibus vestris totas inmittite habenas.' 280 

lusserat: hi redeunt ac fontibus ora relaxant 
et defrenato volvuntur iu aequora cursu. 
Ipse tridente suo terram percussit: at ilia 
intremuit motuque vias patefecit aquarum. 
Exspatiata ruunt per apertos flumina campos 285 

cumque satis arbusta simul pecudesque virosque 
tectaque cumque suis rapiunt penetralia sacris. 
Siqua domus mansit potuitque resistere tanto 
indeiecta malo, culmen tamen altior huius 
unda tegit, pressaeque latent sub gurgite turres. 290 

lamque mare et tellus nullum discrimen habebant: 
omnia pontus erant; deerant quoque litora ponto. 
Occupat hie collem, cumba sedet alter adunca 
et ducit remos illicy ubi nuper ararat, 
ille supra segetes aut mersae calmina villae 205 


uavigat, hie Bumma piscem depreudit in ulmo. 

Figitur in viridi, bi fors tulit, aucora prato, 

aut Bubiecta terunt curvae vineta carinae; 

et^ modo qua graciles gramen carpsere capellae^ 

nunc ibi deformes ponunt sua corpora phocae. 300 

Mirautur sub aqua lucos urbesquo domosque 

Nereides^ silvasque tenent delpliines et altis 

incnrsant ramis agitataque robora pulsant. 

Nat lupus inter oves, f ulvos vehit unda leones^ 

unda vehit tigres, nee vires fulminis apro, 305 

crura nee ablato prosunt velocia cervo. 

Quaesitisque diu terris, ubi sistere posset^ 

in mare lassatis volucris vaga decidit alis. 

Obruerat tumulos inmensa licentia pontic 

pulsabantque novi inontaua cacumiua fluctus. 310 

Maxima pars unda rapitur; quibns unda pepercit^ 

illos longa domant inopi ieiunift vietu. 

Separat Aonios Oetaeis Phocis ab arvis^ 
terra ferax, dum terra fuit, sed tempore in illo 
pars maris et latus subitarum campus aquarum. 315 

Mons ibi verticibus petit arduus astra duobus^ 
nomine Parnasus^ superantque caeumina nubes. 
Ilie ubi Deucalion^ nam cetera texerat aequor^ 
cum coneorte tori parva rate vectus adhaesit^ 
Corycidus nymphas et numina mentis adorant 320 

fatidicamque Themin^ quae tunc oracla tenebat. 
Non illo melior quisquam nee amantior aoqui 
vir fait, aut ilia metuentior ulla deorum. 

luppiter ut liquidis stagnare paludibus orbem 
et superesse videt de tot modo milibus unum, 325 

ct superesse videt de tot modo milibus unam, 
innocuos ambos, cultores numinis ambos, 
nubila disiecit, nimbisque aquilone remotis 
et caelo terras ostejidit et aetbera terris. 

Nee maris ira manet, posi toque tricuspide telo 330 

mulcet aquas rector pelagi supraque profundum 
cxstantem atque umeros innato murice tectum 
caeruleum Tritona vocat conchaeque sonanti 


inspirare iubet fliictusque et fiumina signo 

iam revocare date. Cava buciiia Bamitur illi, 335 

tortilis, in latum quae turbiue crescit ab imo^ 

buciua^ quae medio concepit ubi aSra ponfco^ 

litora voce replefc sub utroque iacentia Phoebo. 

Tunc quoque, ut ora dei madida rorantia barba 

contigit et cccinit inssos inflata receptus^ 340 

omnibus audita est telluris et aequoris undis, 

et qui bus est undis audita^ coercuit omnes. 

Iam mare litus babet^ plenos capit alveus amnes, 
fiumina subsidunt; collesque exire videntur^ 
Burgit humus, crescunt loca decrescentibus undis. 345 

Postque diem longam nudata eacumina silvae 
ostendunt limumque tenent in fronde relictum. 

Redditus orbis erat. Quem postquam vidit inanem 
et desolatas agere alta silentia terras, 

Deucalion lacrimis ita Pyrrham adfatur obortis: 350 

* O soror, o coniunx, o femina sola superstes, 
quam commune mihi genus et patruelis origo, 
deinde torus iunxit, nunc ipsa pericula iungunt, 
terrarum, quascumque vident occasus et ortus, 
nos duo turba sumus; possedit cetera pontus. 355 

Haec quoque adliuc vitae non est fiducia nostrae 
certa satis; terrent etiam nunc nubila mentem. 
Qnis tibi, si sine me fatis erepta f aisses, 
nunc animus, miseranda foret ? quo sola timorem 
f erre modo posses ? quo consolante doleres ? 300 

Namque ego, crede mihi, si te quoque pontus haberet, 
te sequerer, coniunx, et me quoque pontus haberet. 
utinam possera populos reparare paternis 
artibus atque animas formatae infundere terrae! 
Nunc genus in nobis restat mortale duobus, 365 

sic visum superis, hominumque exempla manemus.' 

Dixerat, et flebant. Placuit caeleste precari 
nnmen et auxilium per sacras quaerere sortes. 
^NTulla mora est: adeunt paritcr Cephisidas undas, 
ut nondum liquid as, sic iam vada nota secantes. 370 

lude ubi libatos inroravere liquores 


yestibus et capitis flectunt vestigia sanctae 

ad delubra deae^ quorum fastigia turpi 

pallebant musco stabantque sine ignibus arae. 

Ut templi tetigere gradus, procumbit iiterque 375 

pronus humi gelidoque pavens dedit oscula saxo, 

atqiie ita ' Si precibus ' dixerunt ' numiua iustis 

victa remollescunt^ si flectitur ira deorum^ 

die, Themi, qua generis damnum reparabile nostri 

arte sit, et mersis (er opem, mitissima, rebus.' 380 

Mota dea est sortemque dedit: ^ Discedite templo 
et velate caput cinctasque resolvite vestes 
ossaque post tergum magnae iactate parentis.' 

Obstipuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 
Pjrrha prior iussisque deae parere recusat, 385 

detque sibi veniam; pavido rogat ore, pavetque 
laedere iactatis maternas ossibus umbras. 
Interea repetunt caecis obscura latebris 
verba datae sortis secum inter seque volutant. 
Inde Promethides placidis Epimethida dictis 390 

mulcet et ^ Aut fallax ' ait ^ est sollertia nobis, 
aut pia sunt nullumque uefas oracula suadent. 
Magna parens terra est, lapides in corpore terrae 
ossa reor dici; iacere hos post terga iubemur.' 

Coniugis augurio quamquam Titan ia mota est, 395 

spes tamen in dubio est: adeo caelestibus ambo 
diffidunt monitis. Sed quid temptare nocebit ? 
Discedunt velantque caput tunicasque recingunt 
et iussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt. 

Saxa (quis hoc cretlat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas ?) 400 
ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem 
moUirique mora mollitaque ducere formam. 
Mox ubi creverunt naturaque mitior illis 
contigit, ut quaedam, sic non manifesta, videri 
forma potest bominis, sed, uti de marmore coepta, 405 

non exacta satis rudibusque simillima signis. 
Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars umida suco 
et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum; 
quod solidum est iiectique nequit, mutatur in ossa; 


quae modo vena fuit^ sub eodem nomine mansit; 410 

inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 
inissa viri manibus faciem traxere virojnm, 
et de femineo reparata est femina iactu. 

Inde genus durum sumus experiensque laborum 
et documenta damns, qua simus origine nati. 415 


MET. II. 1-69, 88-192, 202-216, 227-236, 254-256, 260-271, 


Begia Solis erat sublimibus alta columnis, 
clara micante auro fiammasque imitante pyropo: 
cuius ebur nitidum fastigia summa tegebat, 
argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvae. 
Materiam superabat opus : nam Mulciber illic 5 

aequora caelarat medias cingentia terras, 
terrarumque orbem, caelumque quod inminet orbi. 
Caeruleos habet unda decs, Tritona canorum 
Proteaque ambiguum, balaenarumque prementem 
Aegaeona suis inmania terga lacertis, 10 

Doridaque et natas, quarum pars nare yidetur, 
pars in mole sedens yirides siccare capillos, 
pisce vehi quaedam; facies non omnibus una, 
non diversa tamen, qualem decet esse sororum. 
Terra viros urbesque gerit silvasque ferasque 15 

Huminaque et nymphas et cetera numina ruris. 
Haec super imposita est caeli f ulgentis imago 
signaque sex foribus dextris totidemque sinistris. 

Quo simul acclivi Clymeneia limite proles 
venit et intra vit dubifeati tecta parentis, 20 

protinus ad patrios sua fert vestigia vultus 
consistitque procul : neque enim propiora f erebat 
lamina. Purpurea velatus veste sedebat 
in solio Phoebus claris lueente zmaragdis. 
A dextra laevaquo Dies et Mensis et Annus 25 


Saeculaque et positae spatiis aequalibus Horae 

Verque novuin stabat cinctum florente corona^ 

stabat nuda Aestas et spicea serta gerebat^ 

stabat et Autumnus^ calcatis sordidus uvis^ 

et glacialis Hiems^ canos liirsuta capillos. 30 

Ipse loco medius rerum novitate payentem 
Sol oculis iuveDem^ quibus adspicit omnia^ yidit 
' Quae ' quo * yiae tibi causa? quid hac ' ait * arce petisti, 
progenies^ Phaethon^ baud iufitianda parenti ? ' 

Ille refert * lux inmensi publica mundi, 35 

Phoebe pater^ si das usum mihi nominis huius 
nee falsa Clymene culpam sub imagine celat^ 
pignora da, genitor, per quae tua yera propago 
credar, et hunc animis errorem detrabe nostris.' 

Dixerat: at genitor circum caput omne micantes 40 

deposuit radios propiusque accedere iussit; 
amplexuque dato * Nee tu mens esse negari 
dignus es, et Clymene yeros ' ait * edidit ortus. 
Quoque minus dubites, quodyis pete munus, ut illud 
me tribuente feras. Promissis testis adesto 45 

dis iuranda palus, oculis incognita nostris.' 

Vix bene desierat, currus rogat ille paternos 
inque diem alipedum ius et moderamen equorum. 

Paenituit iurasse patrem. Qui terque quaterque 
concutiens inlustre caput * Temeraria ' dixit 50 

* yox mea facta tua est. Utinam promissa liceret 
non dare! confiteor, solum hoc tibi, nate, negarem. 

Dissuadere licet. Non est tua tuta yoluntas. 


Magna petis, Phaethon, et quae nee yiribus istis 
munera conveniant nee tam puerilibus annis. 55 

Sors tua mortalis, non est mortale quod optas. 
Plus etiam, quam quod superis contingere fas est, 
nescius adfecfcas. Placeat sibi quisque licebit, 
non tamen ignifero quisquam consistere in axe 
me yalet excepto. Vasti quoque rector Olympi, 60 

qui fera terribili iaculatur fiilmina dextra, 
non agat lios currus : et quid loye mains habemus ? 
* Ardua prima yia est et qua yix mane recentes 


enitantnr equi: medio est altissima caelo, 

Tinde mare et terras ipsi mihi saepe yidere 65 

fit timor, et pavida trepidat formidine pectus. 

Ultima prona via est et eget moderamine certo: 

tunc etiam quae me subiectis excipit uudis^ 

ne ferar in praeceps, Tethys solet ipsa vereri. 69 

* At tu, funesti ne sim tibi muneris auctor, 88 

nate^ cave, dum resque sinit, tua corrige vot^. 
Scilicet ut nostro genitum te sanguine credas, 90 

pignora cerfca petis ? Do pignora certa timendo 
et patrio pater esse metu prober. Adspice vultus 
ecco meos; utinamque oculos in pectora posses 
inserere et patrias intus deprendere curas ! 
Denique quicquid habet dives, circum spice, mundus, 95 

eque tot ac tantis caeli terraeque marisque 
posce bonis aliquid : nullam patiere repulsam. 
Deprecor hoc unum, quod vero nomine poena, 
non honor est: poenam, Phaethon, pro raunere poscis. 

' Quid mea colla tones blandis, ignare, lacertis? 100 

Ne dubita, dabitur (Stygias iuravimus undas) 
quodcumque optaris: sed tu sapientius opta.' 

Finierat monitus: dictis tamen ille repugnat 
propositumque premit flagratque cupidine currus. 

Ergo qua licuit genitor cuuctatus ad altos 105 

deducit iuveuem, Vulcania munera, currus. 
Aureus axis erat, temo aureus, aurea summae 
curvatura rotae, radiorum argenteus ordo; 
per iuga chrysolithi positaeque ex ordine gemmae 
clara repercusso reddebant lumina Phoebo. 110 

Dumque ea magnanimus Phaethon miratur opusque 
perspicit, ecce vigil rutilo patefecit ab ortu 
purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum 
atria. Diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit 
Lucifer et caeli statione novissimus exit. 115 

Quem petere ut terras mundumque rubescere vidit 
cornuaque extremae velut evanescere lunae, 
iungere equos Titan velocibus imperat Horis. 
lussa deae celeres peragunt, ignemque vomentes. 


ambroBiae buco saturos^ praesaepibus altis 120 

quadrupedes ducunfc adduntque sonaalia frena. 

Turn pater ora siii sacro medicamiue nati 

conbigit et rapidae fecit patientia flammae 

imposuitque comae radios^ praesagaque 1 actus 

pectore sollicito repetens suspiria dixit : 125 

' Si potes his saltetn monitis parere parentis, 
parce, puer, stimulis et fortius utere loris : 
sponte sua properant; labor est iuhibere volentes. 

' Nee tibi di rectos placeat via quinque per arcus: 
sectus in obliquum est lato cnrvamine limes, 130 

zonarumque trium contentus fine polumque 
effugit australem iunctamque aquilonibus Arcton. 
Hac sit iter: manifesta rotae vestigia cernes. 
Utque ferant aequos et caelum et terra calores, 
nee preme nee summum molire per aethera currum. 135 

Altius egressus caelestia tecta cremabis, 
inferius terras: medio tutissimus ibis. 
Neu te dexterior tortum declinet ad Anguem, 
neve sinisterior pressam rota ducat ad Aram: 
inter utrumque tone. Fortunae cetera mando, 140 

quae iuvet et melius, quam tu tibi, consulat opto. 

^ Dum loquor, Ilesperio positas in litore metas 
umida nox tetigit. Non est mora libera nobis: 
poscimur : eff ulget tenebris Aurora f ugatis. 
Corripe lora manu, vel, si mutabile pectus 145 

est tibi, consiliis, non curribus utere nostris, 
dum potes et solidis etiamnunc sedibus adstas 
dumque male optatos nondum premis inscins axes. 
Quae tutus spectes, sine me dare lumina terris! ' 

Occupat ille levem iuvenali corpore currum, 150 

statque super manibusque datas coutingere habenas 
gaudet et invito grates agit inde parenti. 
Interea volucres Pyrois et Eons et Aethon, 
Solis equi, quartusque Phlegon, hinnitibus auras 
flammiferis implent pedibusque repagula pulsant. 155 

Quae postquam Tetliys, fatorum ignara nepotis 
roppulit, et facta est iumonsi copia mundi. 


corripnere viam pedibasque per aera motis 

obstantes scindunt nebulas pennisque levati 

praetereunt ortos isdem de partibas euros. 160 

Sed leve pondus erat, nee quod cognoscere possent 
Solis equi^ solitaque iugum gravitate carebat; 
utque labant enrvae iusto sine pondere naves 
perque mare instabiles nimia levitate feruntur, 
sic onere adsueto vacuus dat in aera saltus 165 

succutiturque alte similisque est currus inani. 

Quod simulac sensere, ruunt tritumque relinquunt 
quadriiugi spatium, nee quo prius ordine currunt. 
Ipse pavet^ nee qua commissas flee tat habenas, 
nee scit^ qua sit iter; nee, si sciat^ imperet illis. 170 

Tunc primum radiis gelidi caluere Triones 
et vetito frustra temptarunt aequore tingi, 
quaeque polo posita est glaciali proxima Serpens^ 
frigore pigra prius nee formidabilis uUi, 
incaluit sumpsitque novas fervoribus iras. 175 

Te quoque turbatum memorant fugisse, Boote, 
quamvis tardus eras et te tua plaustra tenebant. 

Ut vero summo despexit ab aethere terras 
infelix Phaethon penitus penitusque iacentes, 
palluit et subito genua intremuere timore, 180 

suntque oculis tenebrae per tantum lumen obortae. 
Et iam mallet equos numquam tetigisse paternos, 
iam cognosse genus piget et valuisse rogando^ 
iam Meropis dici cupiens ita fertur, ut acta 
praecipiti pinus borea, cui victa remisit 185 

frena suus rector, quam dis votisque reliquit. 
Quid faciat ? multum caeli post terga relictum, 
ante oculos plus est! animo metitur utrumque, 
et mode quos illi fatum contingere non est, 
prospicit occasus, interdum respicit ortus: 190 

quidque agat ignarus stupet, et nee frena remittit 
nee retinere valet, nee nomina novit equorum. 192 

Exspatiantur equi, nulloque inhibente per auras 202 

ignotae regionis eunt, quaque impetus egit, 
hac sine lege ruunt altoque sub aethere Axis 


incursant stellis rapiuntque per avia currum. 205 

Et modo samma petunt^ modo per declive viasque 
praecipites spatio terrae propiore fenintur. 
Inferiusque euis fraternos carrere Luna 
admiratur equos^ ambustaque nubila f umant. 

Gorripitur flammis^ ut quaeque altissima^ tellus 210 

fissaque agit rimas et Bucis aret adempbis. 
Pabula caaescunt, cum frondibus uritur arbor, 
materiamqne suo praebet sages arida dam no. 
Parva queror: magnae pereunt cum moenibus urbes, 
cumque suis totas popuUs incendia gentes 
in cinerem vertunt. Silvae cum montibus ardent. 216 

Tum vero Phaethon cunctis e parfcibus orbem 227 

adspicit accensum nee tantos sustinet aestus, 
ferventesque auras velut e fornace profunda 
ore trahit currusque suos candescere sentit; 230 

et neque iam cineres eiectatamque favillam 
ferre potest calidoque involvitur undique fumo, 
quoque eat, aut ubi sit, picea caligine tectus 
nescit et arbitrio volucrum raptatur equorum. 

Sanguine tunc credunt in corpora summa vocato 235 

Aethiopum populos nigrum traxisse colorem. 

Nilus in extremum f ugit perterritus orbem 254 

occuluitque caput, quod adhuc latet: ostia septem 
pulverulenta vacant, septem sine flumine valles. 256 

Dissilit omne solum, penetratque in Tartara rimis 260 
lumen et infernum terret cum coniuge regem. 
Et mare contraliitur, siccaeque est campus liarenae 
quod modo pontus erat: quosque altum texerat aequor, 
exsistunt montes et sparsas Cycladas augent. 
Ima petunt pisces, nee se super aequora curvi 265 

tollere consuetas audent delphines in auras; 
corpora phocarum summo resupina profundo 
exanimata natant. Ipsum quoque Nerea fama est 
Doridaque et natas tepidis latuisse sub antris. 
Ter Neptunus aquis cum torvo bracchia vultu 
exserere ausus erat, ter non tulit aeris ignes. 271 

At pater omnipotens, superos testatus et ipsum, 304 


qui dederat currus, nisi opem f erat, omnia fato 305 

interitura gravis summam petit arduus arcem, 

unde solet nubes latis iuducere terris, 

unde movet tonitrus vibrataque fulmina iactat. 

Sed neqae quas posset terris inducere nubes 

tunc habuit, nee quos caelo demitteret imbres. 310 

latonat et dextra libratum f ulmen ab aure 

misit in aurigam pariterque animaque rotisque 

expulit et saevis compescuit ignibus ignes. 

Consternantur equi et saltu in contraria facto 

coUa iugo eripiunt abrnptaque lora relinquunt. 315 

Illic frena iacent, illic temone revulsus 

axis, in hac radii fractarum parte rotarum, 

sparsaque sunt late laceri vestigia currus. 

At Phaethon rutilos flamma populante capillos, 
volvitur in praeceps longoque per aera tractu 320 

fertur, ut interdum de caelo stella sereno 
etsi non cecidit, potuit cecidisse yideri. 
Quern procul a patria diverse maximus orbe 
excipit Eridanus fumantiaque abluit ora. 
N^udes Hesperiae trifida f umantia flamma 325 

corpora daut tumulo, signant quoque carmine saxum: 



MET. II. 680-706. 

Illud erat tempus, quo te pastoria pellis 680 

texit onusque fuit baculum silvestre sinistrae, 

alterius dispar septenis fistula cannis. 

Dumque amor est curae, dum te tua fistula mulcet, 

incus toditae Pylios memorantur in agros 

processisse boves. Videt has Atlantide Mala 685 

natus et arte sua silvis occultat abactas. 

Senserat hoc furtum nemo, nisi notus in illo 


rure senex; Battiim vicinia tota vocabant. 

Divitis hie saltos herbosaque pascua Nelei 

nobiliumque greges custoB servabat equarum. 690 

Hunc timait blaadaqne manu seduxik et illi 

* Quisquis es, hospes,' ait * si forte armenta requiret 
haec aliquis^ vidisse nega; neu gratia facto 

nulla rependatur^ nitidam cape praemia yaccam/ 

et dedit. Accepta yoces has reddidit hospes : 695 

* Tutus eas. Lapis iste prius tua furta loquetur/ 
et lapidem ostendit. Simulat love natus abire, 
mox redit et versa pariter cum voce figura 

* Eustice, vidisti siquas hoc limite ' dixit 

* ire boves, fer opem, fur toque silentia deme; 700 
iuncta suo pariter dabitur tibi femina tauro.' 

At senior, postquam est merces geminata, * Sub illis 
montibus ' inquit * erunt ' ; et erant sub montibus illis. 
Eisit Atlantiades et * Me mihi, perfide, prodis? 
me mihi prodis ? ' ait periuraque pectora vertit 705 

in durum silicem, qui nunc quoque dicitur index. 



MET. III. 58JJ-691. 

Hie metu vacuus * Nomen mihi ' dixit * Acoetes, 
patria Maeonia est, humili de plebe parentes. 
Non mihi quae duri colerent pater arva iuvenci, 
lanigerosve greges, non ulla armenta reliquit: 685 

pauper et ipse fuit, linoque solebat et hamis 
decipere et calamo salientes ducere pisces. 
Ars illi sua census erat. Cum traderet artem, 
** Accipe quas habeo, studii successor et heres," 
dixit "opes." Moriensque mi lii nil ille reliquit 690 

praeter aquas: unum hoc possum appellare paternum. 

* Mox ego, ne scopulis haererem semper in isdem, 
addidici regimen dextra moderante carinae 
flectere et Oleniae sidus pluviale capellae 


Taygetenqne Hyadasqne oculis Arctonque notavi 595 

yentorumqae domos et portus puppibus aptos. 

* Forte petens Delum Chiae telluris ad oras 
applicor et dextris adducor litora remis, 
doque leves saltus udaeque inmittor harenae. 

Nox ubi consumpta est (Aurora rubescere prima 600 

coeperat), exsurgo, laticesque inferre recentes 

admoneo monstroque viam^ quae ducat ad undas. 

Ipse^ quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ab alto, 

prospicio comitesque voco repetoque carinam. 

" Adsumus en! " inquit sociorum primus Opheltes, 605 

utque putat, praedam deserto nactus in agro, 

virginea puerum ducit per litora forma. 

* Ille mero somnoque gravis titubare videtur 
vixque sequi. Specto cultum faciemque gradumque: 

nil ibi quod credi posset mortale videbam. 610 

Et sensi et dixi sociis: ** Quod numen in isto 

corpore sit, dubito; sed corpore numen in isto est. 

Quisquis es, o faveas nostrisque laboribus ad sis. 

His quoque des veniam." — " Pro nobis mifcte precari " 

Dictys ait, quo non alius conscendere summas 615 

ocior antemnas prensoque rudente relabi. 

^ Hoc Libys, hoc flavus, prorae tutela, Melanthus, 
hoc probat Alcimedon, et qui requiemque modumque 
voce dabat remis, animorum hortator Epopeus, 
hoc omnes alii : praedae tarn caeca cupido est. 620 

* " Non tamen hanc sacro violari pondere pinum 
perpetiar " dixi: " pars hie mihi maxima iuris " ; 
inque aditu obsisto. Furit audacissimus omni 

de numero Lycabas, qui Tusca pulsus ab urbe 

exsilium dira poenam pro caede luebat. 625 

Is mihi, dum resto, iuvenali guttura pugno 

rupit, et excussum misisset in aequora, si non 

haesissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 

' Impia turba probat factum. Tum denique Bacchus • 
(Bacchus enim fuerat), veluti clamore solutus 630 

sit sopor aque mero redeant in pectora sensus, 
" Quid facitis? quis clamor? " ait " qua, dicite, nautae. 


hue ope perveni ? quo ine deferre paratis ? " 

" Pone metum/' Proreus "et quos contingere portas 

ede veils " dixit: " terra slstere petita." — 635 

" NaxoQ " ait Liber " cursus advertite voBtros. 

Ilia mihi domus est^ vobis erit liosplta tellus/' 

Per mare fallaces perque omnia numina iurant 

sic fore, meque iubent pictae dare vela carinae. 

* Dextera Naxos erat. Dextra mihi liutea danti 040 
" Quid facis, o demens? quis te furor — ? " inquit Opheltes. 
Pro so quisque timet: " Laevam pete " maxima nutu 

pars mihi significat, pars quid velit aure susurrat. 

Obstipui ** Capiat " que " aliquis moderamina " dixi 

meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi. 645 

Increpor a cunctis, totumque inmurmurat agmen. 

E quibus Aethalion " Te scilicet omnis in uno 

nostra salus posita est ! " ait^ et subit ipse meumque 

explet opus, Naxoque petit diversa relicta. 

^ Tum deus inludens^ tamquam modo denique fraudem 650 
senserit, o puppi pontum prospectat adunca 
et flenti similis ^^Non haec mihi litora, uautae^ 
promisistis " ait^ ^^ non haec mihi terra rogata est. 
Quo merui poenam facto ? quae gloria vestra est, 
si puerum iuvenes, si multi failitis unum ? " 655 

lamdudum flebam: lacrimas manus impia nostras 
ridet et impellit properantibus aequora remis. 

* Per tibi nunc ipsum (nee enim praesentior illo 
est deus) adiuro, tam me tibi vera ref erre, 

quam veri maiora Me : stetit aequore puppis 660 

hand aliter quam si siceum navale teneret. 

Illi admirantes remorum in verbere perstant 

velaque deducunt geminaque ope currere temptant. 

Impedlunt hederao remos nexuque recurve 

serpunt et gravidis distinguunt vela corymbis. 665 

Ipse racemiferis f rontem circumdatus uvis 

pampineis agitat velatam frondibus hastam. 

Quem circa tigres simulacraque inania lyneum 

pictarumque iacent fera corpora pantherarum. 

Exsiluero vlri, sive hoc insania fecit, 670 


siye timor, primusque Medon nigrescere coepit 

corpore et exprefiso spinae carvamiae fiecti. 

Incipit buic Lycabas: " In quae miracula " dixit 

" verteris? " et lati rictus et panda loquenti 

nans erat^ squamamque cutis durata trahebat. 675 

At Libys obstantes dum yuU obvertere remos, 

in spatium resilire manus breve yidit et illas 

iam non esse manus, iam pinnas posse vocari. 

Alter^ ad intortos cupiens dare braccbia f unes, 

braccbia non babuit, truncoque repandus in undas 680 

corpore desiluit : f alcata novissima cauda est, 

qualia dimidiae sinuantur cornua lunae. 

Undique dant saltus multaque adspergine rorant 

emerguntque iterum redeuntque sub aequora rursus 

inque cbori ludunt speciem lascivaque iactant 685 

corpora et acceptum patulis mare naribus efflant. 

' De modo viginti (tot enim ratis ilia ferebat) 
restabam solus. Pavidum gelidumque trementi 
corpore vixque meum firmat deus " Excute " dicens 
"corde metum Diamque tene." Delatus in illam 690 

accessi sacris Baccbeaqne sacra f requento. ' 


MET. IV. 55-16G. 

Pyramus et Thisbe, iuvenum pulcberrimus alter, 55 

altera, quas oriens babuit, praelata puellis, 
contiguas tenuere domes, ubi dicitur altam 
coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem. 

Notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit: 
tempore crevit amor. Taedae quoque iure coissent: 60 

sed vetuere patres. Quod non potuere vetare, 
ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus am bo. 
Conscius omnis abest: nutu signisque loquuntur, 
quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis. 

Fissns erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim, 65 


cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique. 

Id yitium nulli per saecula longa notatum 

(quid non sentit amor ?) primi vidistis amautes, 

et vocis fecistis iter; tutaeque perillud 

murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant. 70 

Saepe, ubi constiterant hinc Tliisbe, Pjramus illinc, 
* In vide ' dicebant ' paries, quid amantibus obstas ? 73 

Nee sumus ingrati : tibi nos debere f atemur, 76 

quod datus est verbis ad amicas transitus aures. ' 

Talia diversa nequiquam sede locuti 
sub noctem dixere vale, partique dedere 
oscula quisque suae non pervenientia contra. 80 

Postera nocturnos aurora removerat ignes, 
solque pruinosas radiis sicca verat herbas : 
ad solitum co'iere lociim. Tum jnurmure parvo 
multa prius questi, statuunt, ut nocte silenti 
fallere custodes foribusque excedere temp tent, 85 

cumque domo exierint, urbis quoque tecta relinquant: 
neve sit errandum lato spatiantibus arvo, 
conveniant ad busta Nini lateantque sub umbra 
arboris. Arbor ibi, niveis uberrima pomis 
ardua morus, erat, gelido contermina fonti. 90 

Pacta placent* Et lux, tarde discedere visa, 
praecipitatur aquis, et aquis nox exit ab isdem. 

Callida per tenebras versato cardine Tliisbe 
egreditur fallitque sues, adopertaque vultum 
pervenit ad tumulum, dictaque sub arbore sedit. 95 

Audacem faciebat amor. Venit ecce recenti 
caede leaena boum spumantes oblita rictus, 
depositura sitim vicini fontis in unda. 
Quam procul ad lunae radios Babylonia Thisbe 
vidit et obscurum timid o pede fugit in antrum, 100 

dumque fugit, tergo velamina lapsa reliquit. 
Ut lea saeva sitim multa compescuit unda, 
dum redit in silvas, inventos forte sine ipsa 
ore cruentato tenues laniavit amictus. 

Serins egressus vestigia vidit in alto 105 

pulvere oerta ferae totoque expalluit ore 


Pjramus: nt vero vestem quoque Banguine tinctam 

repperit, * Una duos ' inquit * nox perdet amantes. 

E quibas ilia fait longa dignissima vita, 

nostra nocens anima est: ego te, miseranda^ peremi^ 110 

in loca plena metus qui iussi nocte yenires, 

nee prior hue veni. Nostrum divellite corpus, 

et scelerata fero consumite viscera morsu, 

o qnicumque sub hac habitatis rupe^ leones. 

Sed timidi est optare necem. ' Yelamina Thisbes 115 

tollit et ad pactae secum fert arboris umbram; 

utque dedit notae lacrimas^ dedit oscula vesti, 

^ Aceipe nunc ' inquit ^ nostri quoque sanguinis haustus! ' 

quoque erat accinctus, demisit in ilia ferrum, 

nee mora, ferventi morions e vulnere traxit. 120 

Ut iacuit resupinus, faumo cruor emicat alte, 
non alitor, quam cum vitiate fistula plumbo 
scinditur et tenui stridente foramine longas 
eiaculatur aquas atque ictibus aera rumpit. 
Arborei fetus adspergine caedis in atram 125 

vertuntur faciem,^ madefactaque sanguine radix 
purpureo tinguit pendentia mora colore. 

Ecce metu nondum posito, ne fallat amantem, 
ilia redit iuvenemque ecu lis animoque requirit, 
quantaque vitarit narrare pericula gestit. 130 

Utque locum et visa cognoscit in arbore forraam, 
sic facit incertam pomi color: liaeret, an haec sit. 
Dum dubitat, tremebunda videt pulsare cruentum 
membra solum, retroque pedem tulit, oraque buxo 
pallidiora gerens exhorruit aequoris instar, ' . 135 

quod tremit, exigua cum sum mum string! tur aura. 

Sed postquam remorata sues cognovit amores, 
percutit indignos claro plangore lacertos, 
et laniata comas amplexaque corpus amatum 
vulnera supple vit lacrimis fletumque cruori 140 

miscuit et gelidis in vultibus oscula figens 
* Pyrame ' clamavit, ^ quis te milii casus ademit ? 
Pyrame, responde: taa te carissima Thisbe 
jiominat: exaudi vultusque attoUe iapeutes! ' 


Ad nomen Thisbes oculos iam morte gravatos 145 

Pjramas erexit^ yisaque recondidit ilia. 

Quae postqiiam yestemque suam cognovit et ense 
vidit ebur yacuum^ * Tua te manus ' inqnit * amorque 
perdidit, infelix. Est et mihi fortis in unum 
hoc manus, est et amor: dabit hie in vulnera vires. 150 

Persequar exstinctum letique miserrima dicar 
causa comesque tui; quique a me morte revelli 
hen sola poteras, poteris nee morte revelli. 

* Hoc tamen amborum verbis estote rogati, 
multum miseri mens illiusque parentes, 155 

nt quos certns amor, quos hora novissima iunxit, 
componi tumulo non invideatis eodem. 
At tu quae ramis arbor miserabile corpus 
nunc tegis uuius, mox es tectura duorum, 
signa tene caedis pullosque et luctibus aptos 160 

semper habe fetus, gemini monimenta cruoris.' 

Dixit, et aptato pectus mucrone sub imum 
incubuit ferro, quod ad hue a caede tepebat. 
Vota tamen tetigere decs, tetigere parentes: 
nam color in pomo est, ubi permaturuit, ater, 165 

quodque regis superest, una requiescit in urua. 


MET. IV. 631-662. 

Hie hominum cunctis ingenti corpore praestans 
lapetionides Atlas f uit. Ultima tellus 
rege sub hoc et pontus erat, qui Soils anhelis 
aequora subdit equis et fessos excipit axes. 

Mille greges illi totidemque armenta per lierbas 635 

errabant, et humum vicinia nulla premebant. 
Arboreae frondes auro radiante nitentes 
ex auro ramos, ex auro poma tegebant. 
' Hospes,' ait Perseus illi, 'sen gloria tangit 
te generis magui, generis mihi luppiter anctor; 640 


sive es mirator rerum, mirabere nostras. 

Hospitium requiemque peto.' Memor ille vetustae 

Bortis erat: Themis banc dederat Parnasia sortem: 

* Tempus, Atla, veniet, tna quo spoliabitur auro 

arbor^ et bimc praedae titulum love natus babebit.' 645 

Id metuens solidis pomaria clauserat Atlas 
moenibuB et vasto dederat servanda draconi 
arcebatque snis externos finibas omnes. 
Huie quoque * Vade procul, ne longe gloria rerum, 
quam mentiris ' ait, ^ longe tibi luppiter absit '; 650 

vim que minis add it manibusque expellere temptat 
cunctantem et placidis miscentem fortia dictis. 
Viribus inferior (quis enim par esset Atlantis 
viribus ?) ' At quoniam parvi tibi gratia nostra est, 
accipe munus ' ait, laevaque a parte Medusae 655 

ipse retroversus squalentia protulit ora. 
Quantus erat, mons factus Atlas: nam barba comaeque, 
in silvas abeunt, inga sunt umerique manusque, 
quod caput ante fuit, summo est in monte cacumen, 
ossa lapis fiunt: tum partes auctus in omnes 660 

crevit in inmensum (sic di statuistis), et omne 
cum tot sideribuB caelum requievit in illo. 


MET. V. 385-408, 438-445, 463-463, 474-538, 564-571. 

Hand procul Hennaeis lacus est a moenibus altae, 385 
nomine Fergus, aquae. Non illo plura Caystros 
carmina cycnorum labentibus audit in undis. 
Silva coronat aquas cingens latus omne, suisque 
f rondibus nt velo Pboebeos submovet ictus. 
Frigora dant rami, Tyrios humus umida flores: 390 

perpetuum ver est. Quo dum Proserpina luco 
ludit et aut violas aut caiidida lilia carpi t, 
dam que puellari studio calathosque sinumque 
implet et aequales certat superare legendo. 


paene simul visa est dilectaque raptaque Diti: 395 

usque adeo est properatus amor. Dea territa maesto 

et matrem et comites, sed matrem saepius^ ore 

clamat; et^ ut summa yestem laniarat ab ora^ 

conlecti Acres tunicis cecidere remissis. 

Tantaque simplicitas puerilibus adfuit annis^ 400 

haec quoque yirgineum movit iactnra dolorem. 

Eaptor agit currus et nomine quemque yocatos 
exliortatur equos^ quorum per coUa iubasque 
excutit obscura tinctas ferrugine babenas, 
perque lacus altos et olentia sulpure fertur 405 

stagna Palicorum^ rupta feryeutia terra^ 
et qua Baccbiadae^ bimari gens orta Gorintho, 
inter inaequales posuerunt moenia portus. 

Interea payidae nequiquam filia matri 438 

omnibus est terris^ omni quaesita prof undo. 
Illam non udis yeniens Aurora capillis 440 

cessantem yidit^ non Hesperus. Ilia duabus 
flammiferas pinus manibus succendit ab Aetna 
perque pruinosas tulit inrequieta tenebras. 
Eursus ubi alma dies bebetarat sidera, natam 
solis ab occasu soils quaerebat ad ortus. 445 

Quas dea per terras et quas erraVerit undas, 462 

dicere longa mora est: quaerenti defuit orbis. 
Nescit adbuc, ubi sit: terras tamen increpat omnes 474 

ingratasque yocat nee frugum munere dignas, 
Triliacriam ante alias, in qua yestigia damni 
ropperit. Ergo illic saeva vertentia glaebas 
fregit aratra nianu, parilique irata colonos 
ruricolasque bovcs leto dedifc arvaque iussit 
fallere depositum vitiataque semina fecit. 480 

Fertilitas terrae latum vulgata per orbem 
falsa iacet: primis segetes moriuntur in lierbis, 
et modo sol nimius, niraius modo corripit imber, 
sideraque yen ti que nocent, ayidaeque yolucres 
semina iacta legunt; lolium tribulique fatigant 485 

tritieeas messes, et inexpugnabile gramen. 

Tum caput Eleis Alpbeias extulit undis 


rorantesqne comas a f ronte removit ad aures 

atque ait: ^0 toto quaesitae yirginis orbe 

et frugum genetrix^ iamensos siste labores, 490 

neve tibi fidae violenta irascere terrae. 

Terra nihil meruit patuitque invita rapinae. 

Nee sam pro patria supplex: hue hospita veni; 

Pisa mihi patria est et ab Elide ducimns ortus; 

Sicaniam peregrina colo, sed gratior omni 495 

haec mibi terra solo est: hos nunc Arethusa penates^ 

banc babeo sedem : quam tu^ mitissima^ serva. 

' Mota loco cur sim tantique per aequoris undas 
advebar Ortygiam, veniet narratibus bora 
tempestiva meis^ cum tu curaque levata 500 

et Yultus melioris eris. Mibi pervia tellus 
praebet iter^ subterque imas ablata cavernas 
hie caput attoUo desuetaque sidera cerno. 
Ergo dum Stygio sub terris gurgite labor, 
visa tua est oculis illic Proserpina nostris: 505 

ilia quidem tristis neque adhuc interrita vultu^ 
sed regina tamen, sed opaci maxima mundi, 
sed tamen inferni pollens matrona tyranni.' 

Mater ad auditas stupuit ceu saxea voces 
attonitaeque diu similis fuit. Utque dolore 510 

pulsa gravi gravis est amentia, curribus oras 
exit in aetberias. Ibi toto nubila vultu 
ante lovem passis stetit invidiosa capillis 

* Pro ' que * meo veni supplex tibi, luppiter ' inquit, 

* sanguine proque tuo. Si nulla est gratia matris, 515 
nata patrem moveat, neu sit tibi cura, precamur, 

vilior illius, quod nostro est edita partu. 

En quaesita diu tandem mibi nata reperta est, 

si reperire vocas amittere certius, aut si 

scire, ubi sit, reperire vocas. Quod rapta, feremus, 520 

dummodo reddat eam : neque ehim praedone marito 

filia digna tua est, si iam mea filia non est.' 

luppiter excepit: ^ Commune est pignus onusque 
nata mibi tecum. Sed si modo nomiua rebus 
addere vera placet, non hoc iniuria factum, 535 


yernm amor est; neque erit nobis gener ille pudori^ 

tu modo^ diva, yelis. XJt desint cetera^ quantum est 

esse lovis fratrem! Quid quod nou cetera desunt 

Tiec ccdit nisi sorte mibi ? sed tanta cupido 

Bi tibi discidii est^ repetet Proserpina caelum, 530 

lego tamen certa, si nuUos contigit illic 

ore cibos; nam sic Parcarum foedere cautum est.' 

Dixerat. At Gereri certnm est educere natam. 
Non ita fata sinunt, quoniam ieiunia virgo 
Bolverat et, cultis dum simplex errat in bortis, 535 

Poeniceum curva decerpserat arbore pomum 
sumptaquo pallenti septem de cortice grana 
preseerat ore suo. 

At medius fratrisqiie sui maestaeqne sororis 564 

lupplter ex aequo volveutem dividit annum. 565 

Nunc doa, regnorum numen commune duorum, 
cum matre est totidem, totidem cum coniuge menses. 
Vertitur extemplo facies et mentis et oris: 
nam modo quae poterat Diti quoque maesta videri^ 
laeta deae frons est, ut sol, qui tectus aquosis 570 

nubibus ante fuit, victis e nubibus exit. 

MET. VIII. 183-235. 

Daedalus interea Creten longumque perosus 
exsilium tactusque loci natal is amore 

clauBus erat pelago. * Terras licet ' inquit ' et undas 185 

obstruat: at caelum certe patet; ibimus iliac. 
Omnia possideat, non possidet aera Minos.' 

Dixit, et ignotas animum dimittit in artes 
naturamque novat. Nam ponit in ordine pennas, 
a minima coeptas, longam breviore sequenti, 190 

ut clivo crevisse putes. Sic rustica quondam 
fistula disparibus paulatim surgit avenis. 
Turn lino medias et ceris adligat imas> 


atqne ita compositas paryo curvamine ilectit^ 

Tit veras imitetur aves. Puer Icarus una 195 

stabat et; ignarus sua se tractare pericla^ 

ore renidenti modo, quas vaga moverat aura, 

captabat plumas^ flavam modo pollice ceram 

moUibat lusuquo suo mirabile patris 

impediebat opus. Postquani mauus ultima coeptis 200 

imposita est^ gemiaas opifex libra vit in alas 

ipse suum corpus m'otaque pependit in aura. 

Instruit et natum * Medio ' que * ut limite curras, 
Icare,' ait 'moneo, ne, si demissior ibis, 
unda gravet pennas, si celsior, ignis adurat. 205 

Inter utrumqne vola. Nee te spec tare Booten 
aut Helicen iubeo strictumque Orionis ensem: 
me duce carpe viam.' Pariter praecepta volandi 
tradit et ignotas umeris accommodat alas. 

Inter opus monit usque genae maduere seniles 210 

et patriae tremuere manus. Dedit oscula nato 
non iterum repetenda suo, pennisque levatus 
ante volat comitique timet, velut ales, ab alto 
quae teneram prolem produxit in aera nido, 
hortaturque sequi damnosasque erudit artes 215 

et movet ipse suas et nati respicit alas. 

Hos aliquis tremula dum captat bar undine pi sees, 
aut pastor baculo stivave innixus arator 
vidit, et obstipuit, quique aethera carpere possent 
credidit esse deos. Et iam lunonia laeva 220 

parte Samos (fuerant Delosque Parosque relic tae), 
dextra Lebinthus erat fecundaque melle Calymne, 
cum puer audaci coapit gaudere volatu 
deseruitque ducem caelique cupidine tractus 
altius egit iter. Eapidi vicinia solis 225 

mollit odoratas, pennarum vincula, ceras. 
Tabuerant cerae: nudos quatit ille lacertos 
remigioque carens non uUas percipit auras, 
oraque caerulea patrium clamantia nomen 
excipiuntur aqua : quae nomen traxit ab illo. 230 

At pater infelix, nee iam pater, ' Icare,' dixit. 


' Icare/ dixit * ubi es ? qua te regione requiram ? ' 

* Icare ' dicebat: pennas adspexit in nndis 

devovitque suas artes corpusque sepulcro 

coudidit. Et tellus a nomine dicta sepalti. 235 


MET. VIII. 626-720. 

luppiter hue specie mortali cumque parente 
yenit Atlantiades positis cadacifer alis. 
Mille domos adiere, locum requiemque petentes, 
mille domos clausere serae. Tamen una recepit, 
parva quidem, stipulis et canna tecta palustri; 630 

sed pia Baucis anus parilique aetate S^hilemon 
ilia sunt annis iuncti iuvenalibus, ilia 
consenuere casa paupertatemque fatendo 
effecere levem nee iniqua mente ferendo. 
Nee refert, dominos illic famulosne requiras: 635 

tota domus duo sunt, idem parentque iubentque. 

Ergo ubi caelicolae parvos tetigere penates 
submissoque liumiles intrarunt vertice postes, 
membra senex posito iussit relevare sedili, 
quo siiperiniecit textum rude sedula Baucis. 640 

Inque foco tepidum cinerem dimovit et ignes 
suscitat liesternos, foliisque et cortice sicco 
nutrit et ad fiiammas anima producit anili. 
Multifidasque faces ramaliaque arida tecto 
detulit et minuit parvoque admovit aeno. 645 

Quodque suus coniunx riguo conlegerat horto, 
trnncat liolus foliis; furca levat ilia bicorni 
sordida terga suis nigro pendentia tigno 
servatoque diu resecat de tergore partem 
exiguam sectamque domat ferventibus undis. 650 

Interea medias fallunt sermonibus boras 651 

concutiuntque torum de molli fluminis ulva 655 

impositum lecto, spouda pedibusque salignis. 


Vestibus Iiunc velant, qaas non nisi tempore festo 
Bternere consuerant: sed et haec vilisque vetasqne 
Testis erat^ lecto non indignanda ealigno. 

Accubaere dei. Measam siicciacta tremensqae 660 

ponit auus^ mensae sed erat pes tertius impar. 
Testa parem fecit. Qaae postquam subdita clivum 
sustulifc, aequatam mentao tersere vireiites. 
Ponitur hie bicolor sincerae baca Minervae 
conditaque in liqiiida corua autiimualia faece 665 

intibaque et radix et lactis massa coacti 
ovaque noii acri leviter versata favilla, 
omnia fictilibas. Post haec caelatas eodem 
sistitur argento crater f abricataqae fago 
pocala, qua cava sunt, flaventibus inlita ceris. 670 

Parva mora est, epulasque foci misere calentes; 
nee longae rursns referuntur vina senectae 
dantque locum mensis paulum seducta secundis. 
Hie nux, hie mixta est rugosis carica palmis 
prunaque et in patulis redolentia mala canistris 675 

et de purpureis conlectae vitibus uvae. 
Candidus in medio favus est. Super omnia vultus 
accessere boni nee iners pauperque voluntas/ 

Interea totiens haustum cratera repleri 
sponte sua per seque vident succrescere vina : 680 

attouiti novitate pavent manibusque supinis 
concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon 
et veniam dapibus nullisque paratibus orant. 

Unicus anser erat, minimae custodia villae: 
quern dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant. 685 

Hie celer penna tardos aetate fatigat 
Bluditque-diu, tandemqiie est visus ad ipsos 
confugisse decs. Snperi vetuere necari 
* Di ' que ^ sumus, meritasque luet vicinia poenas 
impia' dixerunt; * vobis inmunibus huius 690 

esse mail dabitur. Modo vestra reliuquite tecta 
ac nostros comitate gradus et in ardua mentis 
ite simul.' Parent ambo baculisque levati 
nituntur longo vestigia ponero clivo. A 


Tantnm aberant summo, quantum semel ire sagitta 695 
missa potest: flexere oculos et mersa palude 
cetera prospiciunt^ tantum sua tecta manere. 
Dumque ea mirantur, dum deflenb fata suorum, 
ilia vetus^ dominis etiam casa parva duobus 
vertitur in templum: f ureas subiere columnae, 700 

stramina flavescunt, aurataque tecta videntur 
caelataeque fores adopertaque marmore tellus. 

Talia turn placido Saturnius edidit ore: 
* Dicite, iuste senex et femiua coniuge iusto 
digna, quid optetis.' Cum Baucide pauca locutus 705 

indicium superis aperit commune Philemon: 
' Esse sacerdotes delubraque vestra tueri 
poscimus; et quoniam Concordes egimus annos 
auferat bora duos eadem, nee coniugis unquam 
busta meae videam, neu sim tumulandus ab ilia.' 710 

Vota fides sequitur. Templi tutela fuere, 
donee vita data est. Annis aevoque soluti 
ante gradus sacros cum stare nt forte locique 
narrarent casus, frond ere Pliilemona Baucis, 
Baucida conspexit senior frondere Philemon. 715 

lamqiie super geminos crescente cacumine vultus 
mutua, dum licuit, reddebant dicta ' Vale ' que 
*o coniunx ' dixere simul, simul abdita texit 
ora frutex. Ostendit adhuc Thymbreins illio 
incola de gemino vicinos corpore truncos. 720 


MET. X. 1-63, 72-77. 

Inde per inmensum croceo velatus amictu 
aethera digreditur Ciconumque Hymenaeus ad eras 
tend it et Orphea nequiquam voce vocatur. 
Adfuit ille quidem, sed uec sollemnia verba 
nee laetos vultus nee felix attulit omen. 
Fax quoque, quam tenuifc, lacrimoso stridula fumo 


usque fait nuUosqae iuvenit motibas igues. 

ExituB auspicio gravior: nam uupta per herbas 
dum uova n^adum tarba comitata yagatur, 
occidit ia talum serpeatis dente recepto. 10 

Quam satis ad superas postquam Bhodopeius auras 
deflevit vates, ne uon temptaret et umbras^ 
ad Styga Taeaaria est ausus descendere porta; 
perque leves populos sioiulacraque fa acta sepulcro 
Persepbonen adiit inamoenaque regaa tenentem 15 

umbrarum domiiiam. Palsisqae ad carmiua nervis 
sic ait: ^ positi sub terra numiaa mundi, 
in quern reccidimus^ quicqaid mortale creamar, 
si licet et falsi positis ambagibus oris 

vera loqui sinitis, non hue, ut opaca viderem 20 

Tartara, descendi, nee uti villosa colabris 
terna Medasaei yincirem guttura moustri : 
causa yiae est coniunx, in quam calcata yenenum. 
yipera difPudit crescentesqae abstulit annos. 

^ Posse pati yolui nee me temptasse negabo : 25 

yicit Amor. Sapera deas hie bene notas in ora est, 
an sit et hie, dabito. Sed et hie tamen aaguror esse; 
famaque si yeteris non est mentita rapinae, 
vos qnoque iunxit Amor. Per ego haec loca plena timoris, 
per chaos hoc ingens yasfcique silentia regni, 30 

Eurydices, oro, properata retexite fata. 
Omnia debentur yobis, paulumque morati 
serins ant citins sedem properamus ad unam. 
Tendimns hue omnes, haec est domus ultima, yosque 
humani generis longissima regna tenetis. 35 

Ilaec quoque, cum iastos matura poregerit annos, 
inris erit yestri: pro munere poscimas usum. 
Quodsi fata negant yeniam pro coniuge, certum est 
nolle redire mihi: leto gaudete dnorum.' 

Talia dicentem ueryosque ad verba moyentem 40 

exsangucs fiebant animae: nee Tantalus undam 
captavit refagam, stupuitque Ixiouis orbis, 
nee carpsere iecur yol acres, urnisque yacarunt 
Belides, inque tuo sedisti, Sisyphe, saxo. 


Tunc primum lacrimis Yictarum carmine fama est 45 

Eumenidum madaisse genas. Nee regia conianx 
sastinet oranti, nee qui regit ima^ negare^ 
Eurydicenqiie vocant. Umbras erat ilia recentes 
inter et incessit passu de vulnere tardo. 

Hanc simul et legem Rhodopeius accipit Orpheus: 50 
ne fiectat retro sua lumina^ donee Avernas 
exierit yalles: aut inrita dona futura. 

Garpitur acclivis per muta silentia trames^ 
arduus^ obscurus^ caligine densus opaca. 
Nee procul afuerunt telluris margine summae: 55 

hie, ne deficeret, metuens avidusque videndi 
flexit amans oculos; et protinus ilia relapsa est, 
bracchiaque intendens prendique et prendere certans 
nil nisi cedentes infelix adripit auras. 

lamque iterum morions non est de coniuge quicquam 60 
questa sue : quid enim nisi se quereretur amatam ? 
Supremumque ' vale,' quod iam vix auribus ille 
acciperet, dixit revolutaque rursus eodem est. 63 

Orantem frustraque iterum transire volentem 72 

portitor arcuerat. Septem tamen ille diebus 
squalidus in ripa Cereris sine munere sedit: 
cura dolorque animi lacrimaeque alimenta fuere. 75 

Esse decs Erebi crudeles questus, in altam 
se recipit Rhodopen pulsumque aquilonibus Haemum. 

12. MIDAS. 
MET. XI. 85-145. 

Nee satis hoc Baccho est: ipsos quoque deserit agroQ 85 
cumque chore meliore sui yineta Timoli 
Pactolonque petit, quamvis non aureus illo 
tempore nee caris erat invidiosus harenis. 

Hunc adsueta cohors satyri bacchaeque frequentant: 
at Silenus abest. Titubantem annisque meroque 90 

ruricolae cepere Phryges vinetumque coronis 

MIDAS. 31 

ad regem duxere Midan^ cui Thracius Orpheus 
orgia tradiderat cum Cecropio Eamolpo. 

Qai Bimnl aguoyit socium comitemque sacromm^ 
liospitis adventu festum genial! ter egit 95 

per bis qninque dies et iunctas ordine noetes. 
Et iam steliarum sublime coegerat agmen 
Lucifer undeciinus, Lydos cum laetus in agros 
rex yeuit et iuveni Silenum reddit alum no. 

Huic deus optandi gratum, sed inutile, fecit 100 

muneris arbitrium, gaudens altore recepto. 
lUe male usurus donis ait ^ Effice, quicquid 
corpore contigero fulvum vertatur in aurum.' 
Adnuit optatis nocituraque munera solvit 
Liber, et indoluit, quod non meliora petisset. 105 

Laetus abit gaudetque malo Berecyntius heros 
poUicitique fidem tangendo. singula temptat. 
Vixque sibi credens non alta fronde virentem 
ilice detraxit virgam: virga aurea facta est. 
Tollit humo saxum : saxum quoque palluit auro. 110 

Contigit et glaebam : contactu glaeba potenti 
massa fit. Arentes Cereris decerpsit aristas: 
aurea messis erat. Demptum tenet arbore pomum: 
Hesperidas donasse putes. Si postibus altis 
admovit digitos, postes radiare videntur. 115 

Ille etiam liquidis palmas ubi laverat undis, 
unda fiueuB palmis Danaen eludere posset. 
Yix spes ipse suas animo capit, aurea fingens 
omnia. Gaudenti mensas posuere minisfcri 
exstructas dapibus nee tostae frugis egentes. 120 

Turn vero, sive ille sua Cerealia dextra 
munera contigerat, Cerealia dona rigebant, 
Bive dapes avido convellere dente parabat, 
lammina fulva dapes admoto dente premebat. 
Miscuerat puris auctorem muneris undis: 125 

f usile per rictus aurum fluitare videres. 

Attonitus novitate mali, divesque miserque, 
eflfugere optat opes et, quae modo voverat, odit. 
Copia nulla famem relevat; sitis arida gut'tur 


urit, ek inviso meribus torquetur ab auro. 130 

Ad caelumque manus ct splendida braccbia tolloDS 
' Da veiiiam, Lenaeo pater! peccavimus/ inquit, 
*sed miserere, precor, speciosoque eripe dam no.' 

Mite deum unmen : Bacchus peccasse fatentem 
restituit pactique fide data muuera solvit. 135 

' Neve male optato maneas circumlitus auro, 
vade ' ait ^ ad magnis vicinum Sardibus amuem 
perque iugum mentis labentibus obvius undis 
carpe viam, donee veuias ad fluminis ortus; 
spumigeroque tuum fonti, qua plurimus exit, 140 

subde caput corpusque simul, simul elue crimen.' 

Bex iussae succedit aquae. Vis aurea tinxit 
flumen et humane de corpore cessit in amnem. 
Nunc quoque iam veteris percepto semine venae 
arva rigent auro madidis pallentia^glaebis. 145 


MET. XII. 612-628: xiii. 1-398. 

lam timer ille Phrygum, decus et tutela Pelasgi 
nominis, Aeacides, caput insuperabile bello, 
arserat: armarat deus idem, idemque cremarat. 
Iam cinis est, et de tarn maguo restat Achille 615 

noscio quid, parvam quod non bene com pleat urnam: 
at vivit totum quae gloria compleat orbem. 
Haec illi mensura viro respondet, et hao est . 
par sibi Pelides nee inania Tartara sentit. 

Ipse etiara, ut, cuius fuerit, cognoscere possis, 620 

bella movet clipeus, deque armis arm a feruntur. 
Non ea Tydides, non audet Oileos Aiax, 
non minor Atrides, non bello maior et aevo 
poscere, non alii : solis Telamone creato 
Laerteque f uit tantae fiducia laudis. 625 

A se Tantalides onus invidiamqne removit, 
Argolicosque duces mediis considere castris 
iussit, et arbitrium litis traiecit in omnes. 



Consedere duces, et vulgi stante corona 
Burgib ad Iios clipei dominus septemplicis Aiax; 
utque erat impatiens irae, Sigeia torvo 
litora respexit classemque iu litore vultu 
iutendensquo manus ' Agimiis, pro luppiter! ' inquit 5 

^ ante rates caugam, ct mecum confertur Ulixes ! 
At non Hectoreis dubitavit cedere flammis, 
quas ego sustinui, quas hac a classe fuga^ri. 
Tutius est igitur fictis contendere verbis, 
quam pugnare manu! Sed nee mihi dicere promptum, 10 
iiec f acere est isti : quantumque ego Marte fcroci 
inque acie valeo, tantum valet iste loquendo. 

^ Nee memoranda tamen vobis mea facta, Pelasgi, 
essoreor: vidistis enim. Sua narret Ulixes, 
quae sine teste gerit, quorum nox conscia sola est. 15 

Praemia magna peti fateor. Sed demit houorem 
aemulus: Aiaci non est tenuisse superbum, 
sit licet hoc ingens, quicquid speravit Ulixes. 
Iste tulit pretiiim iam nunc temptaminis huius, 
quo, cum victus erit, mecum certasse feretur. 20 

^ Atque ego, si virtus in me dubitabilis esset, 
nobilitate potens essem, Telamone creatus, 
moenia qui forti Troiaua sub Hercule cepit 
litoraque intravit Pagasaea Colcba carina. 
Aeacus huic pater est, qui iura silentibus illic 25 

reddit, ubi Aeoliden saxum grave Sisyphon urget. 
Aeacon agnoscit summus prolemque fatetur 
luppiter esse suam : sic a love tertius Aiax. 
Nee tamen haec series in causam prosit, Achivi, 
si mihi cum magno non est communis Achille. 30 

Frater erat, f raterna peto. Quid sanguine cretus 
Sisyphio furtisque et fraude simillimus illi 
inserit Aeacidis alienae nomina gentis? 

' An quod in arma prior nulloque sub indice veni, 
arma neganda mihi ? Potiorque videbitur ille, 35 

ultima qui cepit detrectavitque furore 


militiam ficto, donee soUertior isto^ 

sed sibi inutilior timidi commenta retexifc 

Kaupliades animi vitataque traxik ad arma? 

Optima num sumat^ quia sumere nolnit ulia ? 40 

nos inhonorati et donis patruelibus orbi, 

obtulimus quia nos ad prima pericula^ simus ? 

' Atque utinam aut verus furor ille, aut creditus esset^ 
nee eomes hie Phrygias umquam venisset ad arees 
hortator sceierum! Non te, Poeantia proles, 46 

expositum Lemnos nostro eum crimine haberek! 
Qui nune, ut memoraut, silvestribus abditus antris 
Baxa moves gemitu Laertiadaeque preearis 
quae meruit; quae, si di sunt, non vana preearis. 
Et nunc ille eadem nobis iuratus in arma, 50 

heu! pars una dueum, quo suceessore sagittae 
Hereulis utuntur, fraetus morboque fameque 
velaturque aliturque avibus, volucresque petendo 
debita Troianis exercet spieula fatis. 

Ille tamen vivit, quia non comitavit Ulixen : 65 

mallet et infelix Palamedes esse relictus. 
Viveret aut eerte letum sine crimine haberetl 
Quem male convicti nimium memor iste f uroris 
prodere rem Danaam finxit fictumque probavit 
crimen et ostendit, quod iam praefoderat, aurum. 60 

Ergo aut exsilio vires subduxit Achivis, 
aut nece: sic pugnat, sic est metuendus Ulixes. 

^ Qui licet eloquio fidum quoque Nestora vincat, 
baud tamen efficiet, desertum ut Nestora crimen 
esse rear nullum. Qui eum imploraret Ulixen 65 

vulnere tardus equi fessusque senilibus annis, 
proditus a socio est. Non haee mihi erimina fingi 
scit bene Tydides, qui nomine saepe vocatum 
corripuit trepidoque fugam exprobravit amico. 
Adspiciunt oculis superi mortal ia iustis. 70 

En eget auxilio, qui non tulit, utque reliquit, 
sic linquendus erat: legem sibi dixerat ipse. 
Conelamat soeios. Adsum videoque trementem 
pallentemque metu et trepidantem morte futura. 


Opposui molem clipei texique iacentem 75 

servavique animam (minimum est hoc laudis) inertem. 

Si perstas certare^ locum redeamus iu ilium : 

redde hostem vulnusque tuum solitumque timorem 

post clipeumque late et mecum contende sub illo. 

At postquam eripui, cui standi vulnera vires 80 

non dederant, nullo tardatus vulnere fugit. 

' Hector adest secumque deos in proelia ducit, 
quaque ruit, non tu tantum terreris, Ulixe, 
sed fortes etiam : tantum trahit ille timoris. 
Hunc ego sanguineae successu caedis ovantem 85 

eminus ingenti resupinum pondere fudi, 
hunc ego poscentem, cum quo concurreret^ unus 
Bustinuiy sortemqu6 meam vovistis^ Achivi, 
et vestrae valuere preces. Si quaeritis huius 
fortunam pugnae^ non sum superatus ab illo. 90 

Ecce ferunt Trees ferrumque iguesque lovemque 
in Danaas classes. Ubi nunc facundus Ulixes? 
Nempe ego mille meo protexi pectore puppes, 
spem vestri reditu's. Date tot pro navibus arma. 
Quodsi vera licet mihi dicere, quaeritar istis, 95 

quam mihi^ maior honos^ coniunctaque gloria nostra est^ 
atque Aiax armis^ non Aiaci arma petuntur. 

^ Conferat his Ithacus Ehesum imbellemque Dolona 
Priamidenque Helenum rapta cum Pallade captum : 
luce nihil gestum, nihil est Diomede remote. 100 

Si semel ista datis meritis tam vilibus arma^ 
dividite, et pars sit maior Diomedis in illis. 
Quo tamen haec Ithaco, qui clam, qui semper inermis 
rem gerit et furtis incautum decipit hostem ? 
Ipse nitor galeae claro radiantis ab auro 105 

insidias prodet manifestabitque latentem. 
Sed neque Dulichius sub Achillis casside vertex 
pondera tanta feret, nee non onerosa gravisque 
Pelias hasta potest imbellibus esse lacertis, 
nee clipeus vasti caelatus imagine mundi 110 

couveniet timidae nataeque ad f urta sinistrae. 
Debilitaturum quid te petis, improbe, munus? 


Qaod tibi si populi donaverifc error Achivi, 

cur Bpolieris, erit, noD cur mefcuaris ab hoBte, 

et fuga^ qua sola cunctos^ timidissime^ vincis, 115 

tarda futura tibi est gestamina tanta trahenti. 

' Adde quod iste tuns^ tarn raro proelia passus^ 
integer est clipeus: nostro, qui tela ferendo 
mille patet plagis, novus est successor babendus. 

' Denique, quid verbis opus est ? — spectemur agendo ! 120 
Arma viri fortis medios mittantur in hostes: 
iude iubete peti et referentem ornate relatis. ' 

Finierat Telamone satus vulgique secutum 
ultima murmur erat, donee Laertius heros 
adstitit atque oculos paulnm tellure moratos 125 

sustulit ad proceres exspectatoque resolvit * 
ora sono; neque abest facundis gratia dictis. 

* Si mea cum vestris valuissent vota, Pelasgi, 
non foret ambiguus tanti certaminis heres, 

tuque tuis arm is, nos te poteremur, Achille. 130 

Quern quoniam non aequa mibi vobisque negarunt 

fata' (manuque simul veluti lacrimantia tersit 

lumina), * quis magno melius succedat Achilli, 

quam per quem magnus Danais successit Achilles ? 

Iluic modo ne prosit, quod, uti est, hebes esse fatetur, 135 

neve mihi noceat, quod vobis semper, Achivi, 

profuit ingenium; meaque haec facundia, siqua est, 

quae nunc pro domino, pro vobis saepe locuta est, 

iuvidia careat, bona nee sua quisque recuset. 

* Nam genus et proavos et quae non fecimus ipsi, 140 
vix ea nostra voco. Sed enim quia rettulit Aiax 

esse lovis pronepos, nostri quoque sanguinis auctor 

Iiippiter est, totidemque gradus distamus ab illo. 

Nam mihi Laertes pater est, Arcesius illi, 

luppiter huic, neque in his quisquam damnatus et exsuL 145 

Est quoque per matrem Cyllenius addita nobis 

altera nobilitas: deus est in utroque parente. 

Sed neque materno quod sum generosior ortu, 

nee mihi quod pater est fraterni sanguinis insons, 

proposita arma peto. Meritis expendite causam, 150 


dummodo quod fratres Telamoa Pelcusque fuerunt, 

Aiacis mcritum nou sit: nee gaaguinis ordo, 

sed virtu tis honor spoliis quaeratur in istis. 

Aut si proximitas primusque requiritur heres, 

est genitor Peleus, est Pyrrhus filius illi. 155 

Quis locus Aiaci ? Piitliiam haec Scyrumve ferantur! 

Nee minus est isto Teucer patruelis Achiili. 

Num petit ille tameu^ num si petat, auferat ilia? 

' Ergo operum quoniam nudum certameu habetur: 
plura quidem feci, quam quae comprendere dictis ICO 

in promptu mihi sit; rerum tamen ordine ducar. 

' Praescia venturi genetrix Nereia leti 
dissimulat cultu natum; et deceperat omnes, 
in quibus Aiacem, sumptae fallacia vestis. 
Arma ego femineis auimum motura virilem 165 

mercibus inserui. Neque adhuc proiecerat heros 
yirgineos habitus, cum parmam hastamque tenenti 
** Nate dea," dixi " tibi se peritura reservant 
Pergama! quid dubitas ingentem evertere Troiam ? " 
iniecique manum fortemque ad fortia misi. 170 

' Ergo opera illius mea sunt: ego Telephon hasta 
pugnantem domui, victnm orantemque refeci; 
quod Thebae cecidere, meum est ; me credite Lesbon, 
me Tenedon Chrysenque et Cillan, Apollinis urbes, 
et Scyrum cepisse, mea concussa putate 175 

procubuisse solo Lyrnesia moenia dextra. 
Utque alios taceam, qui saevum perdere posset 
Hectora, nempe dedi: per me iacet inclitus Hector. 
Illis haec armis, quibus est inventus Achilles, 
arma peto : vivo dederam, post fata reposco. 180 

* Ut dolor unius Danaos perveuit ad omnes 
Aulidaque Euboicam complerunt mille carinae, 
exspectata diu, nulla aut contraria classi 
fiamina erant, duraeque iubent Agamemnona sortes 
inmeritam saevae natam mactare Dianac. 185 

Denegat hoc genitor divisque irascitur ipsis 
atque in rege tamen pater est. Ego mite parentis 
ingenium verbis ad publica commoda verti. 


Nunc equidem fateor, faseoque ignoscat Atrides : 

difficilem tenui sub iniqao iudice causam: 190 

liuQc tamen utilitas populi fraterque datique 

Bumma niovet sceptri^ laudem ut cum sanguine penset. 

^ Mittor et ad matrem, quae non hortanda^ sed astu 
decipieuda fuit. Quo si Telamonius isset, 
orba suis essent etiam nunc lintea veutis. 195 

Mittor et Iliacas audax orator ad arces^ 
visaque et intrata est altae milii curia Troiae; 
plenaque adhuc erat ilia viris. Interritus egi^ 
quam milii mandarat coramunem Graecia causam, 
accusoque Parin praedamque Helenamqae reposco 200 

et moveo Priamum Priamoque Antenora iunctum. 
At Paris et fratres et qui rapuere sub iilo, 
vix tenuere manus (scis hoc, Menelae) nefandas, 
primaque lux nostri tecum fuit ilia pericli. 

^ Longa referre mora est, quae consilioque manuque 205 
utiliter feci spatiosi tempore belli. 
Post acies primas urbis se moenibus hostes 
continuere diu, nee aperti copia Martis 
ulla fuit: decimo demum pugnavimns anno. 
Quid facis interea, qui nil, nisi proelia, nosti ? 210 

Qais tuus usus erat ? Kam si mca facta requiris, 
bostibus insidior; fossas munimine cingo; 
consoler socios, ut longi taedia belli 
mente ferant placida; doceo, quo simus alendi 
armandique mode; mittor, quo postalat usus. 215 

* Ecce lovis monitu, deceptus imagine somni, 
rex iiibet incepti curam dimittere belli. 
Ille potest auctore suam defendere vocem: 
non sinat hoc Aiax delendaque Pergama poscat, 
quodque potest, pugnet. Cur non remoratur ituros? 220 
Cur non arma capit, dat, quod vaga turba sequatnr? 
!N^on erat hoc nimium numquam nisi magna loquenti. 
Quid quod et ipse fugit? Vidi, puduitque videre, 
cum tu terga dares inhonestaque vela parares. 
Nee mora, " Quid facitis ? quae vos dementia " dixi 226 

" concitat, o socii, captam dimittere Troiam? 


Qnidve domum fertis decimo, nisi dedecas, anno? " 

TalibuB atque aliis^ in quae dolor ipse disertum 

f ecerat; avcrsos prof uga do classe rednxi. 

Convocat Atrides socios terrore paventes^ 230 

nee Telamoniades etiam nunc hiscere qnicquam 

aadet; at aasus erat reges incessere dictis 

Thersites, etiam per me haad impune, protervis. 

Erigor et trepidos ciyes exhortor in hostem 

amissamque mea virtutem voce repono. 235 

Tempore ab hoc, quodcumque potest fecisse videri 

f ortiter iste, meum est, qui dantem terga retraxi. 

* Denique de Danais quis te laudatve petitve ? 
At sua Tydides mecum commnnicat acta, 

me probat et socio semper confidit Ulixe. 240 

Est aliquid, de tot Oraiorum milibus unum 

a Diomede legil — Nee me sors ire iubebat: 

sic tamen et spreto noctisque hostisque periclo 

ausum eadem, quae nos, Phrygia de gente Dolona 

interimo : non ante tamen, quam cuncta coegi 245 

prodere, et edidici, quid perfida Troia pararet. 

Omnia cognoram, nee, quod specularer, habebam, 

et iam promissa poteram cum laude reverti. 

Hand contentus eo petii tentoria Bhesi 

inque suis ipsum castris comitesque peremi; 250 

atque ita captive victor votisque potitus 

ingredior curru laetos imitante triumphos. 

Cuius equos pretium pro nocte poposcerafc hostis, 

arma negate mihi, f ueritque benignior Aiax ! 

* Quid Lycii referam Sarpedonis agmina ferro 255 
devastata meo ? Cum multo sanguine fudi 

Coeranon Iphitiden et Alastoraque Chromiumque 
Alcandrumque Haliumque Noemonaque Prytaninque, 
exifcioque dedi cum Cliersidamante Thoona 
et Charopem fatisque inmitibus Ennomon actum 260 

quique minus celebres nostra sub moenibus urbis 
procubuere manu. Sunt et milii vulnera, cives, 
ipscpalchra loco. Nee van is credite verbis: 
adspicite en! ' vesfcemque manu diduxit et * liaec sunt 



pectora semper ' ait ' yestris exercita rebus. * 265 

At nil impendit per tot Telamonias annos 
sanguinis in socios et habet sine vulnere corpus. 

^ Quid tamen hoc refert, si se pro classe Pelasga 
arma tulisse ref ert contra Troasque lovemque ? 
Gonfiteorque^ tulit: neque enim benefacta maligno 270 

detractare meum est. Sed ne communia solus 
occupet, atque aliquem vobis quoque reddat honorem: 
reppulit Actorides sub imagine tutus Achillis 
Troas ab arsuris cum defensore carinis. 

Ausum etiam Hectoreis solum concurrere telis 275 

se putat, oblitus regisque ducumque meique, 
nonus in officio et praelatus munere sortis. 
Sed tamen eveutus vestrae^ fortissimo^ puguae 
quis fuit? — Hector abit violatus vulnere nullol 

^ Me miserum^ quanto cogor meminisse dolore 280 

temporis illius, quo Graium murus, Achilles 
procubuit! Nee me lacrimae luctusque timorque 
tardarunfc, quin corpus humo sublime referrem. 
His umeris, his, inquam, umeris ego corpus Achillis 
et simul arma tuli : quae nunc quoque f erre laboro. 285 

Sunt mihi, quae valeant in talia pondera, vires ; 
est animus certe vestros sensurus honores. 
Scilicet idcirco pro nato cacrula mater 
ambitiosa suo fuit, ut caelestia dona, 

artis opus tantao, rudis et sine pectore miles 290 

indueret? Neque enim clipei caelamina novit, 
Oceanum et terras cumque alto sidera caelp 
Pleiadasque Hyadasque inmunemque aequoris Arcton 
diversasque urbes nitidumque Ononis ensem. 294 

' Quid quod me duri fugientem munera belli 296 

arguit incepto serum accessisso labori, 
nee se maguanimo maledicere seutit Achilli ? 
Si simulasse vocas crimen : simulavimus ambo. 
Si mora pro culpa est: ego sum maturior illo. 300 

Me pia detinuit coniunx, pia mater Acliillem, 
primaque sunt illis data tempera, cetera vobis. 
Haud timeo, si iam nequeo defendere, crimen 


cum tanto commane viro. Deprenfius Ulixis 

ingenio tamen ille, at non Aiacis Ulixes. 305 

^ Neve in me stolidae convicia fundere linguae 
admiremnr eum, vobis quoque digna pudore 
obicit. An false Palameden crimine turpe 
accusaBse mihi^ vobis damnasse decorum est ? 
Sed neqiie Naupliades facinas defendere tantum 310 

tamque patens valuit^ nee vos audistis in illo 
crimina: vidistis^ praestoque obiecta patebant. 

' Nee Poeantiaden quod habet Vulcania Lemnos, 
esse reus merui : factum def endite vestrum^ 
consensistis enim. Nee me suasisse negabo, 315 

ut se subtraheret bellique viaeque labori 
temptaretque feros requie lenire dolores. 
Paruit et vivit. Non haec sententia tantum 
fida^ sed et felix^ cum sit satis esse fidelem. 
Quem quoniam vates delenda ad Pergama poscunt, 320 

ne mandate mihi : melius Telamonius ibit 
eloquioque virum morbisque iraque furentem 
molliet, aut aliqua producet caliidus arte. 
Ante retro Simois fluet et sine frondibus Ide 
stabit et auxilium promittet Achaia Troiae, 325 

quam, cessante meo pro vestris pectore rebus, 
Aiacis stolidi Danais sollertia prosit. 
Sis licet infest us sociis regique mihique, 
dure Philoctete, licet exsecrere meumque 
devoveas sine fine caput cupiasque dolenti 330 

me tibi forte dari nostrumque liaurire cruorem: 331 

te tamen adgrediar, fiet tibi copia nostri, 333 

tamque tuis potiar, faveat For tuna, sagittis, 
quam sum Dardanio, quem cepi, vate potitus, 335 

quam responsa deum Troianaque fata retexi, 
quam rapui Phrygiae signum penetrale Miuervae 
hostibus e mediis. Et se mihi conferat Aiax ? 
Nempe capi Troiam prohibebant fata sine illo: 
fortis ubi est Aiax? Ubi sunt ingehtia magni 340 

verba viri ? Cur hie metuis ? cur audet Ulixes 
ire per excubias et se committere nocti i 


perque feros enses non tantum moenia Troum, 

verum etiam summas arces intrare suaque 

eripere aede deam raptamque adf erre per hostes ? 345 

Quae nisi f ecissem, frustra Telamone creatus 

gestasset laeva taurorum tergora septem. 

Ilia nocte mihi Troiae victoria parta est^ 

Pergama turn vici, cam vinci posse coegi- 

' Desine Tydiden vultuque et murmure nobis 350 

ostentare meum : pars est sua laudis in illo. 
Nee tu, cum socia clipeum pro classe tenebas, 
solus eras: tibi turba comes^ mihi contigit unns. 
Qui nisi pugnacem sciret sapiente minorem 
esse nee indomitae deberi praemia dextrae, 355 

ipse quoque haec pejieret. Peteret moderatior Aiax 
Eurjrpylusque ferox claroque Andraemone natus, 
nee minus Idomeneus patriaque creatus eadem 
Meriones, peteret maioris frater Atridae. 
Quippe manu fortes, nee sunt mihi Marte secundi: 360 

consiliis cessere meis. Tibi dextera bello 
utilis: ingenium est, quod eget moderamine nostro; 
tu vires sine mente geris, mihi cura futuri; 
tu pugnare potes, pugnandi tempera mecum 
eligit Atrides; tu tantum corpore prodes, 365 

nos animo; quan toque ratem qui temperat, anteit 
remigis officium, quan to dux milite maior, 
tantum ego te supero. Nee non in corpore nostro 
pectora sunt potiora manu: vigor omnis in illis. 

* At vos, o proceres, vigili date praemia vestro, 370 

proque tot annorum cnra, quibus anxius egi, 
hunc titulum meritis pensandum reddite nostris. 
lam labor in fine est: obstantia fata removi 
altaque posse capi faciendo Pergama cepi. 
Per spes nunc socias casuraque moenia Troum 375 

perque decs oro, quos liosti nuper ademi, 
per siquid superest, quod sit sapienter agendum, 
siquid adhuc audax ex praecipitique petendum est, 378 

este mei memores! Aut si mihi non datis arma, 380 

huic date! ' — et osteudit signum fatale Minervae. 


Mota manns procerain est^ et quid facundia posset, 
re patuit: fortisque viri talit arma disertus. 
Hectora qui solus, qui ferrum ignesque lovemque 
sustinuit totiens, unam non sustinet iram, 385 

invicfcumque virum vicit dolor. Adripit ensem 
et ^ Meus hie certe est (an et hunc sibi poscit Ulixes?), 
hoc ' ait ^ utenduiD est in me mihi : quique cruore 
saepe Phrygum maduit, domini nunc caede madebit, 
ne quisquam Aiacem possit superare nisi Aiax. ' 390 

Dixit, et in pectus turn demum yulnera passum, 
qua patuit ferrum, letalem condidit ensem. 
Nee valuere manus iufixum educere telum: 
expulit ipse cruor; rubefactaque sanguine tellus 
purpureum viridi genuit de caespite florem, 395 

qui prius Oebalio fuerat de vulnere natus. 
Littera communis mediis pueroque viroque 
inscripta est foliis, haec nominis, ilia querelae. 


MET. XV. 746-860. 

Caesar in urbe sua deus est, quern Marte togaque 
praecipuum non bella magis finita triumphis, 
resque domi gestae properataque gloria rerum, 
in sidus vertere novum stellamque comantem, 
quam sua progenies. Keque enim de Caesaris actis 750 

ullum mains opus, quam quod pater exstitit huius. 
Scilicet aequoreos plus est domuisse Britannos, 
perque papyriferi septemflua flumina Nili 
victrices egisse rates, Numidasque rebelles 
Cinyphiumque lubam Mithridateisque tumentem 755 

nomiDibus Pontum populo adiecisse Quirini, 
et multos meruisse, aliquos egisse triumphos, 
quam tantum genuisse virum ? Quo praeside rerum 
humane generi, Superi, fayistis abunde. 

Ne foret hie igitur mortali semine cretus, 760 

ille deus faciendus erat. Quod ut aurea vidit 



Aeneae genetrix, vidit quoque triste parari 

pontifici letam et coninrata arma moveri, 

palluit et cnnctis^ ut cuique erat obyia, divis 

* Adspice ' dicebat ^ quanta mihi mole parentur 765 

insidiae^ quantaque caput cum fraude petatur^ 

quod de Dardanio solum mihi restat lulo. 

Solane semper ero iustis exercita curis ? 

quam modo Tydidae Calydonia vulneret hasta, 

nunc male defensae conf undant moenia Troiae ; 770 

quae videam natum longis erroribus actum 

iactarique freto sedesque intrare silentum, 

bellaque cum Turno gerere, aut, si vera fatemur, 

cum lunone magis ? Quid nunc antiqua recorder 

damna mei generis ? Timor hie meminisse priorum 775 

non sinit : en acui sceleratos cernitis enses. 

Quos prohibete, precor,ifacinusque repellite, neve 

caede sacerdotis flammas exstinguite Yestae I ^ 

Talia nequiquam toto Venus anxia caelo 
verba iacit, superosque movet; qui rumpere quamquam 780 
ferrea non possunt veterum decreta sororum, 
signa tamen luctus dant hand incerta futuri. 
Arma feruht inter nigras crepitantia nubes 
terribilesque tubas, auditaque cornua caelo 
praemonuisse nefas. Solis quoque tristis imago 785 

lurida soUicitis praebebat lumina terris. 
Saepe faces visae mediis ardere sub astris, 
saepe inter nimbos guttae cecidere cruentae. 
Caerulus et vultum ferrugine Lucifer atra 
sparsus erat, sparsi Lunares sanguine currus. 790 

Tristia mille locis Stygius dedit omina bubo, 
mille locis lacrimavit ebur, cantusque feruntur 
auditi Sanctis et verba minantia lucis. 
Victima nulla litat, magnosque instare tumultus 
fibra monet, caesumque caput reperitur in extis; 795 

inque foro circumque domes et templa deorum 
nocturnes ululasse canes, umbrasque silentum 
erravisse ferunt, motamque tremoribus urbem. 

Non tamen insidias venturaque vincere fata 


praemonitus potaere deam; strictique fernntur 800 

ia templum gladii, neque enim locas ullns in urbe 

ad facinus diramque placet^ nisi caria^ caedem. 

Turn vero Cytherea manu percussit utraqne 

pectus, et Aeneaden molitar condere nnbe, 

qua prius infesto Paris est ereptus Atridae, 805 

et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat enses. 

Talibus banc genitor : ^ Sola insuperabile fatum, 
nata, movere paras ? Intres licet ipsa sororum 
tecta trium : cernes illic molimine vasto 
ex acre et solido rerum tabularia ferro, 810 

quae neque concussum caeli, neque f ulminis iram^ 
nee metuunt ullas tuta atque aeterna ruinas. 
Invenies illic incisa adamante perenni 
fata tui generis: legi ipse animoque notavi, 
et referam, ne sis etiamnum ignara futuri. 815 

' Hie sua complevit, pro quo, Cytherea, laboras, 
tempera, perfectis quos terrae debuit annis. 
Ut deus accedat caelo templisque locetur, 
tu facies natusque suus, qui nominis heres 
impositum feret unus onus, caedisque parentis 820 

nos in bella sues fortissimus ultor habebit. 
Illius auspiciis obsessae moenia pacem 
victa petent Mutinae ; Pharsalia sentiet ilium, 
Emathiique iterum madefient caede Philippi, 
et magnum Sioulis nomen superabitur undis, 825 

Romanique ducis coniunx Aegyptia taedae 
non bene fisa cadet : frustraque erit ilia minata, 
servitura suo Gapitolia nostra Ganopo. 

* Quid tibi barbariam, gentes ab utroque iacentes 
Oceano numerem ? Quodcumque babitabile tellus 830 

sustinet, huius erit; pontus quoque serviet illi. 
Pace data terris, animum ad civilia vertet 
iura Buum, legesque feret iustissimus auctor: 
exemploque suo mores reget, inque futuri 
temporis aetatem venturorumque nepotum 835 

prospiciens, prolem sancta de ooniuge natam 
ferre simul nomenque suum curasque iubebit; 


nec^ nisi cum senior Pylios aeqaaverit annos^ 

aetherias sedes cognataqae sidera tanget. 

Hanc animam interea caeso de corpore raptam 840 

fac iubar, ut semper Capitolia nostra f orumqae 

divas ab excelsa prospectet lulius aede.' 

Yix ea fatus erat^ media cum sede senatus 
constitit alma Venus, nuUi cernenda, suique 
Caesaris eripuit membris nee in aera solvi 845 

passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris. 
Dumque tulit, lumen capere atque ignescere sensit, 
emisitque sinu. Luna volat altius ilia, 
flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 
Stella micaty natique videns benefacta fatetur 850 

esse suis maiora, et yinei gaudet ab illo. 
Hie sua praeferri quamquam vetat acta patemis, 
libera f ama tamen nullisque obnbxia iussis 
inyitum praefert, unaque in parte repugnat. 
Sic magni cedit titulis Agamemnonis Atreus; 855 

Aegea sic Theseus, sic Pelea vincit Achilles. 
Denique, ut exemplis ipsos aequantibus utar^ 
sic et Saturnus minor est love. luppiter arces 
tiBmperat aetherias et mundi regna triformis; 
terra sub Augusto: pater est et rector uterque. 860 


MET. XV. 871-879. 

lamque opus exegi, quod nee loyis ira nee ignis 
nee poterit ferrum nee edax abolere yetustas. 
Cum yolet, ilia dies, quae nil nisi corporis huius 
ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 
parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 875 

astra f erar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum. 
Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 
ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 
siquid habent yeri yatum praesagia, yiyam. 





HER. I. 

Hanc tua Penelope lento tibi mittit, Ulixe : 

nil mihi rescribas^ attamen ipse veni. 
Troia iacet certe^ Danais invisa pnellis : 

vix PriamiiB tanti totaque Troia f uifc. 
utinam tum^ cum Lacedaemona classe petebat^ 5 

obrutus insanis esset adulter aqnis! 
Non ego deserto iacuissem frigida lecto, 

non qaererer tardos ire relicta dies, 
nee mihi qnaerenti spatiosam fallere noctem 

lassasset viduas pendula tela manus. 10 

Quando ego non timni graviora pericula veris ? 

Bes est soUiciti plena timoris amor. 
In te fingebam violentos Troas ituros, 

nomine in Hectoreo pallida semper eram. 
Sive qnis Antilochum narrabat ab Hectore victum, 15 

Antilochus nostri caasa timoris erat: 
sive Menoetiaden falsis cecidisse sub armis^ 

flebam successu posse carcrc dolos. 
Sanguine Tlepolemus Lyciam tepef ecerat bastam : 

Tlepolemi leto cura novata mea est. 20 

Denique, quisquis erat castris iugulatus Achivis, 

frigidius glacie pectus amantis erat. 
Sed bene consuluit casto deiis aequus amori: 

yersa est in cineres sospite Troia viro. 


Argolici rediere duces^ altaria f umant^ 25 

ponitur ad patrios barbara praeda deos. 
Grata ferunt njmpliae pro saUis dona maritis: 

iili yicfca suis Troica fata cannnt. 
Mirantur iustique senes trepidaeque paellae : 

narrantis coniunx pendet ab ore viri. 30 

lamque aliquis posita monstrat fera proelia mensa 

pingit et exiguo Pergama tota mero : 
^ Hac ibat Simois^ liaec est Sigei'a tellus^ 

hie steterafc Priami regia eelsa senis : 
illic Aeacides, illic tendebat Ulixes, 35 

hie laeer admissos terruit Heetor equos.' 
Omnia namqne tno senior, te quaerere misso^^ 

rettulerat gnato Nestor, at ille mihi. 
Eettulit et ferro Khesumqae Dolonaque caesos, 

utque sit hie somno proditus, ille dole. 40 

Ansus es^ o nimium nimiamque oblite tuorumy 

Thracia nooturno tangere castra dolo 
totqne simul maetare viros, adiutus ab uno! 

At bene cautns eras et memor ante mei. 
Usque ineta micuere sinus^ dum victor amicam 45 

dictus es Ismariis isse per agmen equis. 
Sed mihi quid prodest vestris disiecta lacertis 

Ilios, et murus quod fuit, esse solum, 
si maneo qualis Troia durante manebam, 

virque mihi dempto fine carendus abest ? 60 

[Diruta sunt aliis, uni mihi Pergama restanfc, 

incola captive quae bove victor arat;] 
iam seges est, ubi Troia f uit, resecandaque falce 

luxuriat Phrygio sanguine pinguis humus; 
semisepulta virum curvis feriuntur aratris 65 

ossa, ruinosas occulit herba domos — 
victor abes, nee scire mihi, quae causa morandi, 

aut in quo lateas ferrous orbe, licet. 
Quisquis ad haec vertit peregrinam litora puppim, 

ille mihi de te multa rogatus abit: 60 

quamque tibi reddat, si te mode viderit usquam, 

traditur huic digitis charta notata meis. 


Kos Pylon^ antiqni Neleia K'estoris arva^ 

misimas: incerta est fama remissa Pylo. 
Misimus et Sparten: Sparte quoque nescia veri. 65 

Quas habitas terras^ aut ubi lentus abes ? 
Utilius starent etiam nanc moenia Phoebi — 

irascor votis heu levis ipsa meis ! — 
Bcirem ubi pagnares^ et tantum bella timerem^ 

et mea cum multis iuncta querela foret. 70 

Quid timeam, ignoro; timeo tamen omnia demens, 

et patet in curas area lata meas. 
Quaeeumque aequor habet^ quaecumque pericula tellus^ 

tam longae causas suspicor esse morae. 
Haec ego dum stulte metuo^ quae vestra libido est^ 75 

esse peregrino captus amore potes. 
Forsitan et narres, quam sit tibi rustica coniunx^ 

quae tantum lanas non sinat esse rudes. 
Fallar^ et boo crimen tenues vanescat in auras^ 

neve, revertendi liber, abesse velis! 80 

Me pater Icarius viduo discedere lecto 

eogit et inmensas increpat usque moras. 
Increpet usque licet! tua sum, tua dicar oportet, 

Penelope coniunx semper Ulixis ero. 
Ille tamen pietate mea precibusque pudicis 85 

frangitur et vires temperat ipse suas. 
Dulichii Samiique et quos tulit alta Zacyntlios, 

turba ruunt in me luxuriosa proci 
inque tua regnant nuUis prohibentibus aula: 

viscera nostra, tuae dilacerantur opes. 90 

Quid tibi Pisandrum Polybumque Medontaque dirum 

Eurymachique avidas Antinoique manus 
atque alios referam, quos omnis turpiter absens 

ipse tuo partis sanguine rebus alis ? 
Irus egens pecorisque Melanthius actor edendi 95 

ultimus accedunt in taa damna pudor. 
Tfes sumus inbelles numero, sine viribus uxor, 

Laertesque senex, Telemacbusque puer. 
Ille per insidias paene est mibi nuper ademptus, 

dum parat invitis omnibus ire Pylon. 100 



Di^ precor^ hoc iabeant^ ut eantibus ordine fatis 

ille meos oculos conprimat^ ille tuos. 
Hac faciunt custosque bourn longaevaque nufcrix, 

tertius inmundae cura fidelis harae. 
Sed neque Laertes^ nt qui sit inutilis armis^ 105 

hostibus in mediis regna tenere potest^ 
Telemacho veniet, vivafc modo, f ortior aetas : 

nunc erat auxiliis ilia tuenda patris. 
nee mihi sunt vires inimicos pellere tectis : 

tu citius venias^ portus et aura tuis! 110 

Est tibi, sitque, precor, gnatus, qui mollibus annis 

in patrias artes erudiendus erat. 
Eespice Laerten^ ut iam sua lumina condas: 

extremum fati sustinet ille diem. 
Certe ego, quae f ueram te discedente puella, 115 

protinuB ut venias, facta yidebor anus. 



At tibi Colchorum, memini, regina vacavi, 

ars mea cum peteres ut tibi ferret opem! 
Tunc quae dispensant mortalia fata sorores 

debuerant fusos evoluisse meos; 
tum potui Medea mori bene. Quicquid ab illo 6 

produxi vitam tempore, poena f uit. 
Ei mihi I cur umquam iuvenalibus acta lacertis 

Phrixeam petiit Pelias arbor ovem ? 
Cur umquam Colchi Magnetida vidimus Argo, 

turbaque Pliasiacam Graia bibistis aquam ? 10 

Cur mihi plus aequo flavi placuere capilli 

et decor et linguae gratia ficta tuae ? 
Aut semel in nostras quoniam nova puppis harenas 

venerat audacis attuleratque viros, 
isset anbelatoB non praemedicatus in ignes 15 

inmemor Aesonides oraque ad usta boum I 


Semina iecieset, totidem vieiirus et hostes, 

ut caderet cultu cultor ab ipse sue! 
Quantum perfidiae tecum, seelerate, perissefc, 

dempta forent capiti quam mala multa meo! 20 

Est aliqua ingrato meritum exprobrare voluptas; 

hac fruar, haec de te gaud la sola feram. 
lussus inexpertam Colchos advertere puppim 

intrasti patriae regna beata meae. 
Hoc illic Medea fui, nova nupta quod hie est: 25 

quam pater est illi, tam mihi dives erat. 
Hie Ephyren bimarem, Scythia tenus ille nivosa 

omne tenet, Ponti qua plaga laeva iacet. 
Accipit hospitio iuvenes Aeeta Pelasgos, 

et premitis pictos corpora Graia toros. 30 

Tunc ego te vidi; tunc coepi scire, quis esses. 

Ilia fuit mentis prima ruina meae. 
Et vidi et perii. Nee notis ignibus arsi, 

ardet ut ad magnos pinea taeda decs. 
Et formosus eras, et me mea fata trahebant: 35 

abstulerant oculi lumina nostra tui. 
Perfide, sensisti. Quis enim bene celat amorem ? 

Eminet indicio prodita flam ma suo. 
Dicitur interea tibi lex, ut dura ferorum 

insolito premeres vomere colla boum. 40 

Martis erant tauri plus quam per cornua saevi, 

quorum terribilis epiritus ignis erat: 
acre pedes solidi, praetentaque naribus aera, 

nigra per adflatus haec quoque facta sues. 
Semina praeterea populos genitura iuberis 45 

spargere devota lata per arva manu, 
qui peterent natis secum tua corpora telis: 

ilia est agricolae messis iniqua suo. 
Lumina custodis succumbere nescia somno 

ultimus est aliqugt decipere arte labor. 50 

Dixerat Aeetes : maesti consurgitis omnes, 

mensaque purpureos deserit alta toros. 
Quam tibi tunc longe regnum dotale Creusae 

et socer et magni nata Creontis erant ? 


Tristisabis: oculis abeuntem prosequor udis^ 55 

et dixit tenui munnure lingua: * Vale! ' 
Ut positum tetigi tbalamo male saiicia lectum^ 

acta est per lacrimas nox mibi^ quanta f uit. 
Ante oculos taurique meos segetesque nefandae^ 

ante meos oculos pervigil anguis erat. 60 

Hinc amor^ bine timor est. Ipsum timer auget amorem. 

Mane erat^ et tbalamo cara recepta soror. 
Disiectamque comas adversaque in ora iacentem 

invenit, et lacrimis omnia plena meis. 
Orat opem Minyis. Petit altera at alter babebit: 65 

Aesonio iuyeni, quod rogat ilia, damns. 
Est nemus et piceis et f rondibus ilicis atrum, 

yix illuc radiis soils adire licet. 
Sunt in eo — fuerant certe — delubra Dianae: 

aurea barbarica stat dea facta manu. 70 

Noscis an exciderunt mecum loca? Venimus illuc: 

orsus es infido sic prior ore loqui: 
* lus tibi et arbitrium nostrae fortuna salutis 

tradidit^ inque tua est yitaque morsque manu. 
Perderc posse sat est^ siquem iuvat ipsa potestas: 75 

sed tibi seryatus gloria maior ero. 
Per mala nostra precor, quorum potes esse leyamen, 

per genus et numen cuncta videntis ayi^ 
per triplicis yultus aroanaque sacra Dianae 

et si forte aliquos gens babet ista deos: 80 

o yirgo, miserere mei, miserere meorum : 

effice me meritis tempus in omne tuumi 
Quodsi forte yirum non dedignare Pelasgum, — 

sed mibi tam f aciles undo meosque deos ? — 
spiritus ante mens tenues yanescat in auras^ 85 

quam tbalamo^ nisi tu^ nupta sit ulla meo: 
conscia sit luno, sacris praefecta maritis^ 

et dea^ marmorea cuius in aedc sumusi ' 
Haec animum — et quota pars liaec sunt ? — moyere puellae 

simplicis^ et dextrae dextera iuncta meae. 00 

Vidi etiam lacrimas; an pars est fraudis in illis? 

Sic cito sum yerbis capta puella tuis. 


lungis et aeripedes iuadusto corpore tauros 

et solidam iusso yomerc findis liumum. 
Arya venenatis pro semine dentibus imples: 95 

nascitur et gladios scutaquo miles habet. 
Ipsa ego^ qnae dederam medicamiaa^ pallida sedi^ 

cam vidi Bubitos arma tenere yiros: 
donee terrigenae — f acinus mirabile! — fratres 

inter se strictas conseruere manus. 100 

Insopor ecce yigil squamis crepitantibus borreus 

sibilat, et torto pectore verrit humnm. 
Dotis opes ubi erant? Ubi erat tibi regia coniunx, 

quique maris gemini distinct Isthmos aquas ? 
Ilia ego^ quae tibi sum nunc denique barbara facta, 105 

nunc tibi sum pauper, nunc tibi yisa nocens, 
flammea snbduxi medicate lumina somno, 

et tibi, quae raperes, yellera tuta dedi. 
Proditus est genitor, regnum patriamque reliqui, 109 

optima cum cara matre relic ta soror. 112 

At non te fugiens sine me, germane, reliqui. 

Deficit hoc uno littera nostra loco. 
Quod facere ausa mea est, non audet scribere dextra. 115 

Sic ego, sed tecum, dilaceranda f ui. 
Nee tamen extimui — quid enim post ilia timerem ? — 

credere me pelago femina, iamquo uocens. 
Kumen ubi est ? Ubi di ? Meritas subeamus in alto 

tu fraudis poenas, credulitatis ego. 120 

Compresses utinam Symplegades elisissent, 

nostraque adhaererent ossibus ossa tuis, 
aut nos Scylla rapax canibus misisset cdendos! 

Debuit ingratis Scylla nocere viris. 
Quaeque yomit totidem fluctus totidemque resorbet, 125 

nos quoque Trinacriae subposuisset aquae! 
Sospes ad Haemonias victorque reverteris urbes: 

ponitur ad patrios aurea lana decs. 
Quid referam Peliae natas pietate nocentes 

caesaque yirginea membra paterna manu ? 130 

Ut culpent alii, tibi mo J^a^rA necesse est, 

pro qp" " ^' ^cens. 


Ausus es — o iusto desunt sua verba dolori ! — 

ausuB es * Aesonia ' dicere * cede domo ! ' 
lussa domo cessi^ natis comitata duobns 135 

et^ qui me sequitur semper, amore tai. 
Ut snbito nostras Hymen cantatas ad aures 

venit^ et accenso lampades igne micant^ 
tibiaque ef^andit socialia carmina yobis, 

at mibi funerea flebiliora tuba^ liO 

pertimni nee adhuc tantum scelus esse putabam : 

sed tamen in toto pectore frigus erat. 
Turba ruunt et * Hymen ' clamant * Hymenaee ' frequenter: 

quo propior vox haec, hoc mi hi peius erat. 
Diversi flebant servi lacrimasque tegebant. 145 

Quis vellet tanti nuntius esse mali ? 
Me quoque, quicquid erat, potius nescire iuvabat: 

sed tamquam scirem^ mens mea tristis erat. 
Cum minor e pueris — is tractus amore videndi 

constitit ad geminae limina prima foris — 150 

' Hue mihi, mater, adi! Pompam pater ' inquit * lason 

ducit et adiunctos aureus urget equos.' 
Protinus abscissa planxi mea pectora veste, 

tuta nee a digitis ora fuere m^is. 
Ire animus mediae suadebat in agmina turbae 155 

sertaque compositis demere rapta comis. 
Vix me continui, quin sic laniata capillos 

clamarem : * Mens est ' iniceremque manus. 
Laese pater, gaude; Colchi gaudete relicti! 

Inferias, umbrae fratris, habete, mei! 160 

Deseror, amissis regno patriaque domoque, 

coniuge, qui nobis omnia solus erat. 
Serpentis igitur potui taurosque f urentes, 

unum non potui perdomuisse virum. 
Quaeque feros pepuli doctis medicatibus ignes, 165 

non valeo flammas effugere ipsa meas. 
Ipsi me cantus herbaeque artesque relinquunt; 

nil dea, nil Hecates sacra potentis agunt. 
Non mihi grata dies, noctes vigilantur amarae, 

et tener a misero pectore somnus abit. 170 


Quae me non possum^ potai sopire draconem; 

ntilior cuivis quam mihi cura mea est. 
Quos ego servavi, paelex amplectitur artus, 

et nosfcri fructus ilia laboris habet. 
Forsitan et^ stultae dum te iactare maritae 175 

quaeris et iniustis auribus apta loqai^ 
in facieiu moresqae meos nova crimina fingas: 

rideat et yitiis laeta sit ilia meis: 
rideat et Tyrio iaceat sublimis in ostro : 

flebit^ et ardores vincet adusta meos! 180 

Dum ferrum flammaeque aderunt sucusque yeneni^ 

hostis Medeae nuUus inultus erit. 
Quodsi forte preces praeeordia ferrea tangunt, 

nunc animis audi verba minora meis. 
Tam tibi sum supplex^ quam tu mihi saepe f uisti : 185 

nee moror ante tuos procubuisse pedes. 
Si tibi sum vilis^ communis respice natos: 

saeviet in partus dira noverca meos. 
Et nimium similes tibi sunt^ et imagine tangor, 

et quotiens yideo^ lumina nostra madent. 190 

Per superos oro^ per ayitae lumina flammae^ 

per meritum et natos, pignora nostra, duos: 
redde tornm, pro quo tot res insana reliqui ; 

adde fidem dictis auxiliumque refer. 
Non ego te implore contra taurosque yirosque, 195 

utque tua serpens yicta quiescat ope : 
te peto, quem merui, quem nobis ipse dedisti, 

cum quo sum pariter facta parente parens. 
Dos ubi sit, quaeris ? Campo numerayimus illo, 

qui tibi laturo yellus arandus erat. 200 

At yero ille aries yillo spectabilis aureo, 

dos mea. ' Quam ' dicam si tibi * redde,' neges. 
Dos mea tu sospes. Dos est mea Graia iuyentus. 

I nunc, Sisjphias, improbe, confer opes. 
Quod yivis, quod habes nuptam socerumque potentis, 205 

hoc ipsum, ingratus quod potes esse, meum est. 
Quos equidem actutum — sed quid praedicere poenam 

attinet ? Ingentis parturit ira minas. 


Quo feret ira^ seqnar. Eacti fortasse pigebit: 

et piget infido coDSulaisse viro. 210 

Viderit ista deus^ qai nunc mea pecfcora versat. 

Nescio quid certe mens mea maius agit. 


AM. I. 3. 

lusta precor: quae me nuper praedata puella est^ 

aut amet^ aut faciat^ cur ego semper amem. 
All ! nimium volui ! tantum patiatur amari : 

audierit nostras tot Cytherea preces. 
Accipe^ per longos tibi qui deser^iat annos: 5 

accipe^ qui pura norit amare fide. 
Si me non veterum commendant magna parentum 

nomina^ si nostri sanguinis auctor eques^ 
nee mens innumeris renovatur campus aratris, 

temperat et sumptus parous uterque parens : 10 

at Phoebus comitesque novem vitisque reporter 

hae faciunt: at me qui tibi donate Amor: 
et nulli cessura Rdes^ sine crimine mores^ 

nudaque simplicitas, purpureusque pudor. 
Non milii mille placent: non sum desultor Amoris. 15 

Tu mihi, siqua fides, cura perennis oris. 
Tecum, quos dederint annos mihi fila sororum, 

vivere contingat, teque dolente mori. 
Te mihi materiem felicem in carmina praebe: 

provenient causa carmina digna sua. 20 

Carmine nomen habent exterrita cornibus lo, 

et quam fiuminea lusit adulter ave, 
Quaeque, super pontum simulate recta iuvenco^ 

yirginea tenuit comua vara manu. 
Nos quoque per totum pariter cantabimur orbem, 25 

iunctaqne semper erunt homina nostra tuis. 



AM. I. 12. 

Flete meos casus! tristes rediere tabellae. 

Infelix bodie littera posse negat. 
Omina sunt aliquid. Modo cum discedere vellet, 

ad limen digitos restitit icta Nape. 
Missa foras iterum limen transire memento 5 

cautius^ atque alte sobria ferre pedem. 
Ite binc^ difficiles^ funebria ligna^ tabellae^ 

tuque negaturis cera referta notis, 
quam, puto, de longae coUectam flore cicutae 

melle sub infami Corsica misit apis. 10 

At tamquam^ minio penitus medicata, rubebas. 

Ille color vere sanguinulentus erat. 
Proiectae triviis iaceatis, inutile lignum, 

vosque rotae f rangat praetereuntis onus. 
Ilium etiam, qui vos ex arbore vertit in usum, 15 

conviucam puras non babuisse manus. 
Praebuit ilia arbor misero suspendia collo: 

carnifici diras praebuit ilia cruces : 
ilia dedit turpes raucis bubonibus umbras: 

Yulturis in ramis et strigis ova tulit. 20 

His ego commisi nostros insanus amores, 

molliaque ad dominam verba ferenda dedi ? 
Aptius bae capiant vadimouia garrula cerae, 

quas aliquis duro cognitor ore legat. 
Inter epbemeridas melius tabulasque iacerent, 25 

in quibus absumptas fleret avarus opes. 
Ergo ego vos rebus duplices pro nomine sensi. 

Auspicii numerus non erat ipse boni. 
Quid precer iratus ? nisi vos cariosa senectus 

rodat, et inmundo cera sit alba situ. 30 



AM. I. 15. 

Qaid mihi, Livor edax, ignavos obicis annos^ 

ingeniique vocas carmen inertia opus ? 
non me more patram, dam strenua Bustinet aetas^ 

l^raemia militiae pulverulenta sequi, 
nee me verbosas leges ediscere, nee me 6 

ingrato voeem prostituisse foro. 
Mortale est^ quod quaeris, opus: mihi fama perennis 

quaeritur, in toto semper ut orbe canar. 
Vivet Maeonides, Tenedos dum stabit et Ide, 

dum rapidas Simois in mare velvet aquas. 10 

Vivet et Ascraeus, dum mustis uva tumebit, 

dum cadet incurva falce resecta Ceres. 
Battiades semper toto cantabitur orbe; 

quamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet. 
Nulla Sophocleo veniet iactura oothurno. 15 

Cum sole et luna semper Aratus erit. 
Dum fallax servus, durus pater, improba lena 

vivent et meretrix blanda, Menandros erit. 
Ennius arte carens, animosique Accius oris, 

casurum nullo tempore nomen habent. 20 

Varronem primamque ratem quae nesciet aetas, 

aureaque Aesonio terga petita duci ? 
Carmina sublimis tunc sunt peritura Lucreti, 

exitio terras cum dabit una dies. 
Titjrus et f ruges Aeneiaque arma legentur, 25 

Koma triumphati dum caput orbis erit. 
Donee erunt ignes arcusque Cupidinis arma, 

discentur numeri, culte TibuUe, tui. 
Gallus et Hesperiis, et Gallus notus Eois, 

et sua cum Gallo nota Lycoris erit. 30 

Ergo cum silices, cum dens patientis aratri, 

depereant aevo, carmina morte carent. 
Cedant carminibus reges regumque triumplii: 

cedat et anriferi ripa benigna Tagi. 


Vilia miretur yulgus: mihi flavus Apollo 35 

pocula Gastalia plena ministret aqaa^ 
sustiueamque coma metuentem f rigora myrfcnm^ 

atque ita sollicito multus amante legar. 
Pascitur in vivis Livor: post fata quiescit, 

cam snns ex merito qnemque tuetur honos. 40 

Ergo etiam cum me supremus adederit ignis^ 

yivam^ parsque mei multa superstes erit. 


AM. II. 6. 

Psittacus^ Eois imitatrix ales ab Indis^ 

occidit: exsequias ite frequenter^ aves. 
Ite, piae volucres, et plangite pectora pennis, 

et rigido teneras ungue notate genas. 
Horrida pro maestis lanietur pluma capiUis; 5 

pro longa resonent carmina yestra tuba. 
Quid scelus Ismarii quereris, Pbilomela^ tyranni ? 

Expleta est annis ieta querela suis. 
Alitis in rarae miserum deyertere funus. 

Magna^ sed antiqui causa doloris Itys. 10 

Omnes; quae liquido libratis in aere cursus, 

tu tamen ante alias^ turtur amice^ dole. 
Plena fuit yobis omni concordia yita, 

et stetit ad finem longa tenaxqne fides. 
Quod fuit Argolico iuvenis Phoceus Orestae, 16 

hoc tibi, dum licuit, psittace, turtur erat. 
Quid tamen ista fides, quid rari forma coloris, 

quid yox mutandis ingeniosa sonis, 
quid iuyat, ut datus es, nostrae placuisse puellae ? 

Infelix ayium gloria, nempe iaces. 20 

Tu poteras fragiles pennis hebetare zmaragdos, 

tincta gerens rubro Punica rostra croco. 
Non fuit in terris yocum simulantior ales : 
, reddebas blaeso tam bene yerba sono. 


Baptus es invidia. Kon tu fera bella movebas: 25 

garrulas et placidae pacis amator eras. 
Ecce, coturnices inter sua proelia vivunt, 

forsitan et fiant inde frequenter anus. 
Plenus eras minimo, nee prae sermonis amore 

in multos poteras ora vacare cibos. 30 

Nux erat esca tibi causaeqne papavera somni, 

pellebatque sitim simplicis humor aquae. 
Vivit edax vultur, ducensque per aera gyros 

miluus, et pluviae graculus auctor aquae. 
Vivit et armiferae cornix invisa Minervae, 35 

ilia quidem saeclis vix moritura novem. 
Occidit ille loquax, huraanae vocis imago, 

psittacus, extremo munus ab orbe datum. 
Optima prima fere manibus rapiunfcur avaris; 

implentur numeris deteriora suis. 40 

Tristia Phylaeidae Thersites f unera vidit : 

iamque cinis, vivis fratribus. Hector erafc. 
Quid ref eram timidae pro te pia vota puellae : 

vota procelloso per mare rapta noto ? 
Septima lux aderat, non exhibitura sequentem, 45 

et stabat vacuo iam tibi Parca colo. 
Nee tamen ignavo stupuerunt verba palato, 

clamavit moriens lingua * Corinna, vale! ' 
Colle sub Elysio nigra nemus ilice frondet, 

udaque perpetuo gramine terra viret. 50 

Siqua fides dubiis, volucrum locus ille piarum 

dicitur, obscenae quo proliibentur aves. 
Illic innocui late pascuntur olores: 

et vivax phoenix, unica semper avis. 
Explicat ipsa suas ales lunonia pennas : 55 

oscula dat cupido bland a columba mari. 
Psittacus has inter, nemorali sede receptus, 

convertit volucres in sua verba pias. 
Ossa tegit tumulus, tumulus pro corpore magnus, 

quo lapis exiguus par sibi carmen habet: 60 

* Colligor ex ipso dominae placuisse sepulcro. 

Ora fuere mihi plus ave docta loqui.' 



AM, II. 10, 1-14. 

Tu mihi, tu certe, memini, Graecine, negabas 

UQO posse aliquem tempore amare duas. 
Per te ego decipior: per te depreneus inermis, 

ecce, duas uqo ^tempore fcnrpis amo. 
Utraque f ormosa est : operosae cultibus ambae: 5 

artibus, in dubio est, baec sit, an ilia, prior. 
Pulchrior hac ilia est: haec est quoqne pulchrior ilia: 

et magis haec nobis, et magis ilia placet. 
Errant, nt ventis discordibas acta phaselos, 

dividuumque tenent alter et alter amor. 10 

Quid geminas, Erycina, meos sine fine dolores ? 

Nonne erat in curas una puella satis ? 
Quid folia arboribus, quid pleno sidera caelo, 

in f reta conlectas alta quid addis aquas ? 


AM. III. 9. 

Memnona si mater, mater ploravit Achillem, 

et tangunt magnas tristia fata deas, 
flebilis indignos, Elegeia, solve capillos. 

All! nimis ex vero nunc tibi nomen erit! 
Ille tui vates operis, tua fama, Tibullus 5 

ardet in exstructo, corpus inane, rogo. 
Ecce, puer Veneris f ert eversamque pharetram 

et fractos arcus et sine luce facem. 
Adspice, demissis ut eat miserabilis alis, 

pectoraque infesta tundat aperta manu. 10 

Excipiunt lacrimas sparsi per colla capilli, 

oraque singultu concutiente sonant. 
Fratris in Aeneae sic ilium funere dicunt 

egressum tectis, pulcher lule, tuis. 


Nec minus est confusa Venus moriente TibuUo, 15 

quam iuveni rupit cum ferus inguen aper. 
At sacri vates et divum cura vocamur: 

sunt etiam, qui nos numen habere puteut. 
Scilicet omne sacrum mors importuna profanat: 

omnibus obscuras inicit ilia manus. 20 

Quid pater Ismario, quid mater profuit Orplieo ? 

carmine quid victas obstipuisse leras ? 
* Aelinon ' iu silvis idem pater ' aelinon ' altis 

dicitur invita concinuisse lyra. 
Adice Maeoniden^ a quo^ ceu fonte perenni^ 25 

vatum Pieriis ora rigantur aquis; 
hunc quoque summa dies nigro submersit Averno, 

Delugiunt avidos carmina sola rogos. 
Durat opus vatum^ Troiani fama laboris^ 

tardaque nocturne tela retexta dole. 30 

Sic Nemesis longum, sic Delia, nomen habebunt, 

altera, cura recens, altera, primus amor. 
Quid vos sacra iuvant ? quid nunc Aegyptia prosunt 

sistra ? quid in vacuo secubuisse toro ? 
Cum rapiant mala fata bonos, ignoscite fasso, 35 

soUicitor nuUos esse putare decs. 
Vivepius: moriere. Pius cole sacra : colentem 

mors gravis a templis in cava busta trahet. 
Carminibus confide bonis: iacet, ecce, TibuUus: 

vix manet e toto parva quod urna capit. 40 

Tene, sacer vates, flammae rapuere regales, 

pectoribus pasci nec timuere tuis ? 
Aurea sanctorum potuissent templa deorum 

urere, quae tantum sustinuere nefas. 
Avertit vultus Erycis quae possidet arces. 45 

Sunt quoque, qui lacrimas continuisse negant* 
Sed tamen hoc melius, quam si Phaeacia tellus 

ignotum vili subposuisset humo. 
Hie certe madidos fugientis pressit ocellos 

mater, et in cineres ultima dona tulit. 50 

Hie soror in partem misera cum matre doloris 

venit, inornatas dilaniata comas. 


Oumque tuis sua iunxerunt Nemesisque priorque 

oscula^ nee solos destituere rogos. 
Delia desoendens ^ Felicius ' inquit ' amata 55 

sum tibi : yixisti^ dum tuus ignis eram. ' 
Cui Nemesis ' Quid ' ait * tibi sunt mea damna dolori ? 

Me tenuit moriens deficiente manu.' 
Si tamen e nobis aliquid nisi nomen et umbra 

restat, in Elysia valle Tibullus erit. 60 

Obvius huic venias^ hedera iuvenalia cinctus 

tempora^ cum Calvo, docte Catulle^ tuo. 
Tu quoque^ si lalsum est temerati crimen amici, 

sanguinis atque auimae prodige Galle tuae. 
His comes umbra tua est, siqua est modo corporis umbra. 65 

Auxisti numeros, culte Tibulle, pios. 
Ossa quieta, precor, tuta requiescite in urna, 

et sit humus cineri non onerosa tuo I 

A. A. I. 1-2, 35-66. 

Siquis in hoc artem populo non novit amandi. 

Hoc legat et lecto carmine doctus amet. 2 

Principio, quod amare velis, reperire labora, 35 

qui nova nunc primum miles in arma venis. 
Proximus huic labor est, placitam exorare puellam. 

Tertiufi, ut longo tempore duret amor. 
Hie modus; haee nostro signabitur area curru: 

haec erit admissa meta premenda rota. 40 

Dum licet, et Ions passim potes ire solutis, 

elige, cui dicas, * Tu mihi sola places.' 
Haec tibi non tenues veniet delapsa per auras. 

Quaerenda est oculis apta puella tuis. 
Scit bene venator, cervis ubi retia tendat: 45 

scit bene, qua frendens valle moretur aper; 
aucupibus noti frutiees; qui sustinet hamos, 

noyit quae multo pisce natentur aquae. 


Ta quoque, materiam lorigo qui quaeris amori, 

ante frequens quo sit disce puella loco. 50 

Non ego quae ren tern vento dare vela iubebo, 

nee tibi, ut invenias, longa terenda via est. 
Andromedan Perseus uigris portarit ab Indis, 

raptaque sit Plirygio Graia puella viro. 
Tot tibi tamque dabit formosas Koma puellas, 65 

' Haecf liabet ' ut dicas ' quicquid in orbe fuit.' 
Gargara quot segetes, quot habet Methymna racemos, 

aequore quot pisces, fronde teguntur aves; 
quot caelum stellas^ tot habet tua Eoma puellas: 

mater et Aeneae constat in urbe sui. 60 

Sen caperis primis et adliuc crescentibus annis^ 

ante oculos veniet vera puella tuos: 
sive cupis iuvenem, iuvenes tibi mille placebunt; 

cogeris voti nescius esse tui: 
seu te forte iuvat sera et sapientior aetas^ 65 

hoc quoque, crede mihi, plenius agmen erit. 

A. A. I. 459-486. 

Disce bonas artes, moneo, Eomana inventus, 

non tantum, trepidos ut tueare reos. 460 

Quam populus iudexque gravis lectusque senatns, 

tam dabit eloquio victa puella manus. 
Sed lateant vires; nee sis in f route disertus. 

Effugiant voces verba molesta tuae. 
Quis, nisi mentis inops, tenerae declamat amicae ? 465 

Saej^e valens odii littei*a causa fuit. 
Sit tibi credibilis sermo consuetaque verba, 

blanda tamen, praesens ut videare loqui. 
Si non accipiet scriptum, inlectumque remittet, 

lecturam spera, propositumque tene. 470 

Tempore difficiles veniunt ad aratra iuvenci; 

tempore lenta pati frena docentur equi. 


FerreuB adsiduo consumitur anulus usu; 

iuberit adsidua yomer adnncus humo. 
Quid magis est saxo durum ? quid mollius unda ? 475 

Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua. 
Peuelopen ipsam, persta modo, tempore vinces. 

Capta vides sero Pergama, capta tamen. 
Legerit, et nolit rescribere? Cogere noli. 

Tn modo blanditias fac legat usque tuas. 480 

Quae voluit legisse, Tolet rescribere lectis. 

Per numeros venient ista gradusque sues. 
Forsitan et prime veniet tibi littera tristis, 

quaeque roget, ne se sollicitare velis. 
Quod rogat illa^ timet; quod non rogat^ optat^ nt instes. 485 

Insequere; et voti postmodo compos eris. 



REM. AM. 149-160, 169-212. 

Desidiam puer ille sequi solet: edit agentes. 

Da vacuae menti, quo teneatur, opus. 150 

Sunt fora, sunt leges, sunt, quos tuearis, amici: 

vade per urbanae Candida castra togae. 
Vel tu sauguinei iuvenalia munera Martis 

suscipe: deliciae iam tibi terga dabunt. 
Ecce, f ugax Partlius, magni nova causa triumphi, 155 

iam videt in campis Caesaris arma suis. 
Yince Cupidineas pariter Parthasque sagittas, 

et refer ad patrios bina tropaea deos. 
Ut semel Aetola Venus est a cuspide laesa^ 

mandat amatori bella gerenda suo. 160 

Bura quoque oblectant animos, studiumque colendi : 169 

quaelibet liuic curae cedere cura potest. 
Oolla iube domitos oneri subponere tauros, 

sauciet ut duram vomer aduncus liumum. 



Obrne versata Oerealia semina terra, 

quae tibi cam multo faenore reddat ager. 
Adspice curvatos pomorum pondere ramos, 175 

ut sua, quod peperit, vix ferat arbor onus. 
Adspice labentes iucundo murmure rivos: 

adspice tondentes fertile gramen oves. 
Ecce^ petunt rupes praeruptaque saxa capellae: 

iam referent haedis ubera plena suis. 180 

Pastor inaequali modulatur arundine carmen: 

nee desunt comites^ sedula turba^ canes. 
Parte sonant alia silvae mugitibus altae^ 

et queritur vitulum mater abesse suum. 
Quid^ cum composites fugiunt examina fumos, 185 

ut relevent dempti vimina torta favi ? 
Poma dat autumnus; formosa est messibus aestas: 

ver praebet flores : igne levatur hiems. 
Temporibus certis maturam rusticus uvam 

deligit^ et nudo sub pede musta fiuunt: 190 

temporibus certis desectas adligat herbas^ 

et tonsam raro pectine verrifc humum. 
Ipse potes riguis plantam deponere in hortis: 

ipse potes rivos ducere lenis aquae. 
Venerit insitio; fac ramum ramus adoptet, 196 

stetque peregrinis arbor operta comis. 
Cum semel haec animum coepit mulcere voluptas, 

debilibus pennis inritus exit Amor. 
Vel tu venandi studium cole: saepe recessit 

turpiter a Phoebi victa sorore Venus. 200 

Nunc leporem pronum catulo sectare sagaci; 

nunc tua frondosis retia tende iugis; 
aut pavidos terre varia formidine cervos; 

aut cadat adversa cuspide fossus aper. 
Nocbe fatigatum somnus, non cura puellae^ 205 

excipit et pingui membra quiete levat. 
Lenius est studium^ studium tamen^ alite capta 

aut lino aut calamis praemia parva sequi; 
vel, quae piscis edax avido male devoret ore, 

abdere supremis aera recurva cibis. 210 


Aut liis^ aut aliis^ donee dediscis amare, 
ipse tibi f urtim deoipiendus eris. 


TRIST. I. 2. 

Di maris et caeli, (quid enim nisi vota supersunt ?) 

solvere quassatae parcite membra ratis^ 
neve, precor, magni siibscribite Caesaris irae! 

Saepe premente deo fert deus alter opem. 
Mulciber in Troiam, pro Troia stabat Apollo; S 

aequa Venus Teueris, Pallas iniqua fait. 
Oderat Aenean propior Satarnia Turno; 

ille tamen Veneris numine tutus erat. 
Saepe ferox cautum petiit Neptunus Ulixen, 

eripuit patruo saepe Minerva suo. 10 

Et nobis aliquod, quamvis distamus ab illis, 

quis vetat irato numen adesse deo ? 
Verba miser frustra non proficientia perdo. 

Ipsa graves spargunt ora loquentis aquae, 
terribilisque Notus iactat mea dicta precesque, 15 

ad quos mittuntur, non sinit ire, deos. 
Ergo idem venti, ne causa laedar in una, 

velaque nescio quo votaque nostra ferunt. 
Me miserum, quanti montes volvuntur aquaruml 

iam iam tacturos sidera summa putes. 20 

Quantae diducto subsidunt aequore vallesi 

iam iam tacturas Tartara nigra putes. 
Quocumque adspicio, nihil est nisi pontus et aer, 

fluctibus hie tumidus, nubibus ille minax. 
Inter utrumque fremunt inmani murmure venti: 25 

nescit, cui domino pareat, unda maris. 
Nam modo purpureo vires capit Eurus ab ortu, 

nunc Zephyrus sero vespere missus adest, 
nunc sicca gelidus Boreas bacchatur ab Arcto, 

nunc Notus adversa proelia f rente gerit. 30 


Eecfcor in incerto est nee quid fugiatve pefcatve 

invenit: ambiguis ars stupet ipsa malis. 
Scilicet occidimns nee spes est uUa saluti^^ 

dumque loquor, vultus obruit unda meos. 
Opprimet banc animam fluctus f rustraque precanti 35 

ore necaturas accipiemus aquas. 
At pia nil aliud quam me dolet exsule coniunx: 

boo unum nostri scitque gemitque mali. 
Nescit in inmenso iactari corpora ponto, 

nescit agi ventis, nescit adesse necem. 40, 

Di bene, quod non sum mecum conscendere passus, 

ne mihi mors misero bis patienda foretl 
^t nunc ut peream, quoniam caret ilia periclo^ 

dimidia certe parte superstes ero. 
Ei mibi, quam celeri micuerunt nubila flamma! 45 

Quantus ab aetberio personat axe f ragor ! 
Nee levius tabulae laterum feriuntur ab undis, 

quam grave ballistae moenia pulsat onus. 
Qui venit bic fluctus, fluctus supereminet omnes: 

posterior none est undecimoque prior. 50 

Nee letum timeo: genus est miserabile leti. 

Demite nauf ragium : mors mihi munus erit. 
Est aliquid, fatoque suo ferroque cadentem 

in solida moriens ponere corpus bumo, 
et mandare suis aliqua aut sperare sepulcrum 55 

et non aequoreis piscibus esse cibum. 
Fingito me dignum tali nece : non ego solus 

hie vebor. Inmeritos cur mea poena trabifc? 
Pro superi viridesque dei, quibus aequora curae, 

utraque iam vestras sistite tarba minas : 60 

quamque dedit vitam mitissima Caesaris ira, 

banc sinite infelix in loca iussa feram. 
Si, quam conmerui, poenam me pendere vultis: 

culpa mea est ipso iudice morte minor. 
Mittere me Stygias si iam yoluisset ad undas 65 

Caesar, in hoc vestra non eguisset ope. 
Est illi nostri non invidiosa cruoris 

copia: quodque dedit, cum volet, ipse feret. 


Vo8 modo, quos certe nuUo, puto, crimine laesi, 

contenti nostris iam, precor, este malisl 70 

Nee tamen, ut cuncti miserum servare velitis, 

quod periity salvum nunc caput esse potest. 
Ufc mare considat ventisque ferentibus utar, 

ut mihi parcatis : non minus exsul ero. 
NoQ ego divitias avidus sine fine parandi 75 

latum mutandis mercibus aequor aro; 
non peto^ quas quondam petii studiosus^ Athenas, 

oppida non Asiae, non loca visa prius, 
non^ ut Alexandri claram delatfis ad urbem 

delicias videam, Nile iocose^ tuas: 80 

quod f aciles opto ventos, (quis credere possit ?) 

Sarmatis est tellus^ quam mea vela petunt. 
Obligor, ut tangam laevi fera litora Ponti : 

quodque sit a patria tam fuga tarda, queror. 
Nescio quo videam positos ut in orbe Tomitas^ 85 

exiJem facio per mea vota viam. 
Seu me diligitis, tantos compescite fluctus 

pronaque sint nostrae numina vestra rati; 
seu magis odistis, iussae me advertite terrae: 

Bupplicii pars est in regione mei. 90 

Ferte, — quid liic facio ? — rapidi mea corpora venti ! 

Ausonios fines cur mea vela volunt ? 
Noluit hoc Caesar : quid, quem f ugat ille, tenetis ? 

Adspiciat vultus Pontica terra meos. 
Et iubet, et merui: nee, quae damnaverit ille, 95 

crimina defendi lasque piumque puto. 
Si tamen acta decs nunquam mortalia lallunt, 

a culpa f acinus scitis abesse mea. 
Immo ita si scitis, si me mens abstulit error, 

stultaque mens nobis, non scelerata f uit : 100 

quod licet et minimis, domui si favimus illi, 

si satis Augusti publica iussa mihi : 
hoc duce si dixi felicia saeeula proque 

Oaesare tura pius Caesaribusque dedi: 
si fuit hie animus nobis, ita parcite, divi! 105 

Si minus, alta cadens obruat unda caput! 


Fallor^ an incipiunt gravidae vanescere nubes^ 

victaque mutati f rangifcur ira maris ? 
Non casus, sed vos sub condicione vocati, 

fallere quos non est, banc mibi fertis opem. 110 


TRIST. I. 3. 

Cum subit illius tristissima noctis imago, 

qua mibi supremum tempus in urbe f uit, 
cum repeto noctem, qua tot mibi cara reliqui, 

labitur ex oculis nunc quoque gutta meis. 
lam prope lux aderat, qua me discedere Caesar 5 

finibus extremae iusserat Ausoniae. 
Nee spatium f uerat nee mens satis apta parandi : 

torpuerant longa pectora nostra mora. 
Non mibi servorum, comites non cura legendi, 

non aptae prof ugo vestis opisve f uit. 10 

Non aliter stupui, quam qui lovis ignibus ictus 

yivit et est yitae nescius ipse suae. 
Ut tamen banc animi nubem dolor ipse removit 

et tandem sensus convaluere mei, 
adloquor extremum maestos abiturus amicos, 15 

qui modo de multis unus et alter erant. 
Uxor amans flentem flens acrius ipsa tenebat, 

imbre per indignas usque cadente genas. 
Nata procul Libycis aberat diversa sub oris 

nee poterat fati certior esse mei. 20 

Quocumque adspiceres, luctus gemitusque sonabant 

formaque non taciti funeris intus erat. 
Femina virque meo, pueri quoque funere maerent, 

inque domo lacrimas angulus omnis babet. 
Si licet exemplis in parvis grandibus uti, 25 

baec facies Troiae, cum caperetur, erat. 
lamque quiescebant voces hominumque canumque, 

Lunaque nocturnes alta regebat equos. 

OVID's last laGHT AT BOME. 71 

Hanc ego suspiciens et ab hac Oapitolia cernens, 

quae nostro frastra iuncta fnere lari^ 30 

'Numina viciniB habitantia sedibas/ inqnam^ 

' iamque oculis nnnqnam templa videnda meis, 
dique relinquendi, quos urbs habet alta Qairini, 

este salutati tempus in omne mihil 
Et qaamqnam sero clipenm post vulnera sumo, 35 

attamen banc odiis exonerate fugam 
caelestique viro, quis me deceperit error, 

dicite, pro culpa ne scelus esse putet; 
ut, quod Yos scitis, poenae qux>que sentiat auctor: 

placate possum non miser esse deo.' 40 

Hac prece adoravi superos ego, pluribus uxor, 

singultu medios impediente sonos. 
nia etiam ante Lares passis adstrata capillis 

contigit exstinctos ore tremente focos, 
multaque in adversos effudit verba Penates 45 

pro deplorato non valitura viro. 
Iamque morae spatium nox praecipitata negabat, 

versaque ab axe suo Parrhasis arctos erat. 
Quid facerem ? Blando patriae retinebar amore; 

ultima sed iussae nox erat ilia f ugae. 50 

Ah! quotiens aliquo dixi properante: 'Quid urges? 

vel quo festines ire, vel unde, vide! ' 
Ah! quotiens certam me sum mentitus habere 

horam, propositae quae foret apta viae. 
Ter limen tetigi, ter sum revocatus, et ipse 55 

indulgens animo pes mihi tardus erat. 
Saepe ' vale ' dicto rursus sum multa locutus 

et quasi discedens oscula summa dedi. 
Saepe eadem mandata dedi meque ipse fefelli, 

respiciens oculis pignora cara meis. 60 

Denique 'Quid propero? Scythia est, quo mittimur,' inquam, 

' Eoma relinquenda est: utraque iusta mora est. 
Uxor in aeternum vivo mihi viva negatur, 

et domus et fidae dulcia membra domus, 
quosque ego dilexi fratemo more sodales, 65 

o mihi Thesea pectora iuncta fide ! 


Dum licet^ amplectar: uuuquam fortasse licebit 

amplius; in lucro est, quae datur bora mihi.' 
^ec mora, sermonis verba inp^rfecta relinquo, 

complecteus animo proxima"^ quaeque meo. 70 

Dum loquor efc ilemus, caelo nitidissimus alto, 

Stella gravis nobis, Lucifer ortus erat. 
Dividor baud alitor, quam si mea membra relinquam^ 

et pars abrumpi corpore visa suo est. 
Sic doluit Mettus tunc, cum in contraria versos 75 

ultores babuit proditionis equos. 
Tum vero exoritur clamor gemittisque meorum, 

et feriunt maestae pectora nuda manus. 
Tum vero coniunx umeris abeuntis inbaerens 

miscuit baec lacrimis tristia verba meis: 80 

' Non potes avelli; simul bine, simul ibimus,' inquit: 

' te sequar et coniunx exdulis exsul ero. 
Et mihi facta via est, et me capit ultima tellus: 

accedam profugae sarcii^a parva rati. 
Te iubet a patria discedere Caesaris ira, 85 

me pietas: pietas baec mihi Caesar erit.' 
Talia temptabat, sicut temptaverat ante, 

vixque dedit victas utilitate manus. 
Egredior (sive illud erat sine funere ferri), 

squalidus, inmissis birta per ora comis. 90 

Ilia dolore amens tenebris narratur obortis 

semianimis media procubuisse domo : 
utque resurrexit foedatis pulvere turpi 

crinibns et gelida membra levavit bumo, 
se modo, desertos modo conplorasse Penates, 95 

nomen et erepti saepe vocasse viri; 
nee gemuisse minus, quam si nataeque virique 

vidisset structos corpus babere rogos; 
et voluisse mori, moriendo ponere sensus, 

respectuque tamen non periisse mei. 100 

Vivat! et absentem (quoniam sic fata tulerunt) 

vivat et auxilio sublevet usque suo. 



TRIST. IV. 10. 

lUe ego^ qui f uerim^ teneromm lusor amorum, 

quern legis, ut noris, accipe posteritaBl 
Salmo mihi patria est, gelidis nberrimus undis, 

milia qui noviens distat ab urbe decern. 
Editus hie ego sum^ nee uon ut tempera noris^ 5 

cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari. 
Siquid id est^ usque a proavis vetus ordinis heres, 

non modo forfcunae munere lactus eques. 
Nee stirps prima f ui : geuito sum f ratre creatus, 

qui tribus ante quater mensibus ortus erat. 10 

Lucifer amborum natalibus adfuit idem: 

una celebrata est per duo liba dies: 
haec est armiferae festis de quinque Minervae, 

quae fieri pugna prima cruenta solet. 
Protinus excolimur teneri, curaque parentis 15 

imus ad insignes urbis ab arte viros. 
Frater ad eloquium viridi tendebat ab aevo, 

f ortia yerbosi natus ad arma fori ; 
at mihi iam puero caelestia sacra placebant^ 

inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus. 20 

Saepe pater dixit: ^Studium quid inutile temptas? 

Maeonides nullas ipse reliquit opes.' 
Motus eram dictis totoque Helicone relicto 

scribere temptabam verba soluta modis. 
Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos: 25 

quicquid temptabam scribere, versus erat. 
Interea tacito passu labentibus annis 

liberior fratri sumpta xiiihiqne toga est, 
induiturque umeris cum lato purpura clavo: 

et studium nobis, quod f uit ante, manet. 30 

lamque decem vitae frater geminaverat annos, 

cum perit, et coepi parte carere mei. 
Cepimus et tenerae primes aetatis honores, 

deque viris quondam pars tribus una f ui. 


Curia restabat; clavi mensura coacta est: 85 

maius erat nostris viribus illud onus. 
Nee patieus corpus nee mens f uit apta labori^ 

Bollicitaeque f ugax ambitionis eram ; 
et petere Aoniae suadebant tuta sorores 

otia^ iudicio semper amata meo. 40 

Temporis illius colui fovique poetas^ 

quotqne aderant vates^ rebar adesse deos. 
Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo^ 

quaeque nocet serpens, quae iuvat lierba, Macer. 
Saepe sues solitus recitare Propertius ignes, 45 

iure Bodalicii qui mihi iuQctus erat. 
Ponticus heroo, Bassus quoque clarus iambis 

dulcia convictuB membra fuere mei; 
et tenuit nostras numerosus Horatius aures, 

dum ferit Ausonia carmina culta lyra. 50 

Vergilium vidi tantum, nee amara TibuUo 

tempus amieitiae fata dedere meae. 
Sueeessor fuit hie tibi, Galle, Propertius iili; 

quartus ab his serie temporis ipse fui. 
Utque ego maiores, sic me eoluere minores, 55 

notaque non tarde facta Thalia mea est. 
Carmina cum primum populo iuvenalia legi, 

barba resecta mihi bisve semelve fuit. 
^ Moverat ingenium totam cantata per urbem 

nomine non vero dicta Corinna mihi. 60 

Multa quidem scripsi ; sed quae vitiosa putavi, 

emendaturis ignibus ipso dedi. 
Tunc quoque, cum f ugerem, quaedam placitura cremavi 

iratus sfcudio carminibusque meis. 
MoUe Cupidineis nee inexpugnabile telis 65 

cor mihi, quodque levis causa moveret, erat. 
Cum tamen hie essem, minimoque aceenderer igni, 

nomine sub nostro fabula nulla fuit. 
Paene mihi puero nee digna nee utilis uxor 

est data, quae tempus per breve nupta fuit. 70 

lUi successit, quamvis sine crimine coniunx, 

non tamen in nostro firma f utura tore. 


Ultima^ quae mecum seres permansit in annos, 

sustinnit coniuDx exsulis esse viri. 
Filia me mea bis prima fecunda iuventa^ 75 

sed non ex uno coniuge^ fecit avum. 
Et iam complerat getiitor sua fata, novemqae 

addiderat lustris altera lustra novem. 
Non aliter flevi, quam me fleturus ademptum 

ille fuit. Matri proxima iusta tuli. 80 

Felices ambo tempestiveque sepulti, 

ante diem poenae quod periere meae! 
Me quoque felicem, quod non viventibus illis 

sum miser, et de me quod doluore nihil. 
Si tamen exstinctis aliquid nisi nomina restant, 85 

et gracilis structos effugit umbra rogQS, 
fama, parentales, si vos mea contigit, umbrae, 

et sunt in Stygio crimina nostra foro: 
Bcite, precor, causam (nee yos milii fallere fas est) 

errorem inssae, non scelus esse f ugae. 90 

Manibus hoc satis est. Ad vos, studiosa, reverter, 

pectora, qui vitae quaeritis acta meae. 
Iam mihi canities pulsis melioribus annis 

yenerat, antiquas miscueratque comas, 
postque meos ortus Pisaea vinctus oliva 95 

abstulerat deciens praemia victor eques, 
cum maris Euxini positos ad laeva Tomitas 

quaerere me laesi principis ira iubet. 
Causa meae cunctis nimium quoque nota ruinae 

indicio non est testificanda meo. 100 

Quid referam comitumque nefas famulosque nocentes ? 

Ipsa multa tuli non leviora fuga. 
Indignata malis mens est succumbere, seque 

praestitit invictam viribus nsa suis; 
oblitusque mei ductaeque per otia vitae 105 

insolita cepi temporis arma manu. 
Totque tuli terra casus pelagoque, quod inter 

occultum stellae conspicuumque polum. 
Tacta mihi tandem longis erroribus acto 

iuncta pharetratis Sarmatis ora Oetis. 110 


Hie ego finitimis quamvis circumsoner armis^ 

tristia, quo possum^ carmine fata levo. 
Quod quamvis nemo est^ cuius referatur ad aures, 

Bic tamen absumo decipioque diem. 
Ergo quod vivo, durisque laboribus obsto, 115 

nee me sollicitae taedia Incis habent, 
gratia, Musa, tibi: nam tu solacia praebes, 

tu curae requies, tu medicina venis. 
Tu dux et comes es, tu nos abducis ab Histro, 

in medioque mihi das Helicone locum; 120 

tu mihi, quod rarum est, vivo sublime dedisti 

nomen, ab exsequiis quod dare f ama solet« 
Nee, qui detreetat praesentia, livor, iniquo 

ullum de nostris dente momordit opus. 
Nam tulerint magnos cum saeeula nostra poetas, 125 

non fuit ingenio fama maligna meo, 
cumque ego praeponam multos mihi, non minor illis 

dicor et in toto plurimus orbe legor. 
Siquid habent igitur vatum praesagia veri, 

protinus ut moriar, non ero, terra, tuns. 130 

Sive favore tuli, sive banc ego carmine famam 

iure: tibi grates, candide lector, ago. 



Nitimur in vetitum semper, cupimusque negate. 

Am. III. 4, 17. 


Ingenium quondam f uerat pretiosius auro, 

at nunc barbaria est grandis habere nihil. 

Am. III. 8, 3. 


Perferre obdura ! Dolor hie tibi proderit olim. 

Saepe tulit lassis sueus amarus opem. 

Am. III. 11, 7. 



Proni tibi vinci cupientem vincere palma est. 

Am. III. 14, 47. 


Leniter, ex merito quicquid patiare, ferendum est. 

Quae venit indigno poena^ dolenda renit. 

Her. v. 7. 


Acceptissima semper 

munera sunt, auctor quae pretiosa facit. 

Her. XVII. 71. 


Certus amor morum est. Formam populabitur aetas, 

et placitus rngis vultus aratus erit. 

Tempus erit quo vos speculum vidisse pigebit, 

et veniet rugis altera causa dolor. 

Med. Fac. 45. 


Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae. 

A. A. I. 99. 


Parva levis capiunt animos. Fuit utile multis 

pulvinum facili composuisse manu. 

Prof uit et tenui ventos movisse tabella, 

et cava sub tenerum scamna dedisse pedem. 

A. A. I, 159. 


Forma viros neglecta decet. 


A. A. I. 509. 

Atque oculos oculis spectare fatentibus iguem: 

saepe facens vocem verbaque vultus faabet. 

A. A. I. 573. 



Audentem Porsque Venusque iuvat. 

A. A. I. 608. 


Nee credi labor est. Sibi quaeque videtur amanda. 

Pessima sit, nulli non sua forma placet. 

A. A. I. 613. 


lappiter ex alto periuria ridet amantum, 

et iubet Aeolios inrita ferre notos. 

A. A. I. 633. 


Ingenium mala saepe moyent. 

A. A. II. 43. 


Ut ameris^ amabilis esto. 

A. A. II. 107. 


Forma bonum fragile est^ quantumque accedit ad annos^ 

fit minor^ et spatio carpitur ipsa suo. 
Nee violae semperve hyacinthina lilia flprent, 

et riget amissa spina relicta rosa. 
Et tibi iam yenient cani^ f ormose^ capilli, 

iam venient rugae, quae tibi corpus arent. 
Iam molire animum qui duret, et adstrue formae: 

solus ad extremes permanet ille rogos. 

Nee levis ingenuas pectus coluisse per artes 

cura sit et linguas edidicisse duas. 

A. A. II. 113. 


Obsequio tranantur aquae, nee viueere possis 

fiumina, si contra, quam rapit unda, nates. 

Obsequium tigrisque domat Numidasque leones. 

Bustica paulatim taurus aratra subit. % 

A. A. II. 181. 



Garmina laudantur, sed miinera magna petuntur: 

. dummodo sit dives, barbarus ipse placet. 

Aurea sunt vere nunc saecula. Plurimus auro 

venit honos. Auro conciliatur amor. 

A. A. II. 275. 


Si latet ars, prodest; adfert deprensa pudorem, 
atque adimit merito tempus in omne fidem. 

A. A. II. 313. 

Nil adsuetudine mains. 

A. A. II. 346. 


Sed mora tuta brevis. Lentescunt tempore curae, 
vanescitque absens et noYus intrat amor. 

A. A. II. 357. 


Luxuriant animv rebus plerumque secundis, 
nee facile est aequa commoda mente pati. 

Quod male fers, adsuesce; feres bene. 

A. A. II. 437. 

A. A. II. 647. 


Venturae memores iam nunc estote senectae: 

sic nullum vobis tempus abibit iners. 
Dum licet, et veros etiam nunc editis annos, 

ludite : eunt anni more fiuentis aquae. 
Nee quae praeteriit, iterum revocabitur unda, 

nee quae praeteriit, bora redire potest. 
Utendum est aetate: cito pede labitur aetas, 

nee bona tam sequitur, quam bona prima fuit. 

A. A. III. 59. 



Prisca invent alios. Ego me nnnc denique natnm 
gratulor. Haec aetas moribns apta meis. 

A. A. III. 121. 


Est in incessn pars non contempta decoris. 

A. A. III. 299. 


Principiis obsta. Sero medicina paratnr, 
cnm mala per longas convaluere moras. 

Rem. Am. 91. 


Porsitan a laribns patriis exire pigebit, 

Sed tamen exibis; deinde redire voles. 
Nee te Lar patrius, sed amor revocabit amicae^ 

praetendens cnlpae splendida verba tnae. 

Bem. Am. 237. 


Summa petit livor. Perflant altissima venti. 
Snmma petnnt dextra f nlmina missa lovis. 

Bem. Am. 369. 


Tristis eris, si solns eris, dominaeque relictae 
ante oculos facies stabit^ ut ipsa^ tuos. 

Bem. Am. 583. 


Scripba cave relegas blandae servata pnellae: 
constantis animos scripta relecta movent. 

Bem. Am. 717. 



Sed scilicet ultima semper 
exspectanda dies bomini^ dicique beatus 
ante obitum nemo supremaque funera debet. 

Met. III. 135. 

Fas est et ab lioste doceri. 

Met. IV. 428. 


Video meliora proboque, 
deteriora sequor. 

Met. VII. 20. 


Nee tarn 
turpe fait yinci, qnam contendisse decorum est. 

Met. IX. 5. 


Dum peiora timentur, 
est locus in vulnus: sors autem ubi pessima rerum^ 
sub pedibus timor est^ securaque summa malorum. 

Met. XIV. 488. 


Nee perit in tanto quicquam, mihi credite, mundo, 
sed variat, faciemque novat, nascique vocatur 
incipere esse aliud, quam quod fuit ante, morique 
desinere illud idem. 

Met. XV. 254. 


Scilicet ut fulvum spectatur in ignibus aurum, 

tempore sic duro est inspicienda fides. 

Trist. I. 5, 25. 



Donee eris sospes^ maltos numerabis amieoB: 
tempera si fuerint nubila^ soIub eris. 

Trist. I. 9, 6. 


Utqne eomes radios per solis euntibus umbra est^ 

cum latet hie pressus nubibus^ ilia fugit; 
mobile sic sequitur Portunae lumina vulgus, 

quae simul indueta nube teguntur^ abit. 

Trist. i. 9, 11. 


"Nil prodest quod non laedere possit idem. 
Igne quid utilius ? siquis tamen urere tecta 

comparat^ audaces instruit igne manus. 
.Eripit interdum^ mode dat medicina salutem, 

quaeque iuvet, monstrat, quaeque sit herba nocens. 

Trist. ii. 266. 


Hie ego qui iaceo tenerorum lusor amorum 

ingenio perii Naso poeta meo; 
at tibi qui transis ne sit grave quisquis amasti 

dicere Kasonis molliter ossa cubent. 

Trist. hi. 3, 73. 


Grede mihi, bene qui latuit^ bene vixit^ et intra 
fortunam debet quisque manere suam. 

Trist. hi. 4, 25. 


Humanaeque memor sortis^ quae toUit eosdem 
et premit^ incertas ipse verere vices. 

Trist. hi. 11, 67. 



Ardua per praeceps gloria vadit iter. 

Trist. IV. 3, 74. 


Tempus et in canas semen producit ariBtas, 

et ne sint tristi poma sapore^ cavet. 
Hoc tenuat den tern terram renovantis aratri^ 

hoc rigidas silices, hoc adamanta terit. 

Hoe etiam saevas paulatim mitigat iras^ 

hoc minuit lactus maestaque corda levat. 

Trist. iv. 6, 9. 


Passibus ambiguis FortuQa volubilis errat 

et manet in nullo certa tenaxque loco^ 

sed modo laeta venit, vnltus modo sumit acerbos, 

et tantam constans in levitate sua est. 

Trist. v. 8, 15. 

• 49. 

Perfer et obdura! Multo graviora tulisti. 

Trist. v. 11, 7. 


Sisque miser semper nee sis miserabilis uUi. 

Ibis, 117. 


Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine cunctos 

ducit, et inmemores non sinit esse sui. 

Ex P. I. 3, 35. 


Saucius eiurat pugnam gladiator, et idem 

inmemor antiqui vulneris arma capit. 

Nil sibi cum pelagi dicit fore nauf ragus undis, 

et ducit remos qua modo navit aqua. 

Ex P. I. 5, 37. 



Spes igitur menti poenae^ Graecine^ levandae 

non est ex toto nulla relicta meae. 
Haec dea^ cum fugerent sceleratas numina terras^ 

in die invisa sola remaDsit humo. 
Haec facit ut vivat fossor quoque compede vinctus, 

liberaque a ferro crura futura putet. 
Haec facit ut^ videat cum terras undique nuUas^ 

naufragus in mediis bracchia iactet aquis. 
Saepe aliquem sellers medicorum cura reliquit, 

nee spes huic vena deficiente cadit. 
Carcere dicuntur clausi sperare salutem, 

atque aliquis pendens in cruce vota facit. 
Haec dea quam multos laqueo sua colla ligantis 

non est proposita passa perire nece! 

Ex P. I. 6, 27. 


Cura, quid expediat, prius est quam quid sit honestum, 

et cum fortuna statque caditque fides. 
Kec facile invenias multis in milibus unum, 

virtutem pretium qui putet esse sui. 

Ex P. II. 3, 9. 


Et bene uti pugnes, bene pugnans efficit hostis. 

Ex P. II, 3, 53. 


Qui semel est laesus fallaci piscis ab hamo, 
omnibus unca cibis aera subesse putat. 

Ex P. 11. 7, 9. 

Begia, crede mihi, res est succurrere lapsis. 

Ex P. II. 9, 11. 



Nam quamquam sapor est adlata dulcis in unda^ 

gratius ex ipso fonte bibuntur aquae. 

Ex P. III. 6, 17. 


Gratia dis^ menti quolibet ire licet. 

Ex P. III. 5, 48. 


Omnia sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo, 

et Bubito casu quae valuere^ ruunt. 

Ex P. IV. 3, 35. 


Nulla dies adeo est australibus umida nimbis, 

non intermissis ut fluat imber aqnis. 
Nee sterilis locus ullus ita est^ ut non sit in illo 

mixta fere duris utilis herba rubis. 

Nil adeo fortuna gravis miserabile fecit 

ut minuant nulla gaudia parte malum. 

Ex P. IV. 4, 1. 


Crede mihi, miseros prudentia prima relinquit, 

et sensus cum re consiliumque f ugit. 

Ex P. IV. 12, 47. 


At postquam fortuna loci caput extulit huius, 
>' et tetigit summo vertice Eoma decs, 
creverunt et opes et opum furiosa cupido, 
et, cum possideant plurima, plura petunt. 

Fast. i. 209. 


In pretio pretium nunc est: dat census honores, 

census amicitias; pauper ubique iacet. 

Fast. i. 217. 



LaudamuB veteres^ sed nostris utimur annis. 

Fast. i. 226. 


Omne solam forti patria est^ nt piscibus aequor^ 

ut volucri vacuo quicquid in orbe patet. 
Nee f era tempestas toto tamen horret in anno, 

et tibi^ crede mihi, tempera veris erunt. 

Past. i. 493. 


Dnm sedet^ nmbroBae salices volaeresque canorae 

fecerunt somnos et leve murmur aquae. 
Blanda quies furtim vietis obrepsit ocellis, 

et cadit a mento languida faeta manus. 

Past. hi. 17. 


Tempera labuntur^ tacitisque seneseimus annis^ 
et f ugiunt f reno non remerante dies. 

Past, vi, 771. 




Met. I. — 89. Anrea, etc. : first arose the golden ckge^ lata est : wets 

sown, from mto. yindioe nnllo : toith n» one to inflict punishment, 

lit. no one (being) an avenger : Ablative Absolute. 

90. vponte ma : voluntarily, line lege : without (the restraints of) 

law, fidem reotninqiie : honor and uprightness ; rectum is used as a 

substantive: 204, e. 2*; A. & G. 189; B. 237, 2; H. 441, 2. colebat : 


92. aere : in the early times, laws and other important documents were 
set up on bronze; later, marble was often used. Here the Twelve Tables 
are especially referred to, which contained the early Roman laws, and 
were of bronze. In poetry the preposition is often omitted with Abl. of 
Place: 385, r. 3; A. & G. 268, /, 3; B. 228, d; H. 425, d. 3. See 1. 
95. inpplez turba : the suppliant crowd; the accused and their friends. 

93. ora : the countenance, poetic Plural of m, mouth, erant : men 
were; the subject is drawn from the previous turba. Notice in these lines 
the frequent use of the Imperfect tense, the tense of description in gen- 
eral, and see 231 ; A. & G. 277 ; B. 260; H. 469. 

9ft. oaeia pinui: the cut pine, i.e. the ship, which is here personified. 
The material is used for the product by a figure of speech called Met- 
onymy, at yiseret : to visit ; clause of Design, depending on deieen- 
derat : 545 ; A. & G. 317 ; B. 282 ; H. 497. orbem: land. 

95. mil montibiii : frmn its (native) mountains; poetic omission of pre- 
position. In poetry the prepositions are fi-equently omitted in the vari- 
ous case-relations (Where, Whence, Whither) ; this is probably a survival 
of ancient usage, to which all poetry is inclined. Originally, these rela- 
tions were expressed by the simple cases. liqnidai; liquid, rather 
than dear. The word has both meanings. 

96. nulla litora praetor lua : no shores except their oum, norant : 
syncopated from noverant, knew; it is equivalent to an Imperfect. 
Kondum oingebant : did not yet surround. 

* The first reference In every case is to Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, School Edi- 
tion, 1896— large edition, 1894 (L. Ed.); the other grammars referred to are those of Allen 
& Greenoiigh (A. & G.), Bennett (B.)i <uid Harlcness (H.). 

88 COMMENTARY. [Met. I. 

97. fraedpitet: steep, 

98. non taba (erat) : there was no trumpet, direeti (sc. aerii) : of 
straight bronze; Gen. of Quality : 865 ; A. & G. 215; B. 203; H. 396, 
y. ; more natural would be the Abi. of Material. 

99. Notice throughout these lines the omission of the conjunction, a 
figure called Asyndeton: 473, e.; A. & G. 208, b; B. 841, 4, a; H. 636, 
I. I. 

100. seeorae : peetceful, free from trouble ; in predicative attribution : 
825; A. & G. 191; B. 239; H. 443. moUia peragebaat otsAi passed 
their time in agreeable idleness, lived lives of downy e<ise. 

101. Ipsa: goes with tellns. inmnnis: free, without compulsion; 
lit. ovnng no tribute, rastro intaota : untouched by the rake, 

102. nee saueia : and wiwounded. per se dabat omnia : gave every- 
thing of its own accord. 

108. nnllo oogpente ereatis : which sprang up without any compulsion, 
grew wild. nnllo cogento: one compelling; Ablative Absolute ; 

nnllo is used as Abl. of nemo. 

104. arbnteofl fetns : the fruit (lit. offspring) of th>e arbutus tree. This 
evergreen abounded in Italy and bore fruit somewhat similar to straw- 
berries, firaga: strawberries. legebant: gathered; this is the 
proper meaning of this verb, but it is more frequent in its derived sense, 

105. eoma : cornel berries. mora : bldckberries. dnris mbetis : 
prickly briar bushes. 

106. patnla lovis Bxhoni from the tnde-spreading tree of Jove, i.e. the 
oak, as the king among trees. On the omission of the preposition, see 
on 1. 95. 

108. mnloebant : fanned ; lit. stroked. 

109. Hoz : soon ; that is, after the blooms. inarata ; unplowed. 

110. necrenovatns ager: and the unbroken field. grayidie canebat 
aristis: wa^ white vrith the heavy ears of grain. The Abl. is one of 

111. Notice the order, flnmina lam, . . . lam flnmina ; this chiastic 
arrangement is on account of the verse and to give variety. ibant : 
went flowing on. 

112. itillabant : dripped, mella : honey, poetic Plural. Whenever 
anything is thought of as consisting of many parts, the Plural is likely to 
be used. Here there were many drops of honey. In 1. 100 above, each 
man had otium. This seems to be the origin of the poetic Plural, although 
the Plural force cannot always be so clearly seen. In fact, in many 
cases there is no distinction of meaning. 

118. Poetqnam : after, with erat ; distinguish from postea, afterwards. 
After Saturn had been sent to murky Tartarus and the world was undet 
(the sway of) Jupiter, Saturn was supplanted by his son. The Impf 
is rare with poetqnam : 563 ; A. & G. 824, a; B. 287, 4 ; H. 518, n. 1. 

8»-136.] THE FOUR AGES. 89 

114. inbilt : took the place of the golden : compare 1. 130, where in 
loeimi is added. Final it of the Perfect, preceded by i, is often long in 
the thesis. proles, rac«. 

116. ootttrazit: shortened. tempora: poetic Plural. The spring, 
time is already thought of as including divisions equal to seasons. By 
the Plural the length of the ancient spring is emphasized. veris • 
from ver. 

117. per : hy means of, aestns : heat ; that is, the hot season, eum- 
mer. Translate these poetic Plurals as singulars. Notice the poetic 
variation in the conjunctions que, et. inaeqoales : variable, in tem- 

118. lireve ver : so called in contrast to ver aetemiim of 1. 107. 
ipatiis : that is, seasons. ezegit : divided^ lit. completed, filled out, 

119. afir : the air, fervoriboB : poetic Plural. nstiu : parched, 
IdO. oandnit : became white hot, glowed, ventif adstricta: congealed 

by the winds, glaeies : ice, icicles, 

121. Bubiere: entered, sc. homines; the ending of the Perfect -8re is 
common in poetry for metrical reasons. domfls : Ace. Plural ; domtts, 
Nom. Singular. 

122. frutices : thickets, oortice : bark, here the inner bark, bast, 

123. snlds: ^Abl. of Place regarded as Means: 889; H. 425, i. 

124. invenel : steers. In Italy oxen were regularly used for plowing, 

126. ingeniis: in character, natural disposition. Abl. of Respect (or 
Specification) : 397 ; A. & G. 253 ; B. 226 ; H. 424. The Plural, by 
reason of the collective idea in proles. 

127. de : for the Ablative of Material, see 396 ; A. & G. 244 ; H. 415, 
in. The ordinary preposition is ez« 

128. venae peioris in aevum : in the age of the worse metal, 

129. fogSre: Perfect. pndor venunqne fidesque: modesty, truth, 
and honor, 

180. In qnomm loonm: in their stead. fraodes : deception; Plural, 

because there were many kinds and many cases. 

131. vis: violence, amor sceleratus habendi: that is, avarice; 

soeleratns : because the love of money leads to crime (soelns). The variety 
in the conjunctions is for the metre's sake. 

182. nee adhnc : althov^h , 1 . not yet, 

188. navita : a poetic form for nanta. 

134. insultavere : bounded over, properly upon, carinae : properly 

keels, often equivalent to ships by Synecdoche : 695; A. & G. 386 (end); 
H. 637, IV. 

185. Commnnem prins: which had before been common property ; in 
predicative attribution to hnmom. cen : as, like, a poetic word of 
comparison for the prose nt. Inmina, auras : Ace. by attraction to 

186. oantns mensor : the careful surveyor. 

go COMMENTARY. [Met. L 187-150. 

187. Keo tanttun : not only, segetes: Ace., Inner Ob j., of the passive 
verb poicebatur : G. (L. Ed.) 839, n. 4 ; A. & G. 239, e. ; B. 178, 2 ; H. 
374, I. debita: the earth was under obligation to make a return 

for the seed and the labor. dives with htuniis. 

138. poBoebatur hamns : translate the Accusatives as subject : were de- 
manded of the soil, ittun est : they went, impersonal passive, 
viscera : bowels. 

189. recondiderat: re gives the notion dfeep. tuAmOYenX ; Jiad moved 

towards ; for subject supply terra, personified. 

140. inritamexLta malomm : an incentive to crime ; Plural, to agree with 

142. prodierat : had come forth, fermxn : is personified, as also is 

bellum. utroque : by means of both, iron and gold. 

148. orepitantia oonontit arma : shakes the clashing arms, 

144. Vivitnr : men live ; Latin does not have the vague and unemphatic 
men of the English, and the impersonal passive is used instead : see itum 
above, 1. 138. non hospes, etc. : ths guest is not safe from the host, 
hospes is merely a guest friend, and the exact force varies with the 

145. gratia : friendship, good will, 

146. inminet : is intent upon, longs for, * 

147. Inrida : pale, causing paleness, death-bringing. aoonita : aco- 
nite, wolf's-bane, a violent poison. The stepmother was frequently an 
object of suspicion. 

148. ante diem : before the time, inquirit in : inquires into ; that 
is, consults astrologers, etc., in regard to his father's length of life, 
showing impatience because he continues to live. 

149. caede madontes with terras : moist with gore, 

150. Astraea : the goddess of Justice ; when she withdrew to Heaven 
she became the constellation Virgo. 


Met. I. — 282. Protiniu : straightway ; Jupiter had visited the earth in 
human guise and had found so much wickedness there that he determined 
to destroy it. Aeoliis in antris : in the Aeolian caves ; Aeolus was 

the god that had charge of the winds. When he wished to keep them 
quiet he shut them up in caves. 

268. et qvaeonmqne, etc. : and whatever blasts (i.e. aM the winds thaf) 
drive away the collected clouds. 

264. Hadidii alis : with moist wings ; the South wind coming across 
the Mediterranean was likely to bring rain to Italy, while the North wind 
indicated clear weather. 

265. vnltom : Ace. of Kespect (of Specification, or the Greek Accusa- 
tive): 338; A. & G. 240, c; B. 180; H. 378. 

262-292.1 THE FLOOD OF DEUCALION. 9 1 

266. nimbii : with rain, imda : water, oapillis : Abl. of 

267. froxLte: on hia forehead, rorant: drip with moisture, 
linns : hoaom ; the large fold of the garment where it is drawn across the 

268. late pendentia: which are spread out over ths sky ; lit. hanging 
far and wide, pressit : translate as a Present ; the Perfect is used 
in Latin because the action takes place before that of the main verb. 

269. liino: hereupon, ab : from, 

270. indnta : clad in ; verbs of Clothing are used even in the passive 
with the Ace. of the thing put on; but this usage is mainly poetical. 

271. Irii : the rainbow was supposed to drink the water on the earth 
and so carrj it to the sky again. 

272. Stemuntiir: are laid low, deplorata iaoent: lie lamented, 
oolonis : Dat. with laeent {for the farmers), but translate as Geni- 
tive with vota, 

278. vota : hopes, literally vows, perit inrifeui : is lost in vain. 
inritns : in predicative attribution to labor. 

274. mo : the I'eflexive refers here to the actual subject, lovis ; 309, 2 ; 
A. & G. 196, c; B. 244, 4 ; H. 449', 3. 
276. oaemleng frater : this sea-bltte brother is Neptune. 

276. hie: he, tyranni: lord, 

277. Kon est ntendom : it is not necessary to use, hortamine : for 
the case, see 407 ; A. & G. 249 ; B. 218, i ; H. 421. These verbs, how- 
ever (ntor, fimor, etc.), may be used in the Gerundive just like transitive 

279. lie opxu est : that is what is needed ; literally, thus there is need 
(of it being done). mole remota : having removed the obstacles, 

280. flnminibni, etc. : give full rein to your streams ; the image is from 
throwing the reins on the back of the ste^d. 

281. fontibni : Dat. of Indirect Object, to be translated as a Genitive. 

282. defrenato : unbridled, goes with enrso, which is Abl. of Manner. 

283. at: emphasizes the suddenness of the action and the astonish- 
ment of the earth : 488 ; A. & G. 156, b. 

285. Ezspatiata mnnt ; leave their banks and rush, 

286. satis : crops, from lero. arbmta : orchards, 

287. penetralia: temples. 

288. siqna domns : if any house ; for qna, see 107, b. i ; A. & G. 105, 
d; B. 252, i ; H. 190, i. 

289. male : Dat. with resistere: 346 ; A. & G. 227 ; B. 187, 11, a; H. 
385, I. hnins onlmen : its highest point. altior : higher, than 
the house. 

291. nnllnm diiorimen : no distinction. 

298. deerant : pronounce in scanning dirant. ponto : for the Dative, 

see 849, r. 4 ; A. & G. 231, a; B. 190 ; H. 387. 

92 COMMENTAEY. [Mkt. I. 

298. hio : one man. eomba adnnoa : in a curved boat; Abl. of Place 

Where, poetic omission of preposition. alter : another, 

294. daoit : plies. ararat = araverat. 

295. ille : one. menaa villae : of the villa {country house) buried 
under the waters. 

296. hio: another. snmma in ulmo: in the top of an elm tree. 
Cf. Hoe. 0. 1, 2, 8: 

piscium et somma genus haesit ulmo: 
nota quae sedes fuerat columbis. 

297. li fori tulit : if it so chanced. in viridi prato : on a green 

298. tenint: scrape. vineta: vineyards. 

299. modo qua : wliere lately. 

800. deformes phooae : wngainly sea-caZves. 

802. HereldM : the Nereids, the sea nvmphs, the daughters of Nereus. 

808. inonriant : run against. altis ramis : high branches ; Dative 

after in in composition. agitataqne robora pnlBant: and strike the 

swaying (lit. shaken) oaks. 

805. Tiret f nlminis ^ the strength of the thunderbolt. Compare Met. x. 
550 : Fulmen hubent acres in aduncis dentibus apri, with Met. yui. 

Hinc aper excitus medios Tiolentus in hostes, 
fertur, ut excussis elisi nubibus ignes. 
apro (Dat. with prosnnt) : avail. 

806. ablato : carried off by the flood. Compare Met. xni. 553: 

vidi center mina ripae 
cum gregibus stabula alta trahi ; nee fortibus i]lic 
prof uit armentis, nee equis velocibus esse. 

807. abi : equivalent to in qnibni, a common use of the Relative ad- 
verb, posset : for this Subjunctive of Characteristic, see 631 ; A. & G. 
320 ; B. 283 ; H. 503, i. 

808. volaoris vaga: the wandering bird, volooris: properly an 
adjective, winged. lassatis alia : with weary wings. 

809. tumnlos: the hills. inmensa licentia ponti: the great rise of 
the sea. lioentia : lit. freedom, la>ck of restraint ; the sea went where 
it pleased, subject to no hindrance. 

810. novi: strange, that is, Tiere hitherto unknotcn; lit. new. 

811. maTJTna pars : most creatures. 

812. longa ieinnia : long fasting ; regularly Plural in this meaning, 
inopi viotu : by the want of food. 

818. Aonios : (the country of) the Aonians. Oetaoii : with arviB. 

Pliocis : a country in central Greece. 

814. tempore in illo : during that period ; the use of the preix}6ition 
in indicates longer duration than the simple Ablative tempore illo. See 
894, R. ; A. and G. 256, a; B. 230, 3; H. 429, i. 

203-838.] THE FLOOD OF DEUCAUOK. 93 

516. ▼ertidlras dnolnu : with ttoo peaks. 

517. fuperant nubes : are higher than the eUmde, 

518. Hie: here. cetera: everything else; that is, all land except 

819. eoniorte tori : hie wife, lit. the sharer of his couch, adhaeiit : 
had landed; the English often uses the Pluperfect where Latin uses the 
Perfect after ubi and similar temporal particles : 661 ; A. & G. 334 ; B. 
287, I ; H. 518, n. 1. 

820. Coryoidas : Greek form. 

821. Themin : for the form, see 65 ; A. & G. 63 ; H. 68. Themis was 
the goddess of Justice. oracla : poetical for oraeola, by Syncop6. 

tune : Delphi was afterwards famous as the seat of the oracle of Apollo. 

822. illo: that is, Deucalion ; for the case, see 398 ; A. & G. 247 ; B. 
217 ; H. 417. aequi : of justice : 875 ; A. & G. 218, h; B. 204, i, a; 
H. 399, II. 

828. metuentior deorum : more god-fearing, more reverent, 

821. at liqnidie stagnare paludibue orbem videt : when Jupiter saw the 

earth covered with stagnant water. 
825. de tot mode milibtis : where IcUely there were so many thousands; 

lit. out of so many thousands a little while ago. 

827. innoenos ambes : in the absence of pronominal or adjectival forms 
of common gender, the masculine is used to include the feminine when 
both sexes are referred to. onltores nnminis: worshippers of divin- 

828. nubila: cZoi^« in general ; nimbis: rain-douds; compare 1.269, 
where nimbi = rain. aquilone : by tneans of the North wind, 

829. aethera : Accusative Singular, Greek form. 

880. positoque trieupide telo : and laying aside his three-pronged spear. 

881. supraque . . . teotum : construe with Tritona : and standing» forth 
above the deep and having his shoulders covered with native purple-fish ; 
the fish grew on (innate) his shoulders. On the Ace. of Respect, see 
838, I ; A. & G. 240, c; B. 180 ; H, 378. 

882. rnvriee: the mnrez was a kind of snail, native to the sea, from 
which the Tyrians extracted the purple dye. 

888. Tritona : Triton was a son of Neptune ; the form is Greek. con- 

ehae sonanti inspirare : to blow upon the sounding shell ; the Dative ij 
due to the compound with in ; the Abl. of Instrument would also be pos- 

885. Cava bneina : the hollow trumpet, the shell. illi : Dative of 
Agent ; poetically used with the Present tense. 

886. in latum : till it gets to be broad, turbine ab imo : from the 
lowest winding, the smallest part, at the mouth. 

887. a8ra : Accusative Singular, Greek form. nbi : wJien, is mis- 
placed for the metre's sake ; it should precede oonoepit. 

888. sub utroque Phoebo : under each sun, the rising and the setting. 

94 COMMENTARY. [Met. 1. 

S8d. at . . . oontigit : wTien it toudhed the mouth of the god, which woa 
wet from hie moist heard, rorantia agrees with ora. 

840. reoeptu (Ace. PL): retreat; Plural, because the varioas waters 
were to retreat in various directions. 

841. vndifl : Dat. of Agent. 

842. oofircoit onrnes : it checked them all ; observe the incorporation of 
undis in the Relative clause: 616, i ; A. & G. 200, h; B. 251, 4 ; H. 445, 9. 

848. capit : holds, 
844. videntnr : are seen, 

846. Post diem longam : after a long time, silTae : subject. 

847. in fronde : oth the leaves, 

848. agere alta ulentia : keeping profound silence, silentia : Plural 
because of the Plural terras, as if each country kept separate silence. 

860. laerimis obortis : ufith tears in Ms eyes. 

851. loroir : brothers and cousins were not carefully distinguished in 
the Latin language. sola superstes : only surviving. 

853. patmeUs origo : descent from a father's brother (patmas) ; that is, 
the ties of blood. Their fathers were the brothers Prometheus and 

858. deinde : dissyllabic by Synizesis : 727 ; B. 367, i ; H. 608, iii. 
tonu : the bonds of wedlock ; properly, the nuptial bed, 

855. poBsedit : has taken possession of, 

858. fatis erepta: snatched from the fates, saved from death, fEitis: 
Bat. of Separation, or Abl. if feitis is not personified : 345, r. i ; A. & G. 
229 ; B. 188, 2, d ; H. 386, 2. quis tibl animtis foret : what would 
your feelings be f qnis is here Adjective, for the more usual qui. 

859. quo . . . modo : in what way, how. 

860. quo oonsolante doleree: who would console you in your grief; quo 
oonsolante is Ablative Absolute. 

861. namque : a strengthened form of nam. 

368. ntinam : Hiatus after the interjection : 720 ; A. & G. 359, e ; H. 
608, II. I. popolosreparare : restore the peoples. patemiB artibus : 

with my father's skill, Prometheus was supposed to have made man out 
of clay. 

364. animas : the breath of life. formatae terraa: fashioned clay ; 

Dat. with Compounds. 

366. visum (sc. est) : seemed good, 

367. Dizerat, et flebant : when he had finished speaking, they wept (for 
some time) ; notice that it sometimes suits our idiom to use a subordinate 
clause when Latin uses a coordinate ; oftener the reverse is the case, 
Plaooit : (then) they resolved. 

869. pariter: side by side. Cephisidas: for the form, see G. 182,«ii, 

870. ut nondam liqnidas : though not yet clear. The comparative ad- 
verbs ut . . . lio (ita), may indicate opposition, in which case it is convenient 
to translate ut as although* vada : channels. 


371. Ixid« , . . oapiti : when they have sprinkled upon their garments and 
heads water taken from this source (Inde). capiti : Dat. with com- 

872. fleotnnt Testigia : they turn their steps. 

373. quorum . . . musoo : the gables of which were discolored unth unsightly 
moss ; quorum agrees with delubra, which has a Singular sense. 
. 376. pronus liumi : flat on the grgwnd; for the gender, see on 1. 327. 
I pavens : full of awe. 

379. dio : one of the four irregular Imperatives ; another is fier, in the 
next line: 130, i; A. & G. 128, c; B. 116, 3; H. 238. Themi : Voca- 
tiye. qua arte : hy what device. generis damrnim nostri : the loss 
of our race. reparabile : is predicate. 

380. mersis rebus: to tJie flood-destroyed world. 

381. sortemque dedit: and gave the response; sors is an oracular re- 
sponse, the reply of a divinity. The common word for reply is responsum, 
which can also be used of an oracle. 

382. resolvite: loosen. 

883. onaque . . . parentis : cmd throw behind your backs the bones of 
your great mother. 

884. Obstipuere diu : they were astounded for a long time. rumpit 
prior : is the first to break. 

885. parere reeusat : refuses to obey. 

886. dot : Complementary Final clause depending on rogat with ut un- 
derstood, or, which amounts to the same thing, the Imperative in Indi- 
rect Discourse. 

387. laedere : to offend. 

388. repetunt : go over, oaeois obscnra latebris : hidden in dark obscu- 
rity, latebrae : lit. hiding-places. 

390. Inde: then. 

891. Aut fsdlax est sollertia nobis : either my cunning deceives me. 

394. ossa reor dici : I opine that by bones are meant. iaoere : to 

395. augurio: the interpretation. Titania: descendant of one of 
the Titans. 

396. in dubio est : is in doubt, lacks confidence. adeo : to mich a 
degree ; adverb with diffidunt. 

397. monitis : Dative ; this is the regular construction with diffido. 
quid temptare nooebit : what harm will it do to try f 

399. iussos : as ordered ; grammatically, the word agrees with lapides. 

400. nisi sit pro teste vetustas : if antiqwity were not a witness. The 
Unreal form of the condition might have been expected instead of the 
Ideal. The argument is, that the age of the tradition vouches for its 
genuineness. Unless there were good reasons for believing it, it would 
have been rejected long ago. 

401. coepere: Perfect. rigorem: rigidity. 

96 COMMENTAEY. [Met, I. 403-415. 

408. mora: after a whiUj gradually. daoere Ibmuun: to take 


404. nt quaedaoii sio non manifesta : though a certain, yet not clear, 
videri potest : ca7h be seen, 

405. sed nti de marmore ooepta : but as if begun out of marble, 

406. non exaota satis : not quite finisJhed, lignis : statues, 

407. Quae ez illis pars : the part of them which, 

408. in corporis nsum : into flesh (to serve as flesh). 
412. trazere : took on. 

418. de femineo iaotn : from the woman^s throwing, 

414. Inde : from this cause, ezperieni : capable of enduring, 

415. doeomenta : proof, simvs nati : Indirect Question. 


Met. II. — 1. Begia Bolis : the palace of the Sun, Segia (sc. demiii) : 

originally an adjective from rex. Our word paZaee comes from Palatinm, 
one of the seven hills of Rome. Augustas had his dwelling there, and 
the name of the hill was transferred to the Imperial Palace. snbUmi- 

bus alta colnnmis : raised up on lofty columns, altns : high, originally 

participle from alo. 

2. Clara . . .pyropo : resplendent with flashing gold and flame-like pyro- 
pus, pyropos : a gold-bronze mixture. 

8. enios . . . tegebat : (statues of) shining ivory filled up its high gable. 
The gables of Grecian temples were covered with statues. 

4. argenti lumine : with tlie light of silver, bifores Talvae : the 

5. saperabat opus : the workmanship surpassed, Muloiber (from 
mnlceo) : tJie Softe?ter, the Smith : Vulcan. 

6. oaelarat (that is, eaelaverat) : JmmI engraved in bas-relief terras : 
object of dngentia ; girding the enclosed land. 

8. Tritona canomm : the tuneful Triton, the loud-blowing trumpeter. 

9. ambiganm : of doubtful shape ; Proteus had the power of assuming 
various forms. He could become a lion, a serpent, water, etc., to suit his 

10. Aegaeona : Aegaeou was a marine giant with a hundred arms. 

11. Dorida : Doris was the wife of Nereus and mother of the Nereids. 

12. in mole : on a cliff, on tfie bank. 

13. pisoe vehi : to be riding on fishes ; Ablative of Means. omnibus : 
Dat. of Possessor. una faoies : the same features. 

14. non diversa tamen : a/nd yet not entirely different, qualem . . • 
soromm : but such as sisters ought to Tiave, 

15. gerit : has on it. 

17. Haeo super : over these ; this position is poetical. 

18. signaque . . . sinistris : aiid six stars on the right wing of the door 

II. 1-42,] PHAETHON. 97 

and as many on the left. The twelve signs of the zodiac are meant, 
fores (PI ): usually means door and not wing, 

19. Quo : to this place, to the palace, sixnul : as soon as. aooliyi 
limite : by the uphill path, dyiuenela proles : that is, Pha^thon, 
the son of Clymene, the wife of the Ethiopian king Merops. 

20. dubitati: doubted; it is to remove this doubt and ascertain his 
true origin that PhaSthon makes this visit to his father. teota: 
Jiouse ; poetical Plural ; tectum properly means roof, 

21. Yoltus : poetical Plural. 

22. oonsistitque procol : but stops far off. neque lumina : for he 
was not aJfle to bear the light nearer ; notice the play on the words fert 
and ferebat, which are used in different senses. Notice also the peculiar 
force of the Imperfect with the negative. 

24. in solio : on his throne. olaris . . . zmaragdis : shining with 
brilliant emeralds, Notice that initial zm here is treated like a mute and 
liquid, and does not make the preceding syllable long. 

25. A dextra Jaevaque stabat : on the right a/nd left stood, 

26. spatiis aeqoalibus : at equal intervals, 

27. Yer noYum : the Spring was called new on account of the fresh 
vegetation. dnctam florente oorona: wreathed with a garland of 

28. spioea serta : wreaths of ears of grain, 

80. oanos . . , capillos : urith his bristling white hair. eapillos : 
Ace. of Respect. 

81. Ipse Sol looo medius : Sol himself placed in the middle, occupying a 
central position, looo: Abl. of Respect. remm novitate paventem: 
awed by the strange scene; lit. trembling at the strangeness of things. 
paventem agi*ees with iuyenem, the object of yidit. novitate : is Ablative 
of Cause. 

83. Quae viae tibi causa : what is the cause of your journey, arce : 
Abl. of Place Where, without the preposition ; see on Met. i. 95. 

84. hand infitianda parenti : not to be denied by your father, parenti : 
the Dative is the regular case of the Agent with Gerundives. Notice the 
Gerundive of the deponent verb. This is usual. 

85. publiea: common, belonging^to all; compare Met. i. 135 : 

Communemque prius ceu lumina solis et aurasl 

inmensi mnndi : of the measureless universe. 

89. credar : Subjv. in a Relative Clause of Design : 630 ; A. & G. 317, 
2 ; 6. 282, 2 ; U. 497, i. animis nostris : from my mind. erro- 

rem: doubt, 

41. deposuit radios : laid aside the rays. 

42. tu meus ... as : you deserve to be recognized as my son ; lit. you do 
not deserve to be denied to be mine ; the Inf. with dignms is poetical, the 
regular prose construction being qui with the Subjunctive. nee . . , ot : 



both . . . not • . . and. The English is not as fond of the expression loth 
as the Latin. 
48. yeros edidit ortni : lias disclosed your true origin ; poetic Plural. 

44. Qnoqne . , . feras : and thai you may not doubt it, ask any favor 
you like, that you may receive it at my hands = and you will receive 
it, dnbites, feras: Subjv. of Design; quo is used especially with 
comparatives to express Design. 

45. ProxniBsis (Dat.) : to my promise, 

46. paltu : the stagnant water, that is, the Styx, the underground 
stream over which the dead had to pass. dls iuranda : by which the 
gods must swear, iuro : here used as a transitive verb ; more common 
is per with the Accusative. dis ; Dat. of Agent. ocnlis incognita 
noitris : unknoion to my eyes; the rays of the sun cannot reach the realm 
of darkness. 

47. bene : completely (lit. well) ; may be fairly omitted in translation, 
detierat : ?Kid ceased, from desino. enmis . . . patemos : when the 
other asks for his father's chariot; insert when, to suit the English 
idiom. camu : poetical Plural. 

48. in diem : for a day, alipednm . . . eqnomm : the control and 
guidance of the ujing-footed steeds. alipednm : swift. Their wings 
are not represented as placed on their feet. 

49. Qni *. and he, 

60. Temeraria vox, etc. : my speech has been proved rash by yours. Your 
request shows that my promise was rash. 

51. promisia non dare : r^t to give what has been promised, liceret : 
Unreal Wish : 260 ; A. & G. 267 ; B. 279 ; H. 483, 2. 

52, solum hoo tibi negarem : this is the only thing that I should refuse 
you, negarem : involved condition, Unreal form, the clause of Wish- 
ing taking the place of the Protasis, si liceret, negarem. 

58. Tolnntas : wish. 

54. ICagna goes with mnnera : a great favor, unsuited to your (slight) 
strength and such youthful years, •> 

67. qnam ... fas est : than what it is lawful for the gods to attain, 

58. nesdos adfeotas : in your ignorance you aim at, nesdni : in 
predicative attribution. Placeat . . . lioebit : tliough ea^h god may have 
a good opinion of his oum powers. 

59. axe : axle, here = chariot. 

60. me exoepto : except me. valet : is able, 

62. non agat : cotUd not drive, Potential Subjunctive. 

63. prima via : the first part of the way, qua : up it, mane 
recentes : in the morning when they are fresh, 

64. enitantnr : ca7i make their way. Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

65. nnde . . . timor : and often even I am frightened when I behold the 
sea and lands from there, videre fit timor : to see them hecofnes a 
terror, i.e. the sight terrifies me. 

43-112.] PHAETHOIT. 99 

67. mtima . , . est ! the Ictst part of the way is descending. 

68. qoae . . . nndis : wTm receives me by placing water beneath me. 

69. ne . . . praeoeps : that I shall fall headlong. Tethys : the wife 
of Oceanus. The heavenly bodies, disappearing below the horizon, were 
thought to set in the ocean. 

89. que : in poetry -que and et are often, for metrical reasons, placed 
with the second instead of the first word of the clause. 

90. Scilicet . . . petis : you are asking y are you not f 

91. timendo: by fearing ; Gerund. 

94. patriae curas : the anxiety of a father. intue : inside^ there' 

in. deprendere: discover, 

96. eque tot ac tantie bonie : and from so many great blessings. 
eque : que is, as a rule, not joined to monosyllabic prepositions. 

97. patiere : Future. The first clause has the effect of a condition, the 
second that of a conclusion. It is not uncommon for the Protasis to be 
expressed by an Imperative : see 593, 4 ; A. & G. 310, b; B. 305, 2 ; H. 
507, I. 

98. Deprecor : I beg you not to ask. vero nomine : in reality, 

100. Quid : properly meaning what, is loosely used for why ; see 333, r. 
3 ; A. & G. 240, a ; B. 176, 3, a ; H. 454, 2. ooUa : neck ; poetic 
Plural. blandis : fond, entreating. 

101. dubita: the Impv. with ne is poetical: 270 and r. 2 ; A. & G. 269, 
note ; B. 281, 2 ; H. 489 ; prose requires noli with Infinitive. iura- 
Timus : / have sworn by, 

102. quodcumque optarie, dabitur : whatever you ask wiU be given. 
optaris = optayeris : Fut. Perfect. Notice the exactness of the Latin; 
the request must be made before it is granted. 

103. monitus: his warnings; Accusative. 

104. premit : clings to. currus : Objective Genitive : 363, 2 ; A. & 
G. 217 ; B. 200 ; H. 396, in. Notice the Singular here, but Plural again 
in 1. 107 as in 1. 47. There is no difference of meaning. The Singular 
Genitive gives a more convenient form for the metre than the Plural. 
So in 1. 318 and 1. 327. 

105. qua licuit, cunctatus : having hesitated as far a« (= as long as) it 
was permitted. 

106. Yulcania munera : the gift of Vulcan ; poetical Plural like currus. 

107. temo : the pole. eummae curvatura rotae : that is, the rim or 

108. radiorum ordo : the row of spokes. 

109. per iuga . . . Fhoebo : chrysolites and (other) gems placed in order 
over the yoke gave back bright light from the reflection of the sun. 

111. magnanimue : coura,geous, ambitious. opus perspicit : examines 
the workmanship. 

112. vigil: the wakeful. Aurora is an early riser. rutilo ab ortu : 
in the ruddy east. ab is frequently to be translated in or on in 


giving direotions ; so particularly in phrases as a laeva, a dextra, a 

114. agmina oogit : bri^igs up tJie rear, doses tJiefile. 

115. Luoifer : the Morning Star. oaeli itatione : from hia outpost 
in the sky — as if on guard duty. noYiuimiu : last, 

116. Quern . . . vidit : whsn the Titan saw him sinking to the earth and 
the toorld blushing. Ovid's astronomy is at fault ; the Morning Star 
would not be setting at sunrise. 

117. extremae lunae: of the waning moon; shortly before the new 
moon. velut evanesoere : vcmishing, as it were, 

118. inngere : in prose ut inngant ; the Infinitive to expre^ Design Is 
poetical. Titan : A«, the Sun, whose father Hyperion was a Titan. 

119. oeleres: quickly; adjective in predicative attiibution. yo- 
mentes : goes with qaadrupedes. 

120. ambroflae mieo laturos : satiated with the juice of ambrosia; the 
Sun's steeds use divine food. praenepibus : from the stalls ; con- 
strue with dueont. In prose a preposition would be used. 

121. addunt : put on, 

122. saero medicamine oontigit : touched with sacred ointment, 

123. raiddae : destructive. patientia : capable of enduring, agrees 
with ora. 

124. oomae : Dative. praesaga . . . sntpiria : heaving from his 
anxious breast sighs foreboding grief. laottis : Genitive. 

126. his saltern : at least these. Previous warnings had been rejected. 

127. fortius utere loris : use the reins with might, make greater use of the 

128. labor : the trouble, the difficulty. 

129. direotot qoinque per areni : straight across the jive zones, direetos : 
J^at right angles) agrees with arous. plaeeat : Imperative Subjunctive. 

130. seetoi . . . flue : the path is cut obliquely in a wide curve, and, 
confined to three zones; it avoids the Arctic and Antarctic regions. 

132. que : with the preceding que, connects Aroton and pohim. que . . . 
que, both . , . and, is mainly poetical. 

133. Hac sit iter : let the journey be by this road, 

134. ferant : Subjunctive of Design. caelnm and terra are subjects. 

135. neo . . . neo = neve . . . neve. sommam molire per aethera : raise 
it to the highest part of the sky, move it through. 

136. Altios egresBus : if you go too high. 

137. tutissimns : m^ost safely. 

138. Heu te dexterior deolinet rota : let not the chariot go too far to the 
right and turn you. 

139. preieam : low-lying ; referring to its position in the sky. 

141. quae iuvet opto : and I pray that she m^y assist you. iuTet : 

Complementary Final clause, with ut understood ; or a Wish, with opto 

114r-173.] PHAETHON. lOI 

148. Heapwio in litore : Night is supposed to run its coarse from east 
to west, like the Sun. 

148, umida : moist, dewy. 

144. tenebris fOgatis: having put darkness to flight; Ablative Abso- 

146. consiliis . . . nostril : take my admce, not my chariot / non negatives 
the single word, otherwise ne would be required with the Imperative. 

147. solidis sedilms : on a firm footing. 

148. axes : poetical Plural and here = chariot by Synecdoche. 

149. Quae tpeetta : for you to look at : Subjunctive of Design. tine : 

160. ooonpat : takes possession of. corpore : Ablative of Instru- 

ment with ocenpat. 

151. super : above ; Adverb. manibus : Ablative of Instrument. 

152. grates agit : thanks. inde : from there, from the chariot. 
158. Pj^rOIi At EOfis : notice the scansion. The names are Greek. 

155. repagnla : bars. 

156. Quae reppnlit : pushed them bcLck ; that is, the bars. nepotit : 
Tethys was the mother of Clymene. 

167. fiusta est oopia : they were given the freedom. 

160. praeterennt . . . euros : they pass by the East winds which sprang 
from the same region. They both started from the east. isdem : 

161. quod: such as, oognoscere: distinguish, recognize, 
pofsent : Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

162. solitaqne . . . earebat : a^ the yoke lacked its accustomed weight. 

168. labant : totter. curvae naves : the curved ships. 

164. Instabiles nimia levitate: unstable on account of their excessive 

166. oneire adsneto Taeaus: witJhout its accustomed burden, dat: 

the subject is ourms. saltui : Ace. Plural, object of dat. 

166. similis inani : like an empty chariot. 

167. Quod «imulae sensere : as soon as they perceived this. tritum 
spatium : the trodden way. 

168. quadriiugi : t?ie span of four ; is the subject of runnt but better 
translated with sensere. quo prius ordine : in their former order. 

169. Ipse : i.e. Phaethon. nee qua . . . illis : lie kriows neither which way 
to turn the reins intrusted (to him) nor which (lit. by what way) is the 
(right) road, nor could he control those (liorses) if he knew. flectat, 
sit : Indirect Questions. seiat, inqieret : Ideal Condition, where we 
should expect the Unreal : 596, r. ; A. & G. 308, e ; H. 509, n. 2. 

171. radiis ealuere : grexo warm from the rays of the sun. gelidi 

Triones : the cold Bear, which never sinks below the horizon and so was 
said by Homer never to bathe in the ocean. 

178. polo gladali : the icy region, the north pole. 

102 COMMENTARY. [Met. II. 

174. frlgore pigra privi : till then stiff with cold. nee fbrmidabilis 

vlli : (md not an object of fea/r to anyone, 

176. tnrbatom fogiMe : fled in fright. Bootes, ths OsG-driver, also called 
Arotophylax, the Bea>r-ward, was situated near the Great Bear (Charles's 
Wain), which is the wagon (plavitra) mentioned in the next line. 

177* qnamvis : althmigh, in model prose regularly takes the Subjunctive. 

178. TTt vero . . . iaoentes : but when the unfortunate Phaethon looked 
down from ths high sky upon the earth lying far, far beneath, 

181. sunt 0bertae: came over, per: in; not causal but con- 
cessive : despite the great light, 

182. £t iam mallet : and now he would prefer (if he had the choice); 
Potential Subjv. The tense indicates that it is now too late to choose. 

183. iam . . . rogando : now he is sorry that he learned his birth, and 
carried his point by importunity. 

184. iam Meropis . . . reliquit : now, desiring to be called the son of 
Merops, he is borne on just like a ship, driven by the swooping North 
wind, whose conquered helm has been surrendered by the pilots leaving the 
ship to the gods and to prayers ; oui and qoam both refer to pinus. The 
construction is very awkward both in Latin and in English. 

187. Quid fitdat : wJiat is Tie to do; Potential Subjunctive, in a Rhetorical 
or Deliberative Question : 466 ; A. & G. 368 ; B. 277 ; H. 484, v. 
terga : poetic Plural. 

190. oooasus, ortns : Accusative Plural ; poetic, oooasiu is the antece- 
dent of quiM in the preceding line. 

191. quid agat, ignaras : not knowing what to do, 

192. Talet : the verb in model prose has ad with the Gerund, not the 

202. Ezspatiantnr : leave the track; compare Met. i. 285. nullo: 
see on i. 103. 

203. qnaque impetiifl egit : and whatever way inclination drives them ; 
iterative action : 567. 

204. hao : this way. sine lege : without order , ujithout restraint, 

205. incnrsant stellis : they run against tlie stars, itellis : Dat. with 
in in composition. 

206. per deolive Tiasque praedpites : dovni steep and precipitous ways, 
declive : Singular for metrical reasons. 

207. spatio : in a district, terrae : Dative. 

208. Inferinsque . . . equos : and the Moon wonders that her brother's 
horses run lower than her oum. 

210. ut quaeque altissima, tellus : all the highest parts of the earth: 318, 
2; A. & G. 93, c; B. 252, 5. c; H. 458, i. 

211. fiflsaque agit rimas : is split into fissures, agit : forms, 

212. pabnla : the grass, com firondilms : unth its leaves, 

213. sao damno : for its oum destruction. 
215. gentes: coimtries. 

174-318.] PHAETHOK. IO3 

227. etinotis e partibnB : in every direction. 

228. nee stutinet : and he canriot endure. 

280. ore trahit : inhales, oandeseere : is blazing. 

231. neqae iam : no longer. fEivillam : sparks. 

233. qnoqne eat : and where he is going ; Indirect Question. 

234. arMtrio : ai the will. volticniiii : winged. 

285. Sang^nine voeato : from the blood being drawn ; Abl. Absolute. 

in oorpora snmma: to the surface of their bodies: 201, r. 2 ; A. & G. 
198; B. 241, i; H. 440, n. 1, 

286. Aethiopvun popolos : the tribes of the Ethiopians. traziite : 
assumed^ acquired. 

254. in extremnm orbem : to the end of the earth ; see on 1. 235 (innima). 
The source of the Nile was unknown until recent times. 
256. pnlvemlenta yaeant : are empty and dusty. 

260. Dissilit : leaps apart, is split asunder. rimii : by the clefts. 

261. OTun coninge reg^m : that is, Pluto and Proserpina. 

262. lioeaeqae . . . erat : and that which was lately the sea is (now) a 
plain of dry sand. 

265. CTunri : goes with delphines. 

266. oonsaetae: agrees with auras, but translate: as they are accustomed 
to do, 

267. snmmo profondo : on the top of the sea : see on 1. 235. 

268. natant : float. Herea, Dorida : Greek forms of the Accusative. 

269. sub: in. tepidis : they were ordinarily cool. 

270. aquis : from the waters. 

271. non tulit : he was unable to endure. 

804. superos testatus : havifig called the gods to untness. et ipsum : 

including him. 

■ 805. qui : that is, the Sun. nisi opem ferat : unless he (Jupiter) 

should bear aid. 

806. interitura (supply esse) ; the Accusative and Infinitive depends on 
testatus. petit arduus : goes up to. 

807. terris : Dative with in in composition. 

808. tonitrus : Ace. Plural. yibrata : darting, or brandisTied. 

809. posset : Subjunctive of Characteristic after Negative Antecedent. 

810. nee . . . imbres : and no rain to send down from heaven. 

811. deztra libratum ab aure : poised at his right ear. 

812. in aurigam : against the driver. pariterque . . . ezpulit : and at 
the same time hurled him from the chariot and deprived him of life. 

814. Constemantur : are thrown into confusion. saltu in contraria 
faeto : leaping in opposite directions. 

815. abrupta: broken. 

816k temone revulsus : torn from the pole. 

817. in bae parte : on this side. radii : the spokes. 

818. vestigia : the remains. 

104 COMMENTARY. [Met. IL 320-706. 

820. Tolvitiir in praeoeps : is rolled headlong, longo tractu : a long 

821. nt: as, 

822. potnit : better translated as a Present : may, 

823. procnl a patria : far from his native land, diyeno orbe : in 
the opposite part of the world, 

324. Eridanos : a western river, here the river-god. 
826. trifida famantia flamma: smoking from the three-pronged flame, 
that is, the lightning. 

826. dant tumulo : give burial to. carmine : tvith this inscription. 

827. sitni est : is placed, lies, 

828. qnem: supply oumim. magnis ezoidit ansis: great was the 
attempt in which he failed. 


Met. II. — 680. quo : at which, that is, when. te : sc. Apollo, 

pastoria pellis : the shepherd's cloak, a beast's skin. There was a myth 
that Apollo once tended the flocks of Admetus, King of Thessaly, as an 
atonement for having killed the Cyclops ; but the scene here is placed 
in a different part of Greece. 

681. onni fait sinistrae : was cairied in the left hand, 

682. alterins . . . cannis : in the other was the unequal pipe of seven 
canes. dispar : the canes were of unequal length. 

688. Domqne . . . curae : and while thy thoughts are of love. enrae : 
Dative of the Object For Which (Purpose, End): 356; A. & G. 233; B. 
191 ; H. 390, 

685. boves: cows. Haia: Abl. of Source. She was the daughter 
of Atlas and mother of Mercury. 

686. silvis: Abl. of Place Where; the prep, is omitted according to 
389 ; H. 425, i. occnltat abactas : drives them off and hides them, 

687. nisi senex : except an old man. notns in illo mre : well known, 
in that settlement. 

689. divitis : construe with Kelei. The latter word is dissyllabic by 
Synizesis. saltns . . . pascna : the woodlands and grassy pastures, 

690. onstos : as guardian, herdsman. 

691. blanda: fawning. 

692. hospes : my friend, stranger, 

693. yidisse nega : say you have not seen them. nen . . . rependatnr : 
and that some return may he made for the service. 

694. nitidam: sleek, praemia: as a reward; poetic Plural. 

695. et dedit : and he gave her to him, Accepta, Abl. Abs. with ea 
to be supplied : when ths stranger had received her, voces : words, 

696. eas : Imperative Subjunctive; more often of the Ideal Second per- 


son : 263, 2 ; A. & G. 266, a; B. 276, 2 ; H. 487, 4. prins: sooner, 

than I. 

699. lioo limite ire : go along this path. 

700. rilentia dome : take away silence from, lift the veil of silence, dis- 

701. inneta sao pariter femina tanro : a cow together with her mate. 

702. senior = senex. Sab : at the foot of, 
708. ernnt: you will find them, 

706. index: the informer, the toucJistone; or, as some commentators 
take it, a proper name (Index) referring to a particular cliff. 


Pentheus, King of Thebes, refuses to recognize Bacchus, the son of 
Jupiter and Semele, as a god, and even sends his servants to arrest him. 
They report that they cannot find Bacchus himself, but bring one of his 
attendants. His tale is given in the text. 

Met. III. — 583, Maeonia : an old name for Lydia in Asia Minor, 
linmili de plebe : from the common people. 

584. qnae . . . inyenci : la^s for hardy steers to cultivate. eolerent : 
Subjunctive of Characteristic after negative antecedent: 631, 2; A. & G. 
320 ; B. 283 ; H. 503. 

585. armenta : herds of kine. 

586. lino et liamis : with hook and line. 

587. oalamo : with the rod. dnoere : to land. salientes piflces : 
the flopping fishes, 

588. Ars . . . erat : his skiU was his fortune ; he made his living by 

589. qiias . . . opee : translate opes qiias. stndii : to my calling 
591. patemiun: inherited from my father, my patrimony. 

593. addidici . . . flectere : I learned also (ad) h>ow to turn the rudder of 
a ship with guiding hand. 

594. Oleniae oapellae : the goat Amalthea had given suck to the infant 
Jupiter, and was placed in the heavens as a constellation. Its appear- 
ance betokened rainy weather. 

595. ocoIIb notavi : / noted with my eyes. A slight knowledge of the 
stars was necessary to the sailor in those days. 

597. potens Delnm : 07i my way to Delos. 

598. applioor: I touch. litora: to the shore; poetic Terminal 
Accusative. dextris remis : by the oars on the right ; the island lay 
to the right. 

599. harenae : Dative after in in composition. 

601. latioes inferre reoentes : to lay in a fresh supply of water. 

602. admoneo: I give orders. ducat: = ducit, leads; Partial Oratio 


608. tnxnido ab alto prospioio : on a high hill I examine ; lit. look forth 
from a high hill (to see). 

604. repeto carinam : go back to the ship, 

605. AdsTuniis en ! here we are. 

606. ntqne patat praedam naotns : and having found a prize, as he thinks. 

607. virginea forma: of girlish appearance, Abl. of Quality. per 
litora : along the shore. 

608. titabare : to stagger» 

609. vizque seqni : and sc-arcely able to follow. cnltnm : his dress, 

610. posset : (Characteristic Subjunctive after a negative antecedent. 

611. Quod numen : what divinity. qaod: interrogative Adjective. 

613. fayeas: Subjunctive of Wish, to be translated as an Imperative. 

614. xnitte precari : do not pray, leave off praying. 
616. quo non alios odor : than wliom none was quicker. 

616. prenso rudente relabi : to slide down a rope with his hands. 
prenso rudente : Ablative Absolute. 

617. Hoo : this ; that is, what Dictys said. pronae tutela : the offi- 
cer who Iiad cliarge of the prow, second officer, mate. 

618. et qui dabat rexnis : that is, the boatswain. requiem modumque : 
the pause and tlie measure ; the officer gave the signal for the stroke in 
order that the rowers might keep time. He also gave words of encour- 
agement to keep the men in heart (animorum bortator). 

622. Kon perpetiar : lunll not suffer. pars . . . iuris : here I have 
most authority. 

623. in aditu obsisto : I oppose them at the entrance. 

625. exsilium poenam luebat : was suffering exile as a punishment. 

626. mibi : equivalent to my. resto : I resist. iuyenali pugno : 
with his mighty fist, 

627. Tupit : smote. excussum misisset : would have hurled me 
over. excussum : thrown out, of the ship. 

628. si non baesissem : if I had not held on. amens : senseless, 
unconscious. Notice the use of quamvis with an adjective, a construction 
that is natural to us, but uncommon in Latin. in fune retentus: 
stopped in the ropes. 

630. fuerat : it was. 

631. solutus sit, redeant: with veluti, tamquam, and similar words of 
comparison, where we might expect only the tenses of Unreal Conditions, 
other tenses are used according to Sequence of Tenses: see 602 ; A. & G. 
313, R.; B. 307, 2; H. 513, 11. in pectora: to him; the breast was 
looked upon as the seat of the reason as well as of the feelings. 

632. qua ope : by what means. 

633. quo: where, to wJiat place. 

635. ede : tell us. velis : Indirect Question. sistSre : you wiU 
be placed. terra : Ablative of Place Where. 

636. Naxon , . . vestros : direct your course to Naxos. 


688. fallaoM : ths traitors. 

640. Dextra mihi lintea danti : as I was setting sail to the Hght. 

641. furor : he suddenly stops from fear. The others, too, were afraid 
to speak out. 

648. qnid . . . gtuurrat : whisper in my ear what they wish. 
644. Capiat aliquis : let some (other) take. 

646. ministerio . . . artisque : lit. from the service of the crime and (the 
exercise of) my skill ; that is, from helping them in their crime with my 

647. Bcilioet : of course, ironical. te in uno : in you alone. 

648. Bubit: takes my place ; compare Met. i. 114. 

649. explet : performs. Kazoque . . . reliota : and leaving Naxos 
behind, goes in the opposite direction, 

650. modo denique : not till then. 

651. senserit : see on 1. 631. 
658. mihi : Dative of Agent. 

654. Quo . . . facto : what have I dons to deserve punishment 9 qnae 

gloria . . . annm : what honor is it to you, if you, being men, get the better 
of a boy — if you, who are many, get the better of one f 

656. lamdadtim flebam : I had long been ufeeping ; for the tense, see 
234 ; A. & G. 277, b ; B. 260, 4 ; H. 469, 2. manus impia : the impi- 
ous band. nostras : my. 

657. ridet (used as a transitive verb) : lavgJts at, makes sport of. 
impellit: beats. 

658. per ipsnm (sc. Bacohnm) tibi aditiro. per is often separated from 
its case in adjurations. illo: than he, praesentior: nearer; the 
speaker liimself turns out to be Bacchus. 

659. tarn vera qnam veri maiora fide : as true as incredible. veri : 
a kind of Objective Genitive depending on fide. maiora fide : greater 
than belief too great to be believed. 

660. stetit : stood still. aeqnore : Ablative of Place Where. 
pnppis : the ship; compare carinae, Met. i. 134. 

661. hand alitor qoam : Just as. navale : dock, 

662. in verbere perstant : persist in the stroke, persist in plying, 

668. vela dedncunt : let down the sails, which had been tied up to the 

664. Impedinnt hederae : ivy obstructs. 

665. oorymbis : clusters of ivy-berries. 

666. Ipse . . . hastam : he himself, with his forehead encircled with clus- 
tering grapes, brandishes his spear (the thyrsus) covered with leaves of 
the vine. frontem : Accusative of Respect. 

668. Qnem oirea : around him. simulacra : images ; illusory crea- 
tures of the imagination, attendant upon the god of wine. These animals 
were added to his train when he conquered India. 

669. pictarom: spotted. 

I08 COMMENTARY. [Met. III. 672-691. 

672. ezpresBO . . . curvamine : with an outward curvature of the spine. 
The dolphin is hogbacked. 
678. In quae miraciila : into what strange shape. 

674. lati . . . erat : as he was speaking his mouth became broad and his 
nose curved in. 

675. Bquamam trahebat : assumed scales, became scaly. Dolphins, how- 
ever, have no scales. 

676. obvertere: to pull. 

677. in spatiom . . . vidit : ?ie saw his arms leap back to a short length, 
become short. 

678. pinnas : fins. 

680. trnncd repandns corpore : curved backward as to his limbless body, 
with a curved, limbless body ; Ablative of Respect. 

681. falcata ... est : the end of his tail is sickle-shaped, novisaiina : 
compare samma, Met. ii. 235. 

682. qnalia sinoantxir : curved like. 

683. adspergine: spray. 

685. in obori speciem : like a dance. 

686. aoceptnm . . . efflant : spurt from their wide nostrils the water which 
they have taken in; that is, take in and spurt out the water from their wide 

687. De modo yiginti : out of the recent crew of twenty. modo : jvst 
now, a little while ago, lately. Compare Met. i. 825. ratis : craft, 

688. Payidnm: sc. me. 

689. vix meom : scarcely master of myself, 

690. Diam tene : make for Dia. Dia was an old name for Naxos. 

691. accessi Bacris: I joined the rites. freqnento: (still) attend. 


Met. IV. — 55. alter . . . altera : the one, the other. 

56. praelata : preferred to, surpassing. paellis quas : (all) the girls 


. 57. contiguas : adjoining. tennere : occupied. altam : from 

its high walls. 

58. coctilibns mnris : with walls of brick. nbi . . . mlbem : that is, 
in Babylon. 

59. Notitiam : an acquaintance. yicinia fecit : proximity brought 

60. Taedae . . . coissent: tJiey would have married, too; lit. would have 
waited by the right of the marriage-torch, that is, with the regular wed- 
ding ceremony. 

61. Quod: what. 


62. ez aequo oaptis mentibiis : toith equaUy captivated hearts, 

68. oonseiiui omnia abest: no one is admitted into their secrete; they 
use no go-between. 

6i. quOque mag^ : and the more, magii aestuat : the hotter grows. 

65. FisBos . . . utrique : the common wall of the ttoo houses had been 
split by a slight crack which had been formed before when the wall was 
built, quam dnxerat: which (the wall) had formed. Compare 

fiflsaqae agit rimas, Met. 11. 211. 

67. nnlli : Dative of the Agent. 

68. primi vidistiB amantea : you lovers were the first to see. primi : 
in predicative attribution. 

69. tutae: safely. 

70. mnrmxire minimo : in a low whisper, blanditiae : tender words. 

71. hinc . . . illinc : on one side, on the other. 

78. quid obstaB : why do you stand in the way of, 

76. neo : a/nd yet, 

77. quod . . . auroB : tJuit to our words has been given a passage to friendly 

78. Talia . . . loeuti : Juiving spoken such things in vain from their sepa-- 
rate places. 

79. Bub noctem : towards night. 

80. non pervenientia oontra : which did not reach the opposite side, 

81. ignea: that is, the stars. 

82. pminoaaa : tfie devoy. 

88. oolere ad : they met at. munuure parvo : in a low tone, 

84. multa, etc. : having first indulged in many complaints, they decide 
to try. multa : Inner Object. 

85. temptant, reUnquant, conveniant, lateant : Subjunctives of Design, 
depending upon atatuunt. 

87. neve ait . . . Kini : aivd to avoid missing each other wandering about 
over the broad field, (they agree) to meet at the Tomb of Ninus. 

89. niveia pomia : in snow-white fruit. 

90. morua: mulberry-tree; in apposition with arbor. Notice that 
names of trees are regularly feminine in Latin. 

92. praecipitatnr aquia : descends abruptly into the waters. aquia : 

poetic Dative = in aquaa. ab aquia iadem : but from a different part, 

the east. 

98. Callida: cleverly; in predicative attribution. veraato cardine : 

turning the hinge, opening the door. 

94. adoperta vultum: unth her face covered ; Accusative of Respect. 

95. diets : appointed, aedit (from aide) : took a seat. 

96. reoenti . . . rictua : a lioness with her foarmng mouth smeared with 
tlie fresh blood of cattle. 

98. depoaitnra : to quench ; Future Participle after a verb of Motion 
to express Design: 670, 3; A. & G. 293, &, 2; B. 337, 4; H. 549, 3. 


101. tergo yelamina lapsa: the doak which had faXL&^ from her shout- 

102. Tit: when. oompescnit : had checked; the Perfect with tem- 
poral particles is often to be translated as a Pluperfect ; see on Met. i. 319. 

108. dnm redit : as she was returning. redit : for tense, see 229, b. ; 
A. & G. 276, e; B. 293, i ; U. 467, 4. inventos . . . amietiis : hy chance 
she came upon the fine garment without its owner and tore it to pieces 
with lier bloody mouth. 

105. Seriiu: later, Adverb. 

106. ore : Ablative of Respect. 

109. EquibuB: of whom; the antecedent isamantes. longfi goes 
with vitC. 

110. nostra ... est : my soul is guilty. 

111. plena mettu : full of danger. inssi venires i urged you to come ; 
in prose the construction of inbeo is usually Ace. and Infinitive. 

116. timidi est: it is the part of a timid man; for the Genitive, see 
866; A. & G. 214, d; B. 198, 3; H. 401. ThUbes: Genitive, Greek 


116. paetae: which had been agreed upon; paeta has passive sense, 
though from the deponent paciscor. 

117. notae vesti: to the well-known garment. 

118. hatutuB : Ace. Plural, streams, draughts, as if the garment drank 
the blood. 

119. femun quo erat acdncttis : the sword with which he was girded. 
demisit in ilia : he drove into his side. 

120. neo mora : and immediately. 

121. hnmo : construe with emioat : the blood spurts high up from the 
ground. The editors take with iacnit as equivalent to hnxni, a construc- 
tion which at least seems doubtful. The passages cited are with verbs of 
motion, where homo = in hnmnm. 

122. vitiate . . . scinditur : a pipe of faulty lead bursts, Ovid is thinking 
of the Roman waterworks. The Eternal City had a wonderful system, 
consisting of several aqueducts extending many miles into the country. 
The earliest (aqua Appia) was built by Appius Claudius about three hun- 
dred years before Christ. 

128. tenui stridente foramine : from a narrow, hissing opening, 

124. rnmpit: strikes. 

125. Arborei . . . faciem : the fruit of the tree is changed to a dark ap- 
pearance by (becomes dark from) the sprinlcling of blood. 

128. metn posito : Concessive. nefallat: depends on redit. 

129. requirit: searches for. 

180. vitarit(= vitaverit): Subjunctive in Indirect Question, 
narrare gestit : is eager to relate. 

181. tJtque . . . sio : and although she recognizes the position and shape 
in the tree which she sees, yet. 


182. liaeret, an haeo sit : she doubts if this is it, 

183. trexnebunda . . . Bolam : she sees tlie trembling limbs beat the bloody 

135. ezhormit . . . instar : she shuddered like the sea. 

186. earn flnmmum stringitnr : whsn the surfctce is grazed (ruffled). 

187. Bed . . . axnores : but wJien, after a while, she recognized her love(r). 
138. indignoi : innocent ; ihej had done no harm, deserved not such 

punishment. elaro: loud, 

141. OBonla flgens : pressing her lips, 

144. yultns . . . iaoentes : lift up your face from the ground, 

145. Ad nomen Thisbes : at the name- of Thisbe, Thisbes : Apposi- 
tive Genitive : 361, i ; A. & G. 214, /; B. 202 ; H. 396, vi. 

146. yisa . . . ilia : closed them again when he had seen her. 

147. Quae postqoam: after she. The Relative with a conjunction is 
usually to be translated as a Personal Pronoun, or a Demonstrative. 

148. ebar : the ivory (sheath). 

149. Est et . . . maniiB : / too have a haihd (that is) brave for this one 

150. In : for. 

151. Perseqiiar (sc. te): 1 shall follow you. 

152. qaiqae . . . poteras : and you who, ala,s ! could have been torn from 
me by death alone. 

158. neo : not even. 

154. Hoc . . . rog^ti : nevertheless be ye a^ked this thing in the name of 
us bothy let this one request be granted for our sakes. hoc : Accusa- 
tive of Inner Object retained with the Passive. 

155. nmltnin miseri : most wretched men ; a kind of superlative ; 
^tdtum is adverbial. mens . . . parentes : my father and his. The 
regular vocative of meiui coming next to its substantive, or separated 
only by an adjective, is mi. 

156. ut . . . invideatis : clause of Design in apposition with hoc : to per- 
mit those whom tested love, whom the last hour has joined together, to be 
laid to rest in the same tomb. non : is used as negative of single word. 

158. At ta . . . arbor : and thou, tree, who now ivith thy braiiches, 

160. pnllosqiie . . . fettiB : and always keep thy fruit dark and suitable 
for mourning. 

162. aptato muorone : placing the point ; Ablative Absolute. 

168. ferro: upon the sword ; Dative with prep, in composition. 

164. Vota tetigere : her prayers moved. 

166. quodque . . . superest : and what survives the funeral pyre; that is, 
the ashes of the two lovers. 

112 COMMENTARY. [Met. IV. 631-662. 


Met. IY. — 681. Hie : here ; in the far west. hominiim eimcti.8 : M 

mankind, a rare use of the Partitive Genitive. cunctis : is Dative 

governed by prae in composition. 

682. lapetionides : tJie son of lapetus, who was one of the giants. 

638. rage sub hoc : U7ider him as king, under his sway. pontns, 

etc. : that is, the Atlantic. anhelis : pa/nting, goes with equis. They 

were tired at the end of the day's journey. 

684. aequora Bubdit : plaices its waters beneath, spreads its expand to 
greet, • axes: chariot, 

685. iUi : for him, belonging to him, 

636. bmnani . . . premebant : no neighbors hemmed in his land ; Plural 
verb with collective subject : 211, E. 1; A. & G. 205, c, 1; B. 254, 4, a; 
H. 461, I. 

637. nitentes : goes with frondes. 

638. ez aaro : of gold = aureos. 
689. seu . . . sive : if ... or if. 

640. generis : goes with gloria. 

641. renun: of deeds, of achievements, 

643. Bortis: oracle, 

644. quo: when. 

645. hunc praedae titalnm : the glory of this booty. love natns : 
a son of Jupiter. Hercules, the great-grandson of Perseus, was meant. 

646. pomaria datuierat : had enclosed the apple^rcJiard. 

647. doderat servanda : 430; A. & G. 294, d; B. 337, 7, 2; H. 544, 2, n. 2. 

649. ne: lest. 

650. quam mentiris : which thou falsely daimest, longe absit : be, 
far off, that is, be unable to help tliee. Compare Her. xii. 53. 

652. fortia (sc. dicta) : brave words. 

653. Virlbtis : in strength. Ablative of Respect. 

654. parvi ... est : my friendship is lightly esteemed by thee, 
parvi : Gen. of Price. 

655. laeva a parte : on his left side. 

656. retroversTLS : turning backward ; to keep from seeing the horrible 
face of the Gorgon, which turned all beholders into stone. 

657. Qnantns Atlas: Me whole, immense Atlas was changed into a 

658. inga . . . mannsqne : his shoulders and arms form the ridge. 

660. turn . . . inmensum : then increasing in every direction, he grew to 
an immense size, 

662. in illo : on him. The myth, as usual, is mixed and inconsistent 
with itself. It was as a living giant that Atlas supported the heavens on 
his shoulders. Once, in later times, Hercules took his place for a short 



Met, V. — 885. Hennaeis moexiibiui : Henna was a city of Sicily. 

886. nomine : Ablative of Respect. altae aquae : Genitive of Qual- 

ity, illo: Ablative after Comparative. Caystroi: Nominative, 

a river of Asia Minor, famous for its swans. 

889, nt velo: as tvith an awning; a great sail-cloth protecting the 
spectators at the theatre. enbmovet: wards off. iottls: rays; •, 

Ace. Plural. 

390. TyrioB : that is, purple^ bright-colored. 

891. Quo Inco : iji this grove; poetical omission of in, 

898. pnellari gtndio : vdih girlish zeal, calathos : baskets. 

894. aeqnalee : her companions^ those of her own age. legendo : 
in gathering (the flowers) ; Abl. of Respect. 

895, paene simul : almost at the same time. dilecta : loved. 

Diti: by Dis (Pluto); Dat. of Agent. Dis {the Wealthy) was the god of 
the lower regions, the god of all the dead. Compare Cic. N. D. 11, 26: 
Dives, ut apud Graecos nXoi^wi', quia et recidant omnia in terras, et 
oriantur e terris. 

396. luqae adeo: to such a degree. maesto ore clamat: with 

sorrowful voice calls upon. 

898, gumma ah ora : from the upper edge. 

401. haec qnOque : even this. virginenm : the virgin's. 

402. nomine , , . vocatoe : calling each by name. 

403. per: over. 

404. fermgine : with the color of iron-rust. 

406. Falicoram : the Palici were twin brothers, local gods. mpta 
. , , terra : boiling up in a cleft of the earth. 

407. qua : where. Bacchiadae : a prominent family banished from 
Corinth, founders of Syracuse. 

408. inaeqnales: of the two ports of Syracuse, one was much the 

438. nequiqnam : iii vain. matri : Dat. of Agent. 

439. terris, profondo : Ablatives of Place Where. est qoaesita : 
was sought. 

440. illam : that is, Ceres. 

441. cessantem: loitering. 

442. snocendit ab : kindled at. 

443. inreqnieta : without resting, 

444. hebetarat : had dimmed. 

445. ab occasn ad ortns : from west to east ; over the whole world. 

462. per : over. erraverit : Subjunctive in Indirect Question. 

463. dicere ... est : it would take too long to tell. For the mood, see 
254, E. 1; A. & G. 311, 0; B. 271, i, b; H. 476, 5. 



in length. longam . . . seqiunti : lit. a shorter one coming Just below 

a long one» 

191. at . . . putes : so that you might think they grew on a slope, 
quondam: sometimes, often. 

192. avenis : with stalks of oats, 

198. Turn . . . imas : then he fastens them together with flax (thread) at 
the middle and wax at the bottom. 

194. parvo cnrvamine : toith a slight curve (inward). 

195. una stabat : was standing by. 

196. ignaruB se tractare : not knomng that he was handling. sua 
periola : things which would prove datigerous to him, 

197. ore renidenti : with beaming face, modo : now. 

199. mollibat (=molliebat): softened, kneaded. This form of the Im- 
perfect belongs to Early Latin and occurs only rarely in poetry, and then 
for metrical reasons. lusu suo : with his play, 

200. manus ultima : the finishing toiich. coeptie : upon the work ; 
Dative with prep, in composition. 

208. Medio . . . curras : to go by a middle route; construe with monet. 

204. ne : lest, demiesior : too low, 

206. spectare : to look at ; that is, to guide your course by the stars as 
sailors do. 

208. me . . . viam : make your way where Head; that is, simply follow 
me. Fariter : at the same time. praecepta volandi : instructions 

how to fly. 

210. Inter . . . seniles : in the midst of the work (fitting on the wings) and 
the advice, the old man^s cheeks grew moist. 

212. non iterum repetenda : never again to be repeated, 

218. ante: ahead, comiti: for his companion. velut ales: 

like a bird ; the comparison ends with nido. 

214. produzit : leads forth ; Iterative Perfect in comparisons. 

215. damnosas . . . artes : and teaches him the costly accomplishment. 
It cost Icarus his life. 

217. aliquis dum captat : sows fisherman catching. tremula harun- 
dine : with trembling rod; the fish jerked the pole. 

218. stiva . . . arator : or plowman leaning on his plowstock. 

219. quique: and since they ; Causal relative : 633 ; A. & G. 320, e; 
H. 517. carpere : to make their way through, 

220. lunonia : sacred to Juno. laeva parte : on the left. 

221. faerant . . . relietae : had beeti left behind. 

222. dextr& erat : was on the right, Samos was on the left, Lebinthus 
and Calymne on the right. 

228. audad : notice that adjectives of the third declension have i in the 
Ablative ; participles usually have e. 

225. Bapidi: destructive. 

226. ponnamm vincola : with which the feathers were fastened on. 

191-655.] PHILEMOK AKD BAUCIS. 11/ 

328. remigio : here equivalent to wings, 

329. oaerulea : goes with aqua. 

230. nomen : that is, the Icarian Sea, a part of the Aegean. 

281. neo iam : no longer. 

288. *Ioare' dioebat : adspezit : as he was saying * Icarus,^ he saw, 

284. devovit: cursed, sepnlcro: Ablative of Place Where. 


Met. VIII. — 626. hue: to this place; the scene is laid in Phrygia. 
ipede mortali : in the guise of a mortal, cnmqne parente : and with 

his father^ Jupiter. 

627. Atlantiades ; the grarhdson of Atlcbs^'^leTcxirY, cadndfer: the 
wand-hearing. With this staff (cadaceiu) Mercury was wont to close the 
eyes of men in slumber or wake them. 

628. loooin requiemque : a resting-place ; hendiadys : 698 ; B. 374, 4 ; 
H. 636, III., 3. 

629. Borae : holts^ bars, placed across the doors. 

680. Btipnlis . . . pcJuftri : thatched with straw and canes from the 

682. ilia casa : in that hut, casa is understood with the first ilia. 

634. neo . . . ferendo : a/nd by bearing it with resignation. nee iniqoa 

= et aequa. Notice the fondness of the Latin for the negative. 

685. nee refert : it makes no difference {whether). -ne : or, 

687. tetigere : reached, cams to, penates : house. 

688. Bnbmisso vertioe : unth bowed heads. postea : door. 

689. poBito Bedili : placing a seat. membra relevare : to rest ihemr 
selves, membra, corpua, and animos are often used in Latin where we 
prefer the reflexive. 

640. qno : over which, refers to sedili. textnm : rug. 

648. anima anili : with an old woman's breath, by bloiving, 

644. Knltifldas: split fine. 

645. minuit : broke. parvo . . . aOno : and placed them round a 
small bronze pot. 

646. Qnod : the antecedent is bolos. rigno : well-watered, con- 
legerat : had gathered, 

647. truncat boltu foliis : cuts the leaves from the vegetables. bolns : 
here = cabbage, farca . . . iuIb : she takes dotvn with a two-pronged 
fork the smoky side of bacon. 

648. tigno : from the rafter, 

649. de tergere : from the side. 

650. domat . . . nndis : that is, boils it soft, 

651. mediae fallnnt : they while away the intervening, 

656. oonontinntqne tonun: and (Anally) they shake up the bedding ; 

Il8 COMMENTARY. [Met. VIII. 656-T20. 

they prepare the couch upon which their guests are to recline at the 
meal. de : o/, giving the material. 

656. tponda . . . salignifl : of willow frame cmd posts; Abl. of Quality. 

659. non indignanda : well suited to. The bedstead had no right to 
complain that the bedclothes were too fine. 

660. Aocabaere : took their places mi the couch, reclined for the meal, 
laocinota : toith her skirts tucked up, 

662. Testa: a pot of earthenware. Quae poBtquam : after it. 

divam siutiilit : had removed the incline. 

668. mentae (Nom.) : mint ; she wiped the table with mint. 

.664. bioolor: the tujo-colored, first green, then black. linoerae: 

chaste, t/is virgiti. baca : berry ; that is, olives. 

665. faeoe: lyrine. 

666. intiba . . . ooaeti : endives, radishes, cheese. 

668. flctilibiui : on earthenware dishes. 

669. oaelatiiB eodem argento crater : a wine-howl made out of the same 
precious metal; that is, earthenware. fitbrieata fiEigo: made out of 

670. qua cava siint ixilita : smeared on the inside. 

671. foci . . . calentes : the Ivot fire-place sent forth. 

672. nee longae yina senectae : a/nd urines of no great age. For the nega- 
tive, compare 1. C84. 

678. paTilum seducta : moved a little to one side. Blensis secandis : 

that is, the dessert. This consisted of nuts, dried figs, dates, plums, 
apples, grapes, honey in the comb. 

674. nnx: nuts; Singular used collectively. 

678. nee . . . ▼olantas : that is, arid earnest hospitality. nee inen 
pauperqne : more closely, amd attentive and uthsparing. Compare 1. 634. 

679. cratera . . . yina : they see the howl fill itself of its own a^xord and 
the wine increase by itself. 

681. novitate: at the strange spectacle. Bupinis: up-turned, with 
the palms turned upward. 

682. timidTLB : timidly. Take with both subjects. 

683. dapibuB nnlliBqiie paratibtus : for their plain dinner. 

684. OQstodia : guardian. The Romans regarded geese as superior to 
watch-dogs. Once Rome was about to be taken by the Gauls in a night- 
attack, when geese gave the alarm and the city was saved. 

685. dis bospitibiu : to their divine guests. domini : the oumers. 

686. celer penna : swift of wing. tardea aetate : them, slow on ac- 
count of their age ; that is, the slow old pair. 

690. inmunibiis : predicate adjective agreeing with vobis. 

691. Kodo: ofily. 

698. ite Bimal : go tvith us. bacnllB leyati : supporting themselves 

with staffs. 
694. yestigia ponere : to place their tracks ; that is, to walk. 


695. Tantnxn . . . qnantnm : (when) they were aa far from the top as. 

696. mersa . . . cetera : everything else covered with water, 

697. tantnxn : only. teota : poetical Plural. 

699. dominis . . . dnobns : sTnall even for two, even its two owners regarded 
it as a small hut, 
' 700. forcas . . . oolnmnae : columns took the place of the props. 

701. Btramina fiaveBonnt : the thatch turns yellow. videntnr : pas- 
sive, tecta: roof. 

702. tellns : the earth-floor. 

707. Esse saoerdotes posdmns : we ask to be the priests. 

708. Concordes : in harmony. 

709. anferat . . . eadem : let the same hour carry us both off. 

710. bnsta: the tomb. ab ilia: a rare use instead of the Dative. 

711. Vota . . . seqnltnr : their prayers are answered., tntela: tJie 
guardians, like cnstodia : abstract for concrete. 

714. frondere: put forth leaves. They were turned into trees. 

719. frntez : the branches. 

720. de gemino corpore : from the two bodies. 


Met. X. — 1. Inde: thence; from the wedding of Iphis and lanthe in 
Crete. croceo : saffron. Brides usually wore veils of yellow or red. 

Here the god of marriage himself is represented as dressed in yellow. 

2. Cioonnm : of the Cicones, a people of Thrace. 

8. tendit: Juistens. Orphte (adj.): of Orpheus. 

4. Adfoit . . . qnidem : he came, indeed. soUenmia : festive. 

6. stridnla nsqne fait : kept hissing. lacrimoso : tear-bringing. 

7. motibns : could not be made to burn by shaking. 

8. Ezitns . . . gravior : the sequel was worse than the omen. 

9. nova nnpta : bride. naladnm . . . comitata : accompanied by a 
throng of naiads. She, too, was a nymph. 

10. ocddit : fell dead. talnm : heel. 

11. Qnam : Jier; object of deflevit. Bhodopelns yates : tJie Thradan 
hard ; that is, Orpheus. Rhodope was a mountain in Thrace. 

12. ne non et : that he might also. The Purpose depends on descendere. 

13. Taenaria porta : by the Tasnarian gate ; a place in Laconia. 

14. leves : light. Ghosts, having no substance, have no weight. 
fnncta sepnlcro: the unburied were not readily admitted to Tartarus, 
but were supposed to wander for a long period on the bank of the Styx. 

16. nervis : the chords, of the lyre. He played the accompaniment to 
his song on the lyre. 

17. positi : agrees with mnndi. nnmina is Vocative. 

18. in qoem . . . creamnr : into which all of us mortals fall. 

120 COMMENTABY. [Met. X. 21-74. 

31. neo • • . monttrl : nor to hind the Medtimea/n monstefa (that is, Cer- 
berus's) three throats, shaggy with serpents, 

83. ealoata : stepped upon, 

84. cresoenteB annoB : her youthful years, 
86. Posse pati : to be able to endure it, 

86. supera in ora : in the upper world, 

87. an sit et hio: whether here too, angnror: I divine, 

89. Per : in the name of, by ; used in prayers, entreaties, and 
81. properata : hastened, premature, retezite : umjoind, revoke. 

32. Omnia debentor ; everything is owed, 

83. serins ant oitins : sooner or later, sedem ad nnam : to the same 


86. Haec qnoqne : sJhe too, instos : her due, matnra : in the 
ripeness of life, 

87. inris erit vestri : will belong to you, nsnm : tJie loa/n, pro 
mnnere : instead of a gift, not a gift, 

88. Qnodsi : but if. oertnm . . . mild : / am resolved not to return, 

41. exsangnes : bloodless, incorporeal. animae : spirits. 

42. oaptavit : tried to catch. refdgam : fleeing. The thirsty Tan- 
talus, though surrounded by water, was unable to drink. stnpnit : 
stood still, orbis : wheel, Ixion was turned on a wheel as a punish- 
ment for his crimes. Vultures were devouring the liver of Tityos but it 
constantly grew again, that his punishment might be prolonged. The 
fifty daughters of Danaus (the Danaides, the grand-daughters of Belus), 
tried to lift water in sieves. The stone which Sisyphus was doomed to 
roll up hill, would always roll back. The Eumenides were the Furies, 
the avengers of crime. 

47. snstinet oranti neg^are : ha>s the heart to refuse his request. qni 
regit ima : the Ruler of the Underworld, that is, Pluto. 

49. inter: among; goes with nmbras. passu tardo: vnth a slow 

50. leg^m : the condition, 

52. ezierit: Perfect Subjunctive, representing the Future Perfect 
Indicative of the direct form. ant : else. fatnra : sc. esse. 

63. Garpitnr : is climbed ; translate: they climb, per mnta silentia : 

through the regions of profound silence. 

55. afafinmt : notice the quantity. tellnris snmmae : of the earth's 

56. ne defioeret metnens : fearing that she was not there, 
lyt, amans : fondly. 

58. braoohiaqne intendens : and stretching out her arms, 
68. vix aociperet : was scarcely able to catch ; Subjunctive of Character- 
78. portitor : the ferryman, Charon. diebns ; Time How Long is 

XI. 85h-108.] MIDAS. 121 

usually expressed by the Accusative ; see 893, 2 ; A. & G. 256, b and 
note; B. 231, i ; H. 879, i. 

74. squaliduB : in mourning. in ripa : on the bank of the Styx. 

CereriB sine munere : mithout food ; lit. without the gift of Ceres, 

12. MIDAS. 

Met. XI. — 85. hoc: Bacchus had changed into trees the Thraeian 
Bacchantes who had killed Orpheus. agroi: the country; that is, 


86. oomqne . . . meliore : and with a better troop {pi attendants) ; i.e. 
than those Maenads. sni Timoli : Tmolus was a mountain in Asia 
Minor. In that country the worship of Bacchus especially prevailed. 

87. qnamvlB : in model prose takes the Subjunctive : 606 and b. ; A. & 
G. 813, a and g; B. 309, i and 6 ; H. 515. n. 3. 

88. oaris: precious, because golden. invidioins: an object of 
eniyy, harenis : Ablative of Cause. 

89. Huno freqnentant : around him throng, 

90. Titnbantem : staggering ; agrees with the object (understood) of 

91. Yinctnm coronis : boutid with (= wearing) urreaths; a sign of revelry. 

93. orgia: the Bacchic rites. CecropiO: a poetical word for 
Athenian. Notice the Hiatus. This is especially likely to occur in Ovid 
in the Thesis of the fifth foot, and with a polysyllabic proper name, 
usually ending in 0. Eumolpus went from Thrace to Attica and there 
founded the Eleusinian Mysteries. He and Orpheus instructed Midas. 

94. Qui sinml : as somi as he (Midas). 

95. festtun . . . egit : he held a merry feast. 

97. Btellanun . . . agmen : had brought up the rear of the high stars; 
that is, it was the eleventh day. 

99. iuveni alomno : his youthful foster-son, Bacchus. 

100. optandi . . . arbitrinm : goAje him the pleasing but ha/rmful liberty 
of choosing a gift, 

101. altore recepto : becav^ he had recovered his foster-father ; Ablative 
of Cause. 

102. Effice vertatnr : cause to be turned ; nt is omitted, as often with 

104. solvit : paid, gave. 

106. malo: at (what proved to be) his misfortune. Berecsmtins: 
Berecyntus was a mountain in Phrygia from which came the worship of 
Cybeie, who was the mother of Midas. 

107. pollidti . . . temptat : and tests the efficacy of the gift (the fulfil- 
ment of the promise), by touching various objects, 

108. non alta ilioe: from a low holm-oak, fronde virentem: green 
with foliage. 

122 COMMENTARY. [Met. XI. 109-144. 

109. detrazit : plucked, 

110. tollit : notice throughout these lines the equality of the Historical 
Present and the Perfect. 

111. oontactu potenti : at his potent touch, 

112. massa : a nugget. 

114. HoBperidaa : the Hesperides guarded the golden apples of Atlas. 

115. admovit : translate as a Present if videntor is so translated. The 
Perfect is required in Latin to express antecedent action. So the Plu- 
perfect contigerat, in 1. 122, denotes action antecedent to rigebant. 
videntor: passive. 

116. liqnidis: clear, 

117. finens palmis : flovjing from his hands. eludere posset : might 
have deceived; Potential Subjunctive. DanaS, being shut up and closely 
guarded by her father, was deceived by Jupiter in the shape of golden 
rain coming down through the roof. 

120. daplbus: urith meats, tostae fnigiB: bread; lit. parched 

graijiy which was ground and made into bread. 

124. lammina : a layer of metal. premebat : covered, 

125. auctorem mimeriB : that is, Baoohtim = vuruni. 

126. videres : you might have seen ; Potential of the Past : 258 ; A. & 
G. 311, a; B. 280, 3 ; H.^486, n. 3. 

128. quae modo voverat : those things which he had lately prayed for, 

130. inviflo : hated ; goes with aoro. ab anro : poetical instead of 

the simple Ablative. The gold is personified as agent. meritns: 


181. splendida: shining , y^ith gold, 

188. miserere : take pity. specioso danmo : from this splendid mis- 


184. Mite detim iiiixnen : tJie disposition of the gods is merciful, 

185. pacti fide data : given in fulfilment of the compact. solvit : 

186. Neve maneas : and that you may not remain, 

188. perqae . . . viam: and make your way up the stream which glides 
along the mountain top, 

140. qua plnrimus exit : where it comes out with greatest force, 

141. corposque . . . crimen : and at the sams time wash off your body and 
your guilt. 

142. iussae aquae : the water indicated. Vis aurea tinxit : the virtue 
of changing things into gold colored, 

148. oessit : passed, 

144. peroepto : having been received, semine venae : the grains of 

the metal. 



(Abmobum Iudicium.) 

Met. XII. — 612. timor: terror; personified, Dreod. Fhrygum: of 

the Trojans, lit. Phrygians; Subjective Genitive. deons et tutela: 

the crown amd bulwark, Pelasgi : Grecian, lit. Pelasgian. 

618. Aeaoides : the grandson of Aeacus ; that is, Achilles. oaput : 

a man; synecdoche. 

614. arserat : had been cremated, armarat = armaverat. deiu 

idem: Vulcan (HephaistOs), the god of fire, had forged the arms of 

616. neseio . . . nraam : somethifig which can scarcely fill a small ttm ; 
Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

617. quae gloria oompleat : enough glory to fill, 

618. Haec mensiira respondet: this measure corresponds, viro: 
heroic soul. Achilles is properly measured by his fame, not by his 

619. par sibi : equal to himself ; the measure comes out right. neo 
. . . sentit : that is, in this he is immortal. 

620. ut . . . possifl : so that you might know what sort of a man it had 
belonged to, 

621. de armiB: for arms, arma fenmtnr: arms are taken up; 
figuratively, for the contest was one of words. 

622. Tydides: that is, Diomede. Olldte: sc. filins; Greek form 
of the Genitive. 

628. minor Atrides : that is, Menelaus. maior : Agamemnon. 

bello: Ablative 'of Respect. 

624. creato (Dat. of Possessor) : only the sons of Telamon and Laertes ; 
that is, Ajax and Ulysses. 

625. fait fidada : aspired to, lit. had confidence (in obtaining). 
laodifl : honor ; Objective Genitive. 

626. TantalidoB : that is, Agamemnon, the commander-in-chief of the 
Greeks, great-grandson of Tantalus. invidiam: unpopularity, the 
ill-will of the unsuccessful candidate and his friends. 

627. mediis castris : in the middle of the camp ; Abl. of Place Where. 

628. arbitriom . . . omnes : transferred the decision of the contest to all. 
Met. XIII. — 1. vnlgi . . .corona: a crowd of common soldiers standing 


2. snrgit . . . septemplieis : there rises up before them the lord of the 
sevenfold shield. It was covered with seven layers of ox-hide. snrg^t 

ad boa : compare the Homeric roSrt 5* avda-rrj. 

8. at : as. impatiens irae : unable to control his wrath, torvo 

with volta : lowering countenance. 


5. Agimm oausam : we are pleading the case, pro : oh, exclamation. 

6. confertnr : is compared. 

7. flammiii : the Trojans were at one time so successful that they hoped 
to burn the fleet of the Greeks. 

8. suBtinui : withstood. fagayi : drove away. 

9. fiotis yerbis : with made-up speeches; Ablative of Instrument. 
10. promptum: easij. 

18. valet iste loqaendo : Tie excels in speaking. 

18. memoranda esse mea facta : that it is necessary to relate my deeds. 

14. narret: Imperative Subjunctive. 

15. qaomm ... est : of which night alone Iciiows anything. 

17. aemuluB : (the character of) my competitor. Aiact . . . TTlixes : 

to Ajax it is no honor to obtain whatever Ulysses has hoped for, no mat- 
ter how greut it he. 

19. tulit pretinm : has carried of the prize, has been rewarded. 

20. quo feretnr : in that he will be said. quo : lit. in which, refer- 
ring to temptamixUs. 

81. in me : in my case. 

22. nobilitate : by nobility of birth. Telamone creatus : being a son 

of Telamon. 

28. forti sub Heotore oepit : agisted the brave Hercules in the capture of. 

24. Pagasaea carina: that is, the Argo. Pagasae was a harbor town 
near lolcus. 

25. huic: that is, to Telamon. illio: that is, in Tartarus, 
iura reddit : gives laws to, presides as judge over. 

26. Sisyphon: Sisyphus is especially mentioned, because by some he 
was said to be the father of Ulvsses. 

29. nee . . . prosit : and yet let not this descent (line of ancestors) be of 
advantage in the case. nee: Ovid frequently uses nee instead of neve 
with the Imperative and Imperative Subjunctive. 

30. frater : here for cousin, (frater patruelis) ; see 1. 41. 

82. fortis : Ablative of Respect. 

38. inserit Aeacidis : intrudes upon the Aeacidae. 

84. prior : first ; that is, before Ulysses. nullo sub indice : witlwut 

any informer. The reference is to Palamedes and is explained in the 
following lines. 

86. ultima qui cepit : who took up arms last. detrectavit : tried to 

escape. furore ficto: by feigning madness. According to the story, 

Ulysses feigned madness to avoid going to the Trojan war, because there 
was a prophecy that he would return to his home as a beggar after twenty 
years' absence. So when the Greek chieftains visited Ulysses, they found 
him plowing an ox and an ass yoked together. Palamedes, suspecting 
the deception, placed little Teleraachus, the son of Ulysses, in the way 
of the plow, and the father avoided hurting the child and so was de- 


37. donee . . . inutilior : imtil Palamedea^ cleverer them he hut less cap- 
cMe of taking care of his own interest. 

38. tixnidi : cowardly. comxnenta retezit : disclosed the falsehoods. 

39. If aapliadoB : son of NaupliuSy Palamedes. 

40. optima . . . smnat : should he receive the best arms. snniere : to take. 

41. nos simiu : should I be ; Potential Subjunctive. 

44. nee . . . Boelemm : and that this inciter to crimes had never come as 
a companion, had never joined the expedition. 

45. Poeantia proles : Philoctetes, Yiho had been left behind on account 
of an offensive sore on his foot. 

46. LemnoB : Nom. nostro ooxn crimine : to our reproach. 

48. 8axa: even the stones are affected by his lamentations. 
Lafirtiadae (Dat.): i.e. that Ulysses may meet his just reward. 

49. quae non yaaa precaris : for which you do not pray in vain. 

50. eadem . . . arma : having taken the same war-pledge as we. 
inratns : has an active meaning. nobis : the Dat. with idem is poet- 
ical, an imitation of Greek usage. 

51. pars una duoom : one of the leaders. quo . . . utuntur : who sue- 


eeeded to the arrows of Hercules ; lit. whom the arrows of Hercules use 
(have) as a successor. 

58. fraotus: crushed. 

58. velaturque aliturque : clothes and feeds himself. avibus : that 

is, with the feathers and flesh, respectively. 

54. debita fatis: it was fated that Troy could not be taken till the 
arrows came. 

57. sine erimine : charged ufith no crimes. 

58. Quem . . . finxit : for Ulysses, remembering too well the unfortunate 
detection of his (feigned) m-adness, falsely accused Palamedes of betraying 
the Grecian cause. 

60. crimen fictum : the trumped-up cliarge. praefoderat : had pre- 
viously buried. 

61. Tires . . . Achiyis : he sapped tJie strength of the Greeks, 
68. Qui lioet yineat : though he surpass. 

64. desertum If estora : the desertion of Nestor. 

65. Qui . . . Ulixen : for when he begged Ulysses for aid. 

67. mibi : by me. 

68. qui . . . corripuit : who, calling him often by name, chid him, 

69. fngam exprobrayit : upbraided for his flight. 
78. linquendus erat : ought to have been left, 

74. futura: immitient. 

75. Opposui . . . clipei : I placed my massy shield in front. 

76. inertem : of the coward ; the position of the word adds emphasis. 

77. si perstas certare : if you persist in contending (for the arms). 

80. cui . . . dederant : who, on account of his wounds, had not been able 
to stand up. 



88. deoB : the gods themselves engaged in the Trojan war. According 
to Homer (II. xv. 220 ff.), Zeus sent Apollo to defend Hector and frighten 
the Greeks. 

88. qnaqae : cmd where, non tu tantnm : not only you, 

86. eminiu : at a distance ; opposed to oomminnB. resupinum fadi : 
I laid low. ponders: t^^i/A* a t^eif/A/, i.e. a stone. 

87. pofloentem . . . concorreret : asking for some one tmth whom to fight j 
when he extended the challenge for single combat. cnm quo : cum 
may follow the relative (quocum, etc.) and must follow the personal pro- 
noun (mecum, etc.). 

88. flortem . . . yovistis : you prayed that the lot might fall upon me, 
98. in : against, facuudus : the eloquent, the talker, 

94. tot : goes with navibus. 

95. quaeritur . . . houos : a greater honoris sought for them than for me. 

97. armis, Aiad : Dat. of Agent. 

98. Gonferat Ms IthacuB : let the Itha^an compare with these deeds. 

99. Helenum . . . captum : the capture of Helenus and the abduction of 
(the statue of) Minerva, 

100. luce: in the day-time, Diomede remoto: without the aid of 

101. 81 Bomel datis : if you give at ail. meritis tarn vilibus : for 
such small deserts, 

108. sit : Imperative Subjunctive. 

103. Quo . . . Ithaco : hut of what use would these arms he to the Itha- 
can f quo : to what end, for what purpose, 

10 i. furtis : hy stealth, inoautum : off his guard, 

105. Ipse nitor galeae : the very glitter of the helmet. 
107. DulichiuB vertex: i.e. tJ^e head of Ulysses, casside: helmet. 

109. nee non potest esse : and. . .cannot hut be. 

110. caelatus imagine : engraved with the im^ge. 

111. conyeniet : ufill suit. sinistrae : Dative. The shield was borne 
on the left arm, leaving the right hand free for the spear or sword. 

112. quid : why, debilitaturum te : which will disable you, 

113. Quod (Ace): it, error: mistake, 

114. cur spolieris erit : it will he a reason why you should he robbed. 
spolieris : Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

115. qua sola yiucis : in which alo7ie you surpass, 

116. gestamina tanta : -so great a burden. 

117. Adde quod : moreover, 

118. nostro : Dat. with successor. 

119. mille patet plagis : has been broken through hy a thousaivd blows. 
180. speotemur agendo : let us be tested by action. 

182. referentem . . . relatis : give them to the one that brings them back. 
123. Yulgi : construe with murmur. 
134. ultima : his closing words. 


125. paulom teUure moratos : which had been for a short time fixed on 
the earth. 

127. sono : Dat. instead of in or ad with the Accusative. neque 
abest gratia : and there is a charm, 

128. mea cum yettris yota : your prayers and min^, 

130. tu : sc. potireris. poteremnr : = potiremnr. 

131. Quem: translate ?iim. nontkeqMA: unjust ^unkind, mihi: 
goes with negamnt. 

132. yeluti laorimantia : a,s if they were shedding tears, tersit : wiped. 
188. melioB Buoceclat : would better succeed. 

184. per quein Banais Buoeessit : the one through whose aid the Greeks 
succeeded in pi'ocuring, Danais sacoeflsit : lit. joined the Greeks. 

135. Huio . . . prosit : only let it not help my competitor. uti : as. 

hebes esse : = se hebetem esse ; Greek oonstruction. 

187. ingeninm : my cleverness. 

138. pro domino : for its possessor, 

139. inyidia . . . recnset : be free from prejudice (in your minds), and let 
each one (of us) not deny his good qualities, neo = neye : with Im- 
perative Subjunctive. 

140. genus : as to race. 

142. esse pronepos : that he is the great-grandson ; Greek construction, 
attracted Nom. instead of Ace. with Infinitive ; see 1. 135 above. 

143. totidem gradus : the same number of removes ; Ace. of Extent. 

145. in his : amo7ig these, damnatus et ezsul : a condemned exile, 
Telamon and Pele'us were banished for killing their brother Phoeus. 

146. per matrem : by my mother* s side, Gyllenius : that is, Mercury. 

147. in utroque parente : on both sides of the house. 

148. quod: because. matemo generosior ortu: of nobler blood on 
my mother^s side (than he). 

150. proposita : set up as a prize, meritis . . . eausam : weigh the 
case according to deserts. 

151. dummodo quod...non sit: only let not the fa^t that... be put 
down as, 

152. nee sanguinis ordo quaeratur : and let not blood relationship be con- 

153. yirtutis honor : distinction for valor. 

154. proximitas primusque heres : kinship and the nearest heir. 

156. Phthiam : to Fhthia ; where Peleus resided. Scyrus was tlic home 
of Pyrrhus. haec : these arms, 

157. isto : than AjojX. 

159. operum . . . habetur : since a pure contest of deeds is being lield, 
only our war-records are to be considered. 

160. quam ... sit : than I can easily embrace in words ; for the Charac- 
teristic Subjunctive after Comparatives, see 631, 3 ; A. & G. 320, c; B. 
383, 2, a ; H. 503, 3. 

128 • COMMENTARY. • [Met. XIII. 

162. genetrix Nerela : (Achilles') Nereid mother, Thetis. 
168. diuimulat onlta: disguises with a change of dress; she dressed 
him as a girl. 

164. fidlacia: deception; subject of deceperat. 

165. fexnineis merdlnu inierai : I inserted in the feminine wares. 
167. tenenti dizi : I said to him holding (=ashe held). 

170. ad fortia : to brave deeds, 

171. opera . . . sunt : his works are mine ; I deserve credit for all that 
he has done. 

172. orantem : begging for mercy, refeci : I restored^ healed, 
hasta : belongs also to refeci. 

173. quod Thebae oecidere : the fall of Thebes, a city in Mysia, destroyed 
by Achilles. me : subject of oepisse. 

175. Scynun : not the island but a city in Phrygia. 

176. solo: to the ground; Local Dative : 358 ; A. & G. 258, n. 1 ; B. 
193 ; H. 385, 4, 1. 

177. Tit alios taceam : not to mention others (than Hector). 

178. iaoet : lies dead. 

179. illis armis . . . Achilles : for those arms by which Achilles was dis- 
covered. • 

180. vivo : to him, while alive. post fata : after his death. 

181. dolor uniiu: the resentment of one, i.e. Menelaus, for the abduc- 
tion of Helen. perrexiit ad : extended to. 

182. mille carinae : the thousand ships (of the Grecian fleet). 

183. ezspectata . . . erant : the long-expected winds came not or were 

181. Bortet : the proclamation of the gods, through the seer Calchas. 
185. ijuneritaiii : innocent^ 

187. in rege ... est : is father as well as Icing. 

188. 'mite ingeniom: the merciful nature; the father was naturally 
inclined to spare his child. commoda : weal, 

190. diffieilem . . . causam : 1 icon a difficult case under a prejudiced 

191. utilitas: welfare. 

192. summa dati soeptri : the authority of the sceptre which was given 
him, the command-in-chief of the army. laudem . . . penset : to 
balance his honor with his blood, to give his daughter's life in return 
for the honor. 

193. et : also. hortanda : passive, astu : by cunning. 

194. Quo : translate there. 

195. lintea: sails. 

196. audax orator : as a bold 6nvoy. 

197. mihi: Dat. of Agent. curia: senate-house. 

198. egi communem causam : I pleaded our common case, the case of us 
all ; the antecedent is incorporated in the relative clause. 


200. praedam : the stolen treasures, 

201. moYOO : make an impression on. 

201. prima . . . paricli : that was the first day of my daii^ger with you, 
205. longa ... est : it would take too long to relate. 

207. acies : battles. nrbis moenibiu : within the walls of the city, 

208. aperti . . . Xartis : opportunity for open combat. 

208. decimo . . . anno : it was not tiU the tenth year that we fought reg- 
ular battles. 
210. nisi: concept. 

214. mente plaoida: with contented mind, quo modo: how, 
simns : Subjunctive in the Indirect Question. 

215. nsns: expediency. 

216. monitn : at the warning. 

218. Yooem : order. auctore : by his adviser, i.e. Jupiter. 

219. delendaque Pergama poscat : but should dem,and the destruction of 
Troy. poBoat : Potential Subjunctive. 

220. qnodque potest, pagnet : and shouJd fight, which is all he can do, 

221. dat . . . sequatnr : give the unstable throng something to follow, 

222. numquam . . . loquenti : who never says anything that is not great, 
who is always talking of his great deeds. 

223. Quid . . . fdgit : nay, he even fled himself. Quid quod : what (of 
this) that ; a rhetorical way of bringing in a surprising statement. 

224. inhonesta vela : dishonorable sails ; a disgraceful flight. 

225. Nee mora, dizi : and immediately I said. 

226. dimittere : to let go, give up. 

228. talibus: sc. dictis. in quae: for which. disertum: elo- 
quent, sc. me. 

229. ayersos reduxi : I turfied them from their purpose and brought them 
back ; ayersos may mean also turned away (from Troy), profuga : fleeing, 

231. Mscere quicquam: to open his mouth. 

232. incessere : to attack, dictis proteryis : in a bold speech. 

233. etiam . . . impune : {but) not without punishment at my hatids again; 
the return of the fleet and his punishment are both to be placed to my 

284. Erigor: I rise, 

235. repono: I bring back. 

236. tempore ab hoo : from that time on, 

237. iste : that fellow Ajax. qui : translate for I, 

238. de Danais quis : who of the Greeks. 
289. communieat: shares. 

240. TTlize : the Instrumental Abl. with confidere is seldom personal. 

241. unum: alone. 

242. legi : to be chosen. sors : a reference to Ajax's fight with Hector. 
244. ausum . . . nos : who dared the same things that we dared, viz. to 

go into the enemy's camp at night as a spy. 


245. ante quam oo0gi : before I compelled him, 

247. nee . . . habebam : and had nothing to spy out, specnlarer : 

Subjunctive of Characteristic after negative. 
249. eo : with that ; that is, the capture of Dolon. 

251. victor . . . potitna : having successfully accomplished my pur- 

252. captiyo ingredior oarm : / come in on a captured chariot, 
imitante : translate as if celebrating. 

253. Cnim eqnos : Dolon had demanded the horses of Achilles as the 
price of his night's spying. The antecedent of cninB) if expressed, would 
limit arma. 

254. arma . . . Aiax : reftise me the arms and Ajaac will prove more gener- 
ous. The Imperative expresses a Condition. 

255. Quid referam : why should I relate ; Dubitative Subjunctive com- 
mon in questions. Sarpedonis: Sarpedon was king of the Lycians 
and an ally of the Trojans. 

256. dun . . . fadi : / routed with plenteous bloodshed, 
263. looo : they were in front. 

266. nil impendit sangninis in sooios : has shed no blood for his com- 

268. Quid rOfert : what difference does it make. 

269. rtfert: relates. 

270. neqne menm est : it is not my way, benefacta maligne detrac- 
tare : to maliciously make light of services. 

271. ne commnnia ooeapet : let him not take things that belong to us all, 
that is, take upon himself the credit for what we all have done. 

273. Actorides: the grandson of Actor, Patroclus. imagine: he 
had borrowed the armor of Achilles. 

274. ab . . . carinifl : from the ships which were about to he burnt aUmg 
with th^r dpfender, Ajax. 

275. Be solum amnm ooneurrere : that he alone da/red to mset. 

276. mei : Objective Genitive. 

277. nonus in officio : one of nine in offering his services. Nine of tGe 
leaders offered themselves, and the choice was made by lot. 

278. eyentuB quia fait : wh^t was the result, vestrae : that is, tnae 
et Hectoris. 

280. me : Accusative in Exclamation. quanto dolore : with how 
much grief. 

281. quo : whsn. Achilles : in apposition to mnms. 

283. tardarunt qnin : prevented from. humo sublime : lifted up 

from the ground. 

285. laboro : I am striving. ferre : to carry (off). 

286. quae valeant in : sufficient for ; Subjv. of Characteristic. 

287. sensams : which will appreciate. 

288. Sdlioet idoirco : pray, was it for this that ; idcirco is explained by 


the following ut clause. ofternla : sea-eolored; a constant epithet of 

the marine divinities. 

889. ambitiosa fiiit : used entreaty. She begged Vulcan to make the 

290. artis opu tantae: a work of 9uck great skill; Gen. of Quality. 
This refers especially to the shield engraved by Vulcan in bas-relief, 
radifl et sine peetore : unpolished and obtuse. 

291. indueret: might wear; Subjv. of Design. elipei eaelamina: 
for a detailed description, see Homer, II. xviii. 483 ff. 

293. Arcton : the Greek word for Bear, Compare Homer, II. xviii. 
486 : HXijiddas 0^ 'T(£5a$ re t6 re aOivoi *QaplufvoSf ApKTov 0\ 

294. diversas nrbes : the unlike cities. Two cities were represented on 
the shield, the one eagerly celebrating a marriage festival with music 
and dancing, the other filled with the horrors of war. 

296. Quid quod arg^t . .^ . neo sentit : he even accuses . . . and does not 
perceive, fogientexn munera : of trying to evade the service. 

297. Bernm aoeeflsUse : and of coming as a late recruit. 
299. Binmlasse : feigning, acting a part. 

301. pia: affectionate. 

308. erimen oomnmne : a charge shared, 

806. Neve . . . earn \ and that we may not wonder that he pours upon me 
the reproaches of a foolish tongue. 

807. digna pudore : shameful deeds. 

308. false orimine : on a false cha/rge, torpe (sc. est) : is it dis- 


811. tamque patens : and so dear, neo yos audistis : nor did you 

(merely) hear, in illo : in his case. 

312. praesto objeota : being placed before your eyes. 

813. Ynloania : sacred to Vulcan, 

314. Neo esse rens memi : and I did not deserve the blame. 

815. me snasisse : that I advised him, 

316. at se snbtraheret labor! : to withdraw from the annoyances. 

319. non tantnm fida . . . fidelem : woa not only given in good faith but 
turned otU weU, althougli it is enough tliat it was given in good faith, 

321. melius Telamonius ibit : Ajax wiU be a better messenger ; ironical. 

322. eloquioque : and uith his eloquence, 

323. aliqua arte : by some skilful device, oallidus : cunningly. 

324. Ante : goes with quam. retro : backward. 

326. oessante meo peetore : whUe my brain does nothing. 

327. Banais prosit : wiU aid the Greeks. 
828. sis lioet infestus : though you hate. 

329. licet . . . caput : though you curse and hurl imprecations without 
end at my head. 

332. to tamen . . . nostri : nevertheless I wiU approach you, I will put 
myself in your poioer. 

132 COMMfiSTAKT. [MiT. XIIL 331-397. 

3SS. OuiisHW vBte : tke^Tix^m mer^ HelenosL 
33t. ^paa^-nimn.i jmM OM I di§d4t9£d. 

337. agnm fiin»tn1a : CAtf temple Matme; the PkUadiom, which «»5 in 
the temple. 
339. VcHV» fnhilni^iit fatm, : svrefg ike faUs forbade; iiomcaL 
311. Ub : in iJiriM ixMamee, 
3tlL «BBaUas: ie>aieAeM, 
34ft. na afli* : /rv« ker temple. 

347. frvsti» gartHMt lacva : «ii7vM 4(7«f fri>rji^ in raim om kU left arm^ 
34S. mShi . . . fute «t : CA^ wiet^fry ow-r Trog mlu iRtyn by me. 

349. cam . . . tm^ : «A^m I tmade H pattHUefcr U tobe eomqMereA. 

350. TydiAeB Mnm : mg friend Diomede. 

331. pm . . . im iQa : he has his tkare ^ftke konar. 
3S3. |v» : before, in dffewm of. 

333. t£bt taite caaM : j^k bad a emfttd of etnmpamioms, tmmm : in 
appcks:iic»a to tnte. 

334. Qfd. . . . «n i if ke did ntjtf it'Ji'»* f (<i# <i fyHer mu imferiar Mo a 

335. iniliiMiliii ; inwimeiUe^ 

353. Bodcntiar : CA4f atare tmod^M ; the son of Oiieas. 

353. fBtna/fB0 cntttn wadgim : aiiif Ait f^Uate-coMminfmA 

359. frmtar : Mecelausw 

331. tmaSSoM «Ban ■■§ : ike^ hare fielded ta mg cymnml», art imfe 
tM uriidom. 

333. iagadnn . . . — Uu : U w j^owr imteOeet thai need» my gaidamex. 

365. tapradM: ym omuL 

333. fUBl* : a* muek a*. tmpent : glides. «Btot 

: surpoMte* ike mrk of the rover, is 9¥peni*r io the rower, 
: prononnce as a dissyllable. 

333. Vae nan . • . nnnn z *o foo in my per^an my ihULigenee i» smperior 
to my drenytii. 

370. Tigili THtn : to yomr yvard^ 

371. froqaa . - . «gi : o^d in retvrn for tike waieAfulnem of w tnany 
ye'irt. ttMrk I kire pii*6ed in anji^ty. 

373. titalra : hm^r. poaiandun : translate «u a eompensaSifin. 

373. laB ... flit : now ovr U^i* it at a"» e\d, «ttaatii : rematiriy. 

374. poflw Oft firifdn : hy m.iXi'-ty ii p:*ffii'he to e^iptvre iL 

375. For tym woeum : by ^'vr m^tit'^d A<!>/wjl caamm : d:^omed toftdL 
373. ^flam . . . adoai : ir^ii^A / htrte l^<(ly taJten avay from the enemy. 
377. aqnd: te^tUer^r. quod . . . agcndnn : thiii mwut be done miA 

lit : Sub;r. of Charaoteiisrie. 
373. andaz ex |n«qptiqafl : daring and rieky, 
MI : Objective Genii ire. 


381. fatale : fateful, 

382. Xota ... est : the hand of chiefs vxu moved, quid &eiindia 
posset : the poioer of eloquence, posset : Subjunctive in Indirect 

388. re patoit : was shown by the result, 

384. qui : that is, A jax. 

385. snstinnit : withstood. 

387. hie eerte : this one at least, 

388. hoc . . . mihi : I must use it against myself. On account of the 
gender, take hoc as Ablative and utendnm est as impersonal, though the 
verb is also used personally in this form. qnique: and the sword 

891. turn demum: then at last, Ulysses had said that Ajax had no 

398. qua patuit fermm : as far as the blade was exposed, that is, up to 
the hat. 

395. pnrpiireiini genuit florem : brought forth a purple flower. de : 

396. Oebalio de yulnere : from the wound (blood) of Byacinthus. He 
was a favorite of Apollo, and was accidentally killed by him with a 
discus. The flower cannot be identified with our hyacintli. 

397. littera commiinis paeroque viroque : letters common to the boy and 
the hero, AIAI, the Greek exclamation (af aZ) Alas I (querellae)) and the 
beginning of the name Aiax (Gr. Atdf), (nominis), 


After the death of Julius Caesar a decree of the Senate was passed 
declaring him a god, and a temple was erected in his honor. 

Met. XV. — 746. sua : his native. Marte togaque praecipuum : though 
highly distinguished in wa/t and peace. toga : properly the duter gar- 

ment or cloak worn by Eoman civilians. 

747. magis : goes with quam in 1. 750. finita triumphis : loound up 
with triumphs; on returning to Rome after a successful war, the general 
was usually permitted to enter the city in triumphal procession with 
captives, booty, etc. This privilege was highly esteemed by the Romans. 

748. properata gloria rerum : a simft career of world-vride glory. 
properata : hastened ; that is, quickly acquired. 

749. vertSre : Perfect. sidus : luminai'y. stellamque oomantem : 
a star with flowing hair ; that is, a comet y which is a Greek word of simi- 
lar significance. Notice that que is not translated, stellamque oomantem 
merely explains the preceding sidus. Suetonius says that a comet appeared 
shortly after the death of Caesar and shone for seven days and that the 
people believed it was Caesar s soul. 

134 COMMENTABY. [Met. XV. 


750. progenies : that is, Augustus, grand-nephew and adopted son of 
Caesar. When these flattering words were written, he was Emperor of 
Borne and ruler of most of the known world. de : of. 

751. quam . . . hniiu : than becoming the father of this man. 

752. Scilicet plm est : prap^ is it more, aequoreos : islar^-dweUing, 

753. septemflna finmina: the sevenfold streams, the seven mouths of 
the Nile. septemflna : lit. seven- flowing. 

755. Cinyphimii : Ginyphian = Libyan, African ; the Cinyps was a 
river in Libya. Juba was the warlike king of the Numidians. 
Mithridateisque tnmentem nominibns : puffed up on account of the fa/me of 
Mithridates, who was the most famous king of that country. 

756. Pontnm: the Pontus, a kingdom in the northern part of Asia 
Minor near the Black Sea. popnlo Qnirini : to the people of Quirinus, 
that is, the Roman people; Quirinus was the deified Romulus, the 
founder of Rome. 

757. egisse : to have celebrated. 

758. Quo praeside renim: unth him as ruler of the toorld; that is, by 
making him ruler. Parse as Ablative Absolute. 

760. hie : that is, Augustus. eretus : born. 

761. ille : that is, Julius Caesar. Quod : object of yidit = this. 
anrea: golden, a frequent attribute of Venus =^rcciow« as gold or 
adorned unth gold or resplendent with beauty. 

762. yidit quoque : and saw also. 

763. pentifid : for tlie chief priest ; Caesar held the office of pontifex 
mazimns. coniurata: of conspirators, lit. conspired. 

764. ut cuique erat obvia : wlienever she met any of tlum. 

765. quanta mole : vsith how great effort. 

766. caput quod solum restat : the life of the only man that remains. 

767. de Bardanio lulo : descended from the Trojan lulus, the son of 

768. instis exerdta curis : harassed with welt-founded cares. 

760. quam : tlie one thai. Tydidaa : Venus once entered the battle 

at Troy and was wounded on the hand by Diomede and frightened 
away. vulneret: Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

770. confdndant : distress. moenla : the (falling) waUs. 

771. natum: that is, Aeneas. His wanderings and adventures are told 
at length by Vergil in the Aeneid. 

772. sedes silentum : Aeneas made a visit to the Lower World, 
silentum : poetic for silentinm. 

775. damna: troubles, lit. losses. timer hie: the present fear ; that 
is, for Caesar. 

776. acui : are being sharpened; for the Ace. and Inf., see 527; A. &G. 
336 ; B. 331 ; n. 535. 

778. caede sacerdotis : with the Uood of a priest. Caesar, as pontifex 


mazimiu, had general charge of the worship of Vesta, but there were 
especial priestesses, the Vestal virgins, whose duty it was to ke«p the fires 
of Vesta ever burning. If, by any mischance, they were extinguished, 
it was regarded as a great misfortune to the state and special ceremonies 
had to be performed. 

780. iadt : throtM out, utters unth force, qui quamqnam : aWiough 

781. ferrea : ironA>ound, because unchangeable. flQromm : that is, 
the Parcae, the Fates. 

788. luotns: Genitive. 

783. ftnmt arma crepitaatia praemonuine : theiy 9ay HuU dashing arms 
foretold, crepitaatia : exceptional position. praemonuiiM : gave 
warning in advance. 

784. oaelo : in the sky; Ablative of Place Where. 

785. Solis : from sol. 

786. lorida: pale, faint, wan. 

787. faoef : torches, referring to meteoric phenomena. nMdiii sub 
astrii : under the middle of the stars; that is, in the sky beneath the stars. 

788. inter nimbof : among the rain-drops. guttae cmentae : drops 
of blood. 

789. Caemliu . . . erat : the Morning Star was dark and his face was 
covered wU7i a black rust color. yultum : Accusative of Respect. 

790. Lunares onrnii : the chariot of the Moon. 

791. StygiuB bube : the owl, foreboding death. Stygins : Stygian, 
pertaining to the Styx, a stream in the Lower World. 

798. ebur: (statues of) ivory. fenmtur auditi: are said to have 

been heard. 

794. litat: gives favorable omens. 

795. fibra : the entrails, of the victim. exta : the vitals, including 
liver, heart, lungs, etc. eaemm caput reperitur: the head (of the 
liver) is found cut. caput (iecorii) : a protuberance on the upper part 
of the liver. It was a bad omen if the liver was found injured in any 
way. Here caesom caput forebodes the violent death of Caesar. 

797. nocturnes: at night; in predicative attribution. 

798. tremoribus : by earthquakes. 

799. yincere : overcome, prevent. 

800. praemonituB deum : the forewamings of tJie gods ; subject. 

801. templum: a temple, a holy place; here used of the senate-house 
built by Pompey (curia Pompeii), which was a consecrated building. 

808. Gytherea : that is, Venus. 

804. Aeneaden: the descendant of Aeneas ; that is, Caesar. condere 
nube: to hide in a doud; a favorite device of the gods when they wish 
to protect mortals. 

805. qua : by which means; the antecedent is nube. Atridae : from 
the son of Atreus, that is, Menelaus; Dative of Separation. Paris and 



'^llET. XT, 

jus: nsBcuet iicr bol Aotw»»^. vnei. aiit ^cit vniaiurc ql iiit maic vy X>i:— 
nietK.. Set 1. TtiS*. 

MS. flsva» : t< n^rwr 7f lUtokL. listtm Ins 9R : vot> fion^ jRovr- 

Hkf trrhiiHT (f^ iisu : h. Lisinrr of 

1.1 inR. 


KA. Vt doBB wmaAai fnlw, Jmbbb : y/>ii trkT r.£-ttfr fan» 7t nrmt i» Jb^ffve» 

tt£. miv aaapcni : vt^&r** ]^ «rodrnit/.''/ ■,' ii:i:j;«i ilif c T3&i^:iiy of iDns, 

iBL XmanM: Gri^i-T-e jfjiKiiirjr or SMuau In the year 43 b.c. 

iM^f.'ivLiik lir-jiuf va« lieaecfsi in X^iiii* It Mi^i Ari.tny, Oeiaviaa 
^hfi'jerwhs^f' t:»-"t*i AxLimsrs^' ii.itr.>f»i iirfc: 7.5:1 At:::it:t ajid defeated 
i.^u_ TbaasmJU^z u c.?iri:-i in TbessklT, fi::_.u? f.c- :be baiiie between 
CtoebJtr fcu i F:*TLi*tj 4^ ilc. 1 Afierwsri? a: Pm. t r^i. in liiis same region, 

: jrz'jerlj of a difcrj.i in XAOt»i:iTi:;A. bf-i^ = TketaaUtUK 
ihaT is. PcTnpcT, Stilus P.-mpej. son of Pompey 
tut Or^tfi-T 'Wag««l. va? dtff^ied DCir >!}:»e i- Sicilijai v;ftlers (Seolis 

JbmihI dikos: ihal is. Anionr; ;he iWnlrlTe «depends on teadma 
««ii.>.i. i:- f.ini is Dstiv^, drpendiiii: v>n fin. «■usbz Aflgjptia: that 

it, C>' :*'*?*- t»ed*8: iK.7rn^.7,.v<'»«nrA, f36..7-n..7pf, 

tS». CxpsvoHiA: iKe Cjpit.'f, tAf\e liTT, in R.^ine, here used for 
ii'^tv:: t'.^ F.-ri: if p>trt:c. GtBopo: Tax. 7^:^ a city in lower Egypt, 

ijffT^ '-vi^ f'.r lE-'^yi*^ The Dative dt jvr.vis on MrHtum. 

3aa: lA^ ia id* </ tlf hirKirio**, cor.qneied by Au- 
^fc, mk: ^*» / in ihe east and in ihe west. 

habitabile: fw7 r.^t' a»kVjN> ?,md fA<rt. 
: a;rr«e^5 with «iiiini»n. 


834. mores reget: uill regulate the morals. Augustus was not very 
successful in this attempt. 

836. prolem : refers to Tiberius, stepson of Augustus. He was adopted 
by Augustus and succeeded him. sancta: chaste; Livia, however, 

was not better than her age. 

838. nisi cum: until. senior: as an old man, Fylios annos: 
the years of the Pylian, that is, of Nestor, who dwelt in Pylus and was 
famous for his great age. 

839. cognata sidera : kindred stag's ; referring to Caesar. 

840. Hanc axiimam: this soul; that is, Caesar's. 

841. fac iubar: turn into a radiant star. Capitolia nostra: the 
speaker, Jupiter, possessed a famous temple on the Capitoline. 

842. aede : his temple was situated on the Foi*um. 

848. media sede senatns : in the middle of the senate-chamber. 

844. alma : nourishing ^ gracious. ntdli oernenda : visible to none. 

845. Arrange: animam recentem sui Caesaris eripuit memhris (from the 
body) nee in aSra solvi passa {and did not suffer it. . .but). reoentem : 
translate : as soon as lie was killed. 

846. astris : to the stars. 

847. lumen capere sensit : slie perceived it light up. 

848. ilia: subject. 

849. crinem : that is, the tail of the comet. 

850. nati : that is, Aiigustus. 

851. suis : than his own. 

852. Hie: that is, Augustus. patemis : to those of his father, 

853. libera: being free. obnozia: subject. 

854. invitum : against his wUl. una in parte repngnat : opposes Mm 
in this one particular. 

855. oedit titulis : yields to the^ titles oflionor, is inferior in fame. 
Atrens, etc. : instances of the inferiority of father to son. 

857. ut . . . utar : to use an illustration befitting their rank ; Augustus 
and Caesar are so great that none but Jupiter and Saturn deserve to be 
compared with them. 

859. temperat: rules. triformis: threefold; sky, land, and sea. 


Met. XV. — 871. ezegi : 1 Iiave finisTicd. lovis ira : that is, 


872. edax vetustas : the tooth of time. abolere : destroy. 

873. oum volet . . . aevi : let that day (i.e. death), which has no power 
except over this body, end my uncertain life-period when it pleases. 

877. qua patet Eomana potentia : as far as ths Roman power extends, 
terris domitis : over th^ conquered lands. 

878. fama : by reputation. 

136 COMMENTARY. [Met. XV. 

Menelaus were engaged in single combat, when Paris, getting the worst of 
it, was rescued by Venus. 

806. Biomedeot ensds : the sword of IHomede ; poetic Plural. Venus had 
just rescued her son Aeneas, when she was wounded on the hand by Dio- 
mede. See 1. 769. 

807. TalibiLS hano genitor : 7ier father (Jupiter) addresses her a^ follows, 

808. movere: to movey to shake. Intres licet ipsa: you may your- 
self enter. Boronun: seel. 781. 

809. molimine vasto : of vast structure ; Ablative of Quality, limiting 

810. remm tabolaria: th^ archives of fate; a history of all time, as it 

811. conooBsiiiii caeli : the shaking ofhca/oen ; that is, thunder. 

812. tuta atque aetema: being secure and eternal; agree with quae, 
rninas: downfall. 

818. adamante perenni : in efcerlasting steel. 

816. Hie : he ; that is, Caesar. sua tempera : his (allotted) time. 

818. Tit deu8 aceedat caelo, fades : you will cause him to come to heaven 
as a god. 

820. Arrange : fortissimnB alter {a^ the a/oenger) oaedis parentis nos sues 
{as his allies) in bella habebit. 

822. niias auspiciis : under his leadership; notice the quantity of illius, 
permissible in poetry. It was the privilege of the generals to consult 
the gods for omens (anspida). 

828. Mutinae: Genitive depending on moenia. In the year 43 B.C. 
Decimus Bmtus was besieged in Mutina by Mark Antony. Octavian 
(afterwards called Augustus) marched against Antony and defeated 
him. Pbarsalia : a district in Thessaly, famous for the battle between 
Caesar and Pompey (48 b.c.). Afterwards at Philippi, in this same region, 
Octavian and Antony defeated M. Brutus and Cassius (42 B.C.) 

824. Emathii : properly of a district in Macedonia, here = Thessalian, 

825. magnum nomen : that is, Pompey. Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey 
the (jreat (Magnns), was defeated near Mylae in Sicilian waters (Sioulis 
undis) by Agrippa, Octavian*s admiral (36 B.C.) 

826. Bomani duds : that is, Antony ; the Genitive depends on taedae, 
which in turn is Dative, depending on fisa. coniimz Aegsrptia : that 
is, Cleopatra. taedaa: marriage-torch, marriage. 

827. non bene fisa : ununsely trusting. 

828. Gapitolia : the Capitol, the Capitoline hUl, in Rome, here used for 
Rome ; the Plural is poetic. Ganopo : Canopy^, a city in lower Egypt, 
here used for Egypt. The Dative depends on servitura. 

829. barbariam: the lands of the barbarians, conquered by Au- 
gustus, ab : on; in the east and in the west. 

830. Quodoumque habitabile : aU the habitable land that, 
883. suum : agrees with animnm. 


834. mores reget: tcill regulate tJie morals. Augustus was not very 
successful in this attempt. 

886. prolem ; refers to Tiberius, stepson of Augustus. He was adopted 
by Augustus and succeeded him. sancta: chaste; Livia, however, 

was not better than her age. 

888. nisi cum: untU, senior: as an old man. Pylios annos: 

tJie yea/rs of the Pylian, that is, of Nestor, who dwelt in Pylus and was 
famous for his great age. 

839. cognata sidera: kindred stars; referring to Caesar. 

840. Hano animam: this soul; that is, Caesar's. 

841. fac iubar: turn into a radiant star. Gapitolia nostra: the 
speaker, Jupiter, possessed a famous temple on the Capitoline. 

842. aede : his temple was situated on the Forum. 

843. media sede senatns : in the middle of the senate-ehamher. 

844. alma : nourishing^ gracious. nulli oernenda : msible to none. 

845. Arrange : animam reoentem sui Caesaris eripoit membrls (from the 
body) nee in aSra solvi passa {and did not suffer it, . ,hut). reoentem : 
translate : as soon as he was killed. 

846. astris : to the stars. 

847. lumen capere sensit : she perceived it light up, 

848. ilia: subject. 

849. orinem : that is, the tail of the comet. 

850. nati : that is, Augustus. 

851. sols : than Ids own. 

852. Hie: that is, Augustus. patemis : to those of his father. 

858. libera: being free, obnozia: suiyect. 

854. invitnm : against his will. nna in parte repognat : opposes him 
in this one particular. 

855. oedit titnlis : yields to th^ titles ofJionor, is inferior infamy. 
Atrens, etc. : instances of the inferiority of father to son. 

857. ut . . . utar : to use an illustration befitting th^ir rank; Augustus 
and Caesar are so great that none but Jupiter and Saturn deserve to be 
compared with them. 

859. temperat: rules. triformis: threefold; sky, land, and sea. 


Met. XV. — 871. exegi : 1 Itave finished. lovis ira : that is, 


872. edax yetnstas : the tooth of time. abolere : destroy. 

873. oom Yolet . . . aevi : let that day (i.e. death), which has no poioer 
except over this body, end my uncertain life-period when it pleases. 

877. qua patet Somana potentia : as far as the Roman power extends. 
terris domitis : over the conquered lands. 

878, fama ; by reputation. 

136 COMMENTARY. [Met. XV. 

Menelaus were engaged in single combat, when Paris, getting the worst of 
it, was rescued by Venus. 

806. Diomedem emu» : the 9word of Diamede ; poetic Plural. Venus had 
just rescued her son Aeneas, when she was wounded on the hand by Dio- 
mede. See 1. 769. 

807. Talibrui hano genitor : her father (Jupiter) addrewes her as follows, 

808. movere: to move, to shake. Intres licet ipsa: you may your- 
self enter. Boronim: seel. 781. 

809. moUmine yasto : of vast structure ; Ablative of Quality, limiting 

810. remm tabularia: the archives of fate; a history of all time, as it 

811. conenasnm oaeli : the shaking ofJiea/oen ; that is, thunder. 

812. tuta atque aetema: heing secure and eternal; agree with quae, 
minas: downfall. 

813. adamante perexmi : in eoerlasting steel. 

816. Hio : he ; that is, Caesar. sua tempera : his (allotted) time. 

818. Ut dens aooedat oaelo, fiEudes : you will cause him to come to heaven 
as a god. 

820. Arrange : fortissimns niter (as the a/oenger) caedis parentis nos snos 
{as his allies) in bella habebit. 

822. niins anspioiis : under his leadership; notice the quantity of illins, 
permissible in poetry. It was the privilege of the generals to consult 
the gods for omens (anspicia). 

823. Mntinae: Genitive depending on moenia. In the year 43 B.C. 
Decimus Brutus was besieged in Mutina by Mark Antony. Octavian 
(afterwards called Augustus) marched against Antony and defeated 
him. Pbarsalia : a district in Thessaly, famous for the battle between 
Caesar and Pompey (48 B.C.). Afterwards at Philippi, in this same region, 
Octavian and Antony defeated M. Brutus and Cassias (42 b.c.) 

824. Emathii : properly of a district in Macedonia, here =: Thessalian, 

825. magnnm nomen : that is, Pompey. Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey 
the (jreat (Magnns), was defeated near Mylae in Sicilian waters (Sicnlis 
nndis) by Agrippa, Octavian*s admiral (36 b.c.) 

826. Somani dnois : that is, Antony ; the Genitive depends on taedae, 
which in turn is Dative, depending on fisa. coninnx Aegyptia : that 
is, Cleopatra. taedae: marriage-torch, marriage. 

827. non bene fisa : unwisely trusting. 

828. Gapitolia : the Capitol, the Capitoline hid, in Rome, here iised for 
Rome ; the Plural is poetic. Canopo : Canopus, a city in lower Egypt, 
here used for Egypt. The Dative depends on servitnra. 

829. barbariam: the lands of the barbarians, conquered by Au- 
gustus, ab : on; in the east and in the west. 

830. Qnodcnmqne babitabile : all the habitable land thai, 
833. snnm : agrees with animnm. 


834. mores reget: wUl regulate the morals. Augustus was not very 
successful in this attempt. 

886. prolem : refers to Tiberius, stepson of Augustus. He was adopted 
by Augustus and succeeded him. sancta: chaste; Livia, however, 

was not better than her age. 

888. nisi cum : until, senior : as an old man, Pylios annos : 

the years of the Pylian, that is, of Nestor, who dwelt in Pylus and was 
famous for his great age. 

839. cognata sidera: kindred stars; referring to Caesar. 

840. Hanc animam: this soul; that is, Caesar's. 

841. fac iubar: turn into a radiant star. Gapltolia nostra: the 
speaker, Jupiter, possessed a famous temple on the Capitoline. 

842. aede : his temple was situated on the Forum. 

843. media sede senatns : in the middle of the senate-chamber. 

844. alma : nourishing, gracious. nulli cernenda : visUde to none. 

845. Arrange : animam reoentem sui Caesaris eripoit membris (from the 
body) nee in aSra solvl passa {and did not suffer it. . .but). reoentem : 
translate : as soon as he was killed. 

846. astris : to the sta/rs. 

847. lumen capere sensit : she perceived it light up. 

848. ilia: subject. 

849. crinem : that is, the tail of the comet. 

850. nati : that is, Augustus. 

851. sols : than his own. 

852. Hie: that is, Augustus. patemis: to those of his father. 

853. libera: being free. obnozia: stdyect. 

854. inyitnm : against his wiU. nna in parte repngnat : opposes him 
in this one particular. 

855. oedit titnlis : yields to th^ titles oflwnor, is inferior in fame. 
Atrens, etc. : instances of the inferiority of father to son. 

857. nt . . . utar : to use an illustration befitting their rank; Augustus 
and Caesar are so great that none but Jupiter and Saturn deserve to be 
compared with them. 

859. temperat: rules. triformis: threefold; sky, land, and sea. 


Met. XV. — 871. exegi : 1 Iiave finished. lovis ira : that is, 


872. edax yetustas : the tooth of time. abolere : destroy. 

873. onm Yolet . . . aevi : let that day (i.e. death), whic/i lias no power 
except over this body, end my uncertain life-period when it pleases. 

877. qua patet Bomana potentia : as far as the Roman power extends. 
terris domitis : over the conquered lands. 

878. fama : by reputation. 

136 COMMENTARY. [Met. XV. 

Menelaus were engaged in single combat, when Paris, getting the worst of 
it, was rescued by Venus. 

806. DiomedeM enses : the sword of Diomede ; poetic Plural. Venus had 
just rescued her son Aeneas, when she was wounded on the hand by Dio- 
mede. See 1. 769. 

807. TalibuB lianc genitor : 7ier father (Jupiter) addresses her as follows, 

808. moYore: to move, to shake. Intres licet ipsa: you may your- 
self enter. Boronun: seel. 781. 

809. molimine yasto : of vast structure y Ablative of Quality, limiting 

810. reroin tabularia: the archives of fate; a history of all time, as it 

811. ooneoasnm oaeli : the shaking ofJiea/oen ; that is, thunder. 

812. tnta atqne aetema: being secure and eternal; agree with quae, 
minas: downfall. 

818. adamante perexmi : in everlasting steel. 

816. Hie : he ; that is, Caesar. sua tempera : his (allotted) time. 

818. Ut dens aooedat oaelo, feioies : you wiU cause him to come to heaven 
as a god, 

820. Arrange : fortiBsimuB ultor (as the a/oenger) caedis parentis nos sues 
{as his allies) in bella habebit. 

822. Illius aoBpioiis : under his leadership; notice the quantity of illius, 
permissible in poetry. It was the privilege of the generals to consult 
the gods for omens (anspicia). 

823. Mutinae: Genitive depending on moenia. In the year 43 b.c. 
Decimus Brutus was besieged in Mutina by Mark Antony. Octavian 
(afterwards called Augustus) marched against Antony and defeated 
him. Pbarsalia : a district in Thessaly, famous for the battle between 
Caesar and Pompey (48 B.C.). Afterwards at Philippi, in this same region, 
Octavian and Antony defeated M. Brutus and Cassius (42 b.c.) 

824. Emathii : properly of a district in Macedonia, here = Tliessalian, 
826. magnum nomen : that is, Pompey. Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey 

the (jreat (Kagnus), was defeated near Mylae in Sicilian watei*s (Siculis 
nndis) by Agrippa, Octavian's admiral (36 B.C.) 

826. Somani duels : that is, Antony ; the Genitive depends on taedae, 
which in turn is Dative, depending on fisa. coninnx Aegyptia : that 
is, Cleopatra. taedae : marriage-torch, marriage. 

827. non bene fisa : unmsely trusting. 

828. Capitolia : the Capitol, the Capitoline hiU, in Rome, here used for 
Rome ; the Plural is poetic. Canopo : Canopus, a city in lower Egypt, 
here used for Egypt. The Dative depends on servitura. 

829. barbariam: the lands of the barbarians, conquered by Au- 
gustus, ab : on; in the east and in the west. 

830. Qnodcumque habitabile : aU the habitable land that, 
833. sunm : agrees with animum. 


834. mores reget: uHl regiUate tlie morals. Augustus was not very 
successful in this attempt. 

886. prolem : refers to Tiberius, stepson of Augustus. He was adopted 
by Augustus and succeeded him. sancta: chaste; Livia, however, 

was not better than her age. 

838. nisi com: until, senior: as an old man, Pylios annos: 
the years of the Pylian, that is, of Nestor, who dwelt in Pylus and was 
famous for his great age. 

839. cognata sidera: kindred stars; referring to Caesar. 

840. Hanc animam: this soul; that is, Caesar's. 

841. fac iubar: turn into a radiant star. Capltolia nostra: the 
speaker, Jupiter, possessed a famous temple on the Capitoline. 

842. aede : his temple was situated on the Forum. 

843. media sede senatns : in the middle of the senate-chamher, 

844. alma : nourishing, gracious. nulli oernenda : visible to none. 

845. Arrange : animam reoentem sui Caesaris eripoit membris (from the 
body) nee in aSra solvi passa {and did not suffer it, . ,hut). reoentem : 
translate : as soon as he was killed. 

846. astris : to the stars. 

847. lumen capere sensit : s?ie perceived it light up, 

848. ilia: subject. 

849. crinem : that is, the tail of the comet. 

850. nati : that is, Augustus. 

851. sols : than his own. 

852. Hie: that is, Augustus. patemis: to those of his father. 

853. libera: being free, obnozia: sviyect. 

854. invitnm : against his trill. una in parte repngnat : opposes him 
in this one particular. 

855. oedit titnlis : yields to th^ titles oflwnor, is inferior in fame. 
Atrens, etc. : instances of the inferiority of father to son. 

857. nt . . . ntar : to use an illustration befitting their rank; Augustus 
and Caesar are so great that none but Jupiter and Saturn deserve to be 
compared with them. 

859. temperat: rules, triformis: threefold; sky, land, and sea. 


Met. XV. — 871. exegi : 1 Itave finished, lovia ira : that is, 


872. edax yetnstas : the tooth of time. abolere : destroy, 

873. enm volet . . . aevi : let that day (i.e. death), whic/i lias no power 
except over this body, end my uncertain life-period when it pleases. 

877. qua patet Bomana potentia : as far as the Roman power extends. 
terris domitis : over the conquered lands, 

878, fama : by reputation. 

136 COMMENTARY. [Met. XV. 

Menelaus were engaged in single combat, when Paris, getting the worst of 
it, was rescued by Venus. 

806. Diomedeot enses : the sword of IHomede ; poetic Plural. Venus had 
just rescued her son Aeneas, when she was wounded on the hand by Dio- 
mede. See 1. 769. 

807. TalibuB hanc genitor : Iwr father (Jupiter) addresses her as follows. 

808. moyere: to move, to shake. Intres licet ipsa: you may your- 
self enter. Boronim: seel. 781. 

809. molimine yasto : of vast structure ; Ablative of Quality, limiting 

810. reroin tabularia: the archives of fate; a history of all time, as it 

811. conenasiim oaeli : the shaking ofJiea/oen ; that is, thunder. 

812. tuta atque aetema: heing secure and eternal; agree with quae, 
minas: doumfaU. 

813. adamante perenni : in efoerlasting steel. 

816. Hio : he ; that is, Caesar. sua tempera : his (allotted) time. 

818. Ut dens aooedat oaelo, fiEudes : you wiU cause him to come to heaven 
as a god, 

820. Arrange : fortissimiiB ultor (a^s the a/oenger) oaedis parentis nos sues 
{as his allies) in bella habebit. 

822. niins aiispioiis : under his leader aJdp; notice the quantity of illlns, 
permissible in poetry. It was the privilege of the generals to consult 
the gods for omens (anspioia). 

828. Mutinae: Genitive depending on moenia. In the year 43 b.c. 
Decimus Brutus was besieged in Mutina by Mark Antony. Octavian 
(afterwards called Augustus) marched against Antony and defeated 
him. Pharsalia : a district in Thessaly, famous for the battle between 
Caesar and Pompey (48 B.C.). Afterwards at Philippi, in this same region, 
Octavian and Antony defeated M. Brutus and Cassius (42 B.C.) 

824. Emathii : properly of a district in Macedonia, here == Thessalian. 

825. magnum nomen : that is, Pompey. Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey 
the (jreat (Kagnns), was defeated near Mylae in Sicilian watei*s (Siculis 
nndis) by Agrippa, Octavian*s admiral (36 B.C.) 

826. Bomani dnds : that is, Antony ; the Genitive depends on taedae, 
-which in turn is Dative, depending on fisa. coninnx Aegyptia : that 
is, Cleopatra. taedae: marriage-torch, marriage, 

827. non bene fisa : umdsely trusting. 

828. Capitolia : the Capitol, the Capitoline hUl, in Rome, here used for 
Rome ; the Plural is poetic. Canopo : Canopus, a city in lower Egypt, 
here used for Egypt. The Dative depends on servitura. 

829. barbariam: the lands of the barbarians, conquered by Au- 
gustus, ab : on; in the east and in the west. 

880. Quodcnmqae babitabile : aU the habitable land that, 
833. sunm : agrees with animum. 


834. mores reget: uHl regiUate tlie mordU. Augustus was not very 
successful in this attempt. 

836. prolem : refers to Tiberius, stepson of Augustus. He was adopted 
by Augustus and succeeded him. Bancta: chaste; Livia, however, 

was not better than her age. 

838. nisi com: untU, senior: a8 an old man, Pylios annos: 
t?ie years of the Pylian, that is, of Nestor, who dwelt in Pylus and was 
famous for his great age. 

839. cognata sidera : kindred stars ; referring to Caesar. 

840. Hano animam: this soul; that is, Caesar's. 

841. fac iubar: turn into a radiant star. Capitolia nostra: the 
speaker, Jupiter, possessed a famous temple on the Capitoline. 

842. aede : his temple was situated on the Forum. 

843. media sede senatns : in the middle of the senate-chamber, 

844. alma : nourishing, gracious. nolli cernenda : visible to none. 

845. Arrange : animam reoentem sui Caesaris eripoit membris (from the 
body) nee in aSra solvi passa {and did not suffer it, . ,but). reoentem : 
translate : as soon as he was killed. 

846. astris : to the stars. 

847. lumen capere sensit : s?ie perceived it light up, 

848. ilia: subject. 

849. crinem : that is, the tail of the comet. 

850. nati : that is, Augustus. 

851. sols : than his own. 

852. Hie: that is, Augustus. patemis: to those of his father. 

853. libera: being free, obnozia: suiyect. 

854. invitum : against his will. nna in parte repngnat : opposes him 
in this one particular, 

855. oedit titnlis : yields to th^titles ofJionor, is inferior infamy. 
Atrens, etc. : instances of the inferiority of father to son. 

857. ut . . . utar : to use an illustration befitting their rank; Augustus 
and Caesar are so great that none but Jupiter and Saturn deserve to be 
compared with them. 

859. temperat: rules, triformis: threefold; sky, land, and sea. 


Met. XV. — 871. exegi : 1 Iiave finished. lovis ira : that is, 


872. edax yetTistas : the tooth of time. abolere : destroy, 

873. enm volet . . . aevi : let that day (i.e. death), whicJi Jias no power 
except over this body, end my uncertain life-period when it pleases. 

877. qna patet Bomana potentia : as far as the Roman power extends, 
terris domitis : over the conquered lands. 

878. fama : by reputation. 



Her. I. — 1. Hano : sc. epiBtulam. lento : who art so dou> to return, 

A shade of reproach is conveyed by the wor^, which in Ovid and Proper- 
tius often connotes coldness, indifference. The reference is to the twenty 
years' absence of Ulysses. TJlixe : for the declension of Greek proper 

names, so common in Ovid, see 66 ; A. & G. 87, 43, 63, 64 ; B. 22, 27, 
47 ; H. 50, 54, 68. 

2. nil . . . Ten! : answer me naught, hut come thyself, rescribaa : 
Subjunctive in Prohibition : 263 ; A. & G. 266, a and h; B. 276 ; H. 
484, IV. 

3. iacet : has fallen. paellis : brides. The word is often used of 
married women. The case was originally Dat. of Agent, as inviaa was 
Participle of invideo, and meant hated rather than hateful. Compare 
Hoa. 0. I. I, 24 : bellaque matribus Detestata. 

4. tanti : worth so mttch, that is, what they have cost us ; Gen. of 
Price : 380; A. & G. 252, a; B. 203, 3 ; H. 404. 

5. : permissible Hiatus, after monosyllabic interjections, 
elasse : Ablative of Accompaniment. 

6. obmtuB asset : Unreal Wish : see 261 ; A. & G. 267; B. 279, 2 ; 
H. 483, 2. insanis aquis : mad waters, wild waves; would imply a 
storm. adulter: that is, Paris, who carried off Helen, the wife of 
Menelaus, from Greece to Troy, and so caused the Trojan war. 

7. non iaenissem : I should not ha/oe lain; the condition is implied in 
the wish. frigida : in cold neglect, leoto : Abl. of Place Where, 
poetical omission of the preposition. 

8. tardos: slowly ; predicate adjective, agreeing with dies. re- 
licta : in my abandonment ; take with subject of quererer. 

9. mihi: my, with manos : 350 ; A. & G. 235; B. 188, i; H. 384, 4, 
n. 2. fiEdlere : deceive, beguile, while away. So dedpere. The Infini- 
tive with quaere is poetic, or post- Augustan. 

10. pendula tela: ths hanging web. According to Homer, Penelope 
spent much of her time in spinning and weaving. Compare Od. xv. 516: 

od fikv ydp Tt OafiA. fivTfffTTJfxr^ ivl otK<fi 
if>alp€TaLy dW drb r(av vir€p(al<fi la-rbv {Hpaivei: 
'for not often does she show herself to the suitors in the house, but 
far from them, in an upper chamber, she weaves her web.' 

Her. I. 1-32.] PENELOPE TO ULYSSES. 1 39 

11. yerifl : than the real. So Laodamia writes to her husband in Troy, 
Her. XIII. 149 : 

Kos sumus incertae, nos anxius omnia cogit, 
quae possunt fieri, facta putare timor. 

13. in te : against thee, itnros (sc. esse) : were about to advance, 

14. in: at, 

15. Antilochnm victnm: thai Antilochus had been vanquished, 

ab Hectore : an inaccuracy in Ovid. Antilochus was slain by Memnon. 
Compare Homer, Od. iv. 187 f. See Appendix. 

16. noBtri : mpj as often in Ovid. 

17. Menoetiaden : Patroclus, the son of Menoetius. falsis : that is, 
not his own, but those of Achilles. 

19. sanguine : uith his blood, Tlepolemus was killed by Sarpedon, the 
leader of the Lycians. Compare Homer, II. v. 657. 

21. castris : Abl. of Place Where. See note on Met. i. 95. 

22. firigidiTUi glaeie : the chUl of fear is often mentioned in the poets. 
peotTU amantlB : the heart of thy fond wife. Pectus was the seat of the 

23. consnluit : ha^ cared for, looked to the interest of, consulere 
with Accusative means to consult, 

24. sospite viro : and my husband^ s life has been spared; Abl. Absolute. 

25. Argolioi: Grecian, altariafomant: i.e. from offerings for their 
safe return. For Argolioi rediere duces, compare Homer, Od. i. 11 : 

"Ei^' dXXot fjukp rrdvTes, &rot ^&yov alTrdy SKedpov, 
otKOL t<Tav T6\€fjL6y re T€</>€uy&r€i ^5^ 0d\a<r<ray : 

*then all the rest, as many as escaped dire destruction, were at home, 
having escaped both war and sea.* 

26. tiA.: in the temples of before. ponitur ad : is offered to. 
barbara praeda : booty taken from tJie barbarians. 

27. nymphae (from the Greek v6iufyii)\ in Latin usually means nymphs; 
here = puellae, 1. 3. pro salvis maritis : for the safety of their htis- 

28. illi : refers to maritis. yicta Troica fata : the conquered fates of 
Troy, suis : to their famUies ; or, as many commentators take it, the 
fates of Troy conquered by their own. Compare the tales of Ulysses, 
Homer, Od. ix.-xii., and Verg. Aen. i. 748 ff. 

29. iusti: gra/oe. 

80. pendet ab ore : hangs on the words. Compare Verg. Aen. iv. 79 : 

Iliacos iterum demens audire labores 
exposcit^ pendetque iterum narrantis ab ore. 

81. iamque, etc. : cf. Tib. i. 10, 82 : et in mensa pingere castra 

32. Pergama tota : the whole of Troy, here including its surroundings. 
The word properly denotes the citadel of Troy. mero : that is, vino. 

140 COMMENTARY. [Her. I. 

38. hae ibat Simois, etc. : compare Oy. A. A. 11. 183 : 

' Haec * Inquit ' Troia est/ muros in litore fecit : 
hie tibi sit Simois, haec mea castra puta, etc, 

35. AeaoideB : Achilles, the grandson of Aeacus. tendebat : tented. 
Compare Veeg. Aen. 11. 2b : hie saevus tendebat Achilles. 

36. hlo . . . equos : compare the poem formerly attributed to Ovid, Eleg* 
in Mor. Drus. 319: 

Hoc fuit Andromache cum vir religatus ad axem 
terruit admissos sanguinolentus equos. 
laoer : mangled. admissos : running at fuU speed. Achilles fastened 
the dead body of Hector to his chariot and drove away, dragging the 
head in the dust. Compare Homer, II. xxii. 395 ft. Afterwards he 
drove thrice round the tomb of Patroclus, II. xxiv. 10. But there is 
nowhere any mention of the frightened horses. Perhaps Ovid is follow- 
ing some later account. 

37. senior ; tlie aged. Compare Ov. Met. xii. 187, where Nestor says : 
vixi anuos bis centum, nunc tertia vivitur aetas. According to Homer, 
II. 1. 250, he was living with the third generation. te quaerere : to look 
fortliee; Inf. to express Purpose, a Greek construction, in Latin rare, 
and chiefly poetic: 421, r. 1 ; A. & G. 273; B. 326, n. ; H. 533 11., 532 (foot- 
note), misso: agi*ees with gnato tuo (Dat.). 

39. BhoBum, Dolona : see Vocabulary, and compare Met. xiii. 244 if. 

40. nt : liow ; Indirect Question. Mo . . . iUe : the one . . ,tJie other ; 
hio refers to Rhesus. 

41. ohiite tnomxn ; forgetful of thy loved ones. 

42. tangere : visit, set foot in. nocturne dolo : at night hy 

43. tot : according to Homer, thirteen. uno : that is, Diomede. 
Compare Met. xiii. 241. 

44. mei : Objective Genitive. The reference is probably to Ulysses's 
effort to avoid going to the Trojan war. The story goes that he feigned 
madness, and was plowing in a field with a donkey and an ox yoked 
together, when Palamedes, who suspected the ruse, placed the little 
Telemachus in the way. Ulysses, fearing to hurt his son, turned aside, 
and so was detected. See Met. xiii. 36 and note. 

45. TTsque metu micuere sinns : my bosom kept quivering with fear. 
Compare Her. v. 37: attoniti micuere sinus; Tib. i. ii, 13: corde 
micanti. dam: until. amicum (adj.) : agrees with agmen. 

46. Ismariis: i.e. Thracian, those of Rhesus. The name is derived 
from the town or mountain (Ismarus) in Thrace. eqnis : on the 
steeds, probably driving the steeds, as in Met. xiii. 252 Ulysses is rep^ 
resented as riding in a chariot ; the Ablative is Instrumental. 

47. sod . . . solum : hut what advantage is it to me that Troy has "been torn 
asunder hy the arm^ of you Greeks and that the walls have heen levcUed to 
the ground? 


48. mnnui qnod fait : that which was a wall. In Eur. Helen. 108, 
Teucer tells Helen in Egypt that Troy has been so completely destroyed : 

*that there is not even a clear trace of walls.' 
Compare Verg. Aen. x. 60 : Atque solum quo Troia f uit. 

49. Troia durante : while Tray stood. 

60. vir . . . abest : and my husband is absent, to he separated from me 
for aU time. carenduB : a rare personal construction, perhaps in imi- 
tation of the Greek ; cf . ntor, etc. The prose would be : yiro mihi caren- 
dnm est. 

61. uni = sou (Dat.). 

62. incola . . . arat : which the victorious settler plows with his captured 
ox. This distich or the following should be omitted. 

63. reseoanda . . . humuB : the soU, rich until Trojan blood, produces abun- 
dant harvests for the scythe to reap. Take res^anda with humuB, though 
it is doubtful if the construction, resocare humum, can be paralleled, 
luxnriat : lit. is rank, is covered with rank growth. Compare Hor. 0. 11. 
I, 29: Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior Campus ? 

65. Yinim: Gen. Plural : 83, 4 ; A. & G. 40, e; B. 25, 6 ; H. 52, 3. 
With this line, compare Verg. Georg. i. 493 ff . 

57. victor abes: tlwugh victorioiu, thou art absent. quae cansa 

morandi: sc. sit. 

68. in quo orbe : i/i what part of the world, lateai ferrens : thou 

erueUy hidest. 

60. mihi : Dat. of Agent. multa : object of rogatns ; inner obj. 
retained with the pass.: G. (L. Ed.) 339, n. 4; A. & G. 239, r.; B. 178, 
2; H. 374, I. For the sense, compare Homer, Od. xiv. 126: 

6i Si K^ d\rjT€i&(i)y 'lOdKtis h drffiov TKi^rai, 
i\0ibv is SiffToipav ifi^p drrari^Xia /Sd^ei. 
1^ 5' e9 Sc^afiivrj ^tX^ei Kal l/cacrra fieraWq. : 

* whoever comes wandering to the land of Ithaca, goes to my mistress 
and tells her deceptive tales, and she receives him with hearty welcome 
and questions him closely.' 

61. quam reddat : to deliver; Relative clause of Design. 

63. Pylon : Local Accusative. Neleia : adjective derived from 
Kelens, Nestor's father. 

64. Misimns : here Ovid changes the original. In Homer it is Athena 
that sends Telemachus. Compare Od. i. 93. incerta, etc. : compare 
Homer, Od. xvii. 114 : 

airiip 'Odvffffijos roXewr/^pows oiJ tot' l^<f>aa-K€v 
jihwO 01^5^ 0av6vTos iTTLxOouluv rev AKoO^ai : 

* but concerning the stout-hearted Ulysses, whether living or dead, he said 
he had never heard from any mortal.' 

66. Sparte qnoque nesoia veri : Ovid omits the rumors in regard to 

142 COMMENTARY. [Heb. I. 

Calypso which Telemaohus reports to his mother in Homer, Od. xyii. 
141-146. T«ri: the truth; Objective Genitive. 

66. lentuB abes : dotA thou loiter f 

67. TTtiliiiB, etc. : it voovld he better if the walls of PhoeJma were still 
standing, starent: 597 ; A. & G. 808, 310 ; B. 304, i, 805, i ; H. 
510, 507, n. 7. moenia Phoehi : compare Her. xvi. 180 : Moenia 
Phoebeae stmcta canore lyrae. The authorities are at variance in regard 
to the building of the walls of Troy. Some attribute the work to Apollo, 
others to Poseidon (Neptune), others to both, etc. 

68. levis : in my Jickienes», votis : i.e. prayers for the destruction 
of Troy. 

69. pagnares : Indirect Question and Attraction. The sequence of the 
Imperfect Subjunctive is regularly past, as here : 517 ; A. & G. 287. g ; 
B. 268, 5 ; H. 495, iii. 

71. timeam: to fea/r ; Indirect Question, but the Siibjunctive would 
have been used in the direct : 465 ; A. & G. 34, d ; B. 315, 3 ; H. 484, v. 

72. in onnui meaa : for my anxiety. area lata : a broad field, 

76. quae vestra libido est: mich is the lust of you men; G. (L. Ed.) 616, 
n. 2; B. 251, 4, (2 ; H. 458, 4, n. Compare Prop. iv. 18, 1: 

Obicitur totiens a te mihi nostra libido : 
crede mihi, vobis imperat ista magis, etc. 

76, peregrine amore : by the love of some stranger. 

77. qoam sit tiU rustioa coninnx : how unpolished thy wife is; compare 
Her. xn. 175. 

79. Fallar : a Wish. crimen : eliarge^ accusation, insinuation. 
tenaet vanescat in auras: a common expression with Ovid. Compare 
Her. XII. 85. 

80, revertendi liber : being free to return. An Objective Genitive with 
liber is a very rare construction. 

82. cogit : is urging. inerepat nsqne : is constantly chiding. Ovid's 
account is not quite justified by Homer. moras : i.e. my delay in 
ma/rrying again ; not, *thy dday in returning/ as the old commenta- 
tors, inmensas : immoderate, unreasonable. 

83. Increpet usque licet : let him chide on. increpet : 607 ; A. & G. 
266 ; B. 308, a; H. 515, iii. dicar : 553, 4, R. 1 ; A. & G. 331, i; 
B. 295, 6 ; H. 502, i. 

86. pietate mea : my devotion to thee, rather than to him. The word 
usually means devotion to the gods or to one's parents, but is also used 
in other eases of great affection. 

86. frangitnr: is influenced, yires temperat ipse suas: himself re^ 
strains his force. 

87. Bulichii, etc. : compare Homer, Od. i. 245 (and xvi. 122) : 

diTirot yiip vfyrouTiv hriKpariovinv Apurroi, 
AovTaxifp re Xdfijj re Kal HKi^irn TtWcOvOify kt\ : 


'for all the chiefs who hold sway over the islands of Duliohium, Same, 
and woody Zacynthus/ etc. 

88. tnrha, etc. : are beneging me as suitors, a wanton throng. Accord- 
ing to Homer, Od. xvi. 247, the number was 108. 

90. viieera, etc. : they are to me a thorn in, the flesh, to thee ruthless 
destroyers of property ; compare Homer, Od. xiv. 92 (and xvi. 315) : 
KTijtJMTa dapSdrrpvaiv inrip^wp, oM^ tn ^id(& : * they insolently waste our 
possessions and there is no sparing.' 

91. Modontaque dimm : According to Homer, Od. xxii. 857, Medon, the 
herald, was friendly to Teleraachus. It is inexplicable how Ovid could 
class him among the suitors and call him dinu. 

98. qno8 omnis: aU of whom, tnrpiter abfens: "being absent to Hiy 


94. tuo partis sanguine rebrui : property acquired by thy blood. 

95. egens: the needy, tJie beggar, edendi: to be eaten; for the 
sense, compare Homer, Od. xvii. 212 : 

Ma <r4>4as iKixfuy* vU^ Aoktoio MeXai^^f 

alyas Ayiap 

detTvov fxyiif<rr^p€ff<ri : 
* there they were met by Melanthius, son of Dolius, driving goats, a 
feast for the suitors.' 
96. damna; losses. 

100. dum parat ire : according to Homer the suitors tried to intercept 
Telemachus on his return. 

102. nie, etc.: i.e. may he survive us and honor us with the last rites 
when we are dead. The at clause explains hoe. 
108. Hao fadimt : on our side are. 

104. onra : keeper, guardian ; personal. 

105. ut qui : as one w?u>, since he : 633 ; A. & G. 320, e ; B. 283, 3, a ; 
H. 517, 3, 1. 

108. ilia (sc. aetas) : his youth, erat tuenda : ought to be protected ; 
Indicative in the Periphrastic : 597, 3 ; A. & G. 808, c ; B. 304, 3, b; 
H. 511, 2. 

109. pellere : Complementary Infinitive to mihi sunt vires = possmn. 
teotis : from the house. 

110. citioB : at once, Greek Odurtrov, portTU et aura : We are the 
storm-tossed ship, be thou a harbor to give us refuge ; nay more, a 
favoring breeze to carry us safely into the port. 

For aura, compare Eur. Androm. 554 : 

irpOrop yJkv o^v jcar* o^pop Cxnrcp Icrtots 
ifiTpeOffofMi ryd^ : 
'first, then, I will send a favoring breeze upon her as upon sails.* 
For portui, compare ibid. 748 : 

X^^fMTos yiip dyplov 

144 COMMENTARY. [Hee. I. 111-116; 

' for, after encountering a raging storm, thou hast come into sheltered 
harbors ' ; and 891 : 

c5 vavTlXoiffL x^^/MiTos Xifi^u Ravels 

* Ayafiifivovos rrai : 
'0 son of Agamemnon, who hast appeared as a harbor to sailors in 
time of storm ' ; and Ov. Trist. v. 6, 2 : 

Qui mihi confugium, qui mihi portus eras. 
Most late editors read, by emendation, portus et ara, supporting it by 
Ex P. II. 8, 68 : Vos eritis nostrae portus et ara f ugae. In either case, 
the metaphor is somewhat mixed. For a similar mixture, compare ii. 
Samuel, 2 : * The Lord is my rock and my fortress — my shield— my 
high tower, and my refuge.' 

111. mollibus annis : in Ms tender years ; compare 1. 108 : Telema- 
chusque puer. He is still regarded as a boy, though he is twenty years 
old. He was a child at the breast when Ulysses departed ; compare Od. 
XI. 448. 

112. in patrias, etc : ought to he trained to be like his father, taug?U his 
father* s accomplishments. 

113. Bespice, etc. : Jia'oe regard for Laertes, that thou may est now close 
his eyes ; another reason for haste. Most commentators take nt . . . condas 
as dependent upon snstinet. 

114. BTUtinet : is bervring (as a burden), is living , is dragging otU, 
extremom fati diem : the last days of his life ; compare Homer, Od. xi.l95: 

^vS^ 6 76 K€tT^ Ax^^^i fiiya Si <f>p€(rl T^vOoi d^^« 
abv vbarov xoditav, x^^^^^^bv 8'* ivl yijpai Ixdvci : 
* there he lies grieving and cherishes a mighty sorrow in his heart, 
longing for thy return, and old age comes upon him as a heavy burden.' 
116. fBLOtB. : to have become. ut : though, even if; a frequent use in 

Ovid : 608 ; A. & G. 313, a; B. 308 ; H. 515, iii. Compare Her. vii. 15 : 
Ut terram invenias, quis eam tibi tradet habendam. 


Her. XII. — 1. Colohorom regina : when I was queen of tlie Oolchians. 
She was the daughter of Aeetes, the king. tibi vacavi : I had leisure 

for tliee, did not refuse to listen. 

2. an mea : subject of ferret. Medea was a famous magician. 

3. Borores : Parcae, the three Fates : Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. 
They are supposed to spin out and determine the fate of each individual 
at his birth. 

4. dehuerant: ought to liave. For the mood, compai'e erat tuenda, 
Her. I. 108. evoluisse : for the sake of the metre, instead of eyolvisse ; 
it would ordinarily be Present Infinitive. Ovid and the other poets often 
use the Perfect Infinitive like the Greek aorist, without distinct refer- 

II. 1-17.] MEDEA TO JASON. I45 

ence to past time. Often there is no difference of meaning between the 
Perfect and the Present. 
Compare Her. iii. 40 : quae dare debueras. 

Her. III. 117 : Tutius est iacuisae toro. 
Her. IV. 11 : non est contemnere tutum. 
6. potni xnori : I could h<ive died, 
7-10. Compare Eur. Med. 1 ff. 

"EtO^ ^tpeK* *Apyovi fi^ diaTrdirdai (rKd4>os 
K6\x^^ ^^ °'^<''^ Kvauias l^vfxir\7iydSas, 
/Mffd^ iv ydTauri HrfKiov' Treffeip trore 
Tfirfdcura rciJ/cr;, firjd^ iper fiCjir ai x^P^^ 
dvdptav dpurriaf ot t6 irdyxpvffop Sipos 
IleX^^i fjuETTJXdop : 
'Would that the hull of the Argo had never flown through the dark 
Symplegades to the land of the Colchians ; would that the pine had 
never been felled in the groves of Pelion and had never been rowed by 
the hands of the heroic chief tain^ who went in quest of the golden fleece 
for Pelias.' 

8. Fhrizeam ovem: i.e. the golden fleece of the ram on which Phrixus 
rode through the air over the Hellespont. His sister Helle fell off and 
was drowned, and so gave her name to the waters. The ram was sacrificed 
and his skin carefully preserved by the Colchians. It was in search of 
this that Jason came. Felias arbor : i.e. the ship (Argo) made out 
of the pine-tree cut on Mt. Pelion. 

9. Magnetida: Magnedan ; i.e. Thessalian. Magnesia was a district 
of Thessaly. The adjective agrees with Argo, which is Accusative. 

10. Fhasiacam : Phasis is a river of Colchis. 

11. plus aequo : more than they ought, 

13. aut : for this use of aut as the correlative of a question, compare 
Her, X. Ill: 

Crudeles somni, quid me tenuistis inertem ? 
aut semel aeterna nocte premenda f ui. 
nova : the Argo was the first ship. 

14. audads : goes with viros. 

15. iBset : he ougM to Jiave gone. Compare Am. iii. 8, 49 : 

Quid tibi cum pelago ? Terra contenta fuisses. 
and Am. iii. 10, 41 : 

Optavit Minos similes sibi legifer annos. 
Optasset Cereris longus ut esset amor. 
anhelatOB in ignes : into tJie hreathed flames. praemedicatus : he had 

received from Medea an ointment which made him proof against fire. 

16. inmexnor Aesonides : the ungrateful son of Aeson ; i.e. Jason. Ovid 
is fond of these patronymics. 

17. Semina: i.e. the dragon's teeth, from which immediately sprang a 
crop of armed men. visurus: see Appendix. 



18. ab: goes with ooltu; an unusual position. 

19. Boelerate : guiUy creature, perisset : would have perished, 

20. dempta forent : would lia/oe been removed, 

21. ingrato meritiim exprobrare : to reproach an ungrateful man with 
the kindness you hwne shown him. 

22. bac : sc. Yoluptate. 

23. I1UWTU1: Jason was sent on this dangerous mission by his uncle 
Pelias, King of lolcus in Thessaly, who, on account of an oracular warn- 
ing, feared Jason and sought in this manner to compass his death, 
inezpertam : untried. ^j/jfim: s7iip; by Synecdoche. (Joldhos: 
towards the Colchians. In prose a preposition would be necessary. 

25. Medea : /, Medea, Hoe, quod : whcU, nova nupta : Creusa, 
the daughter of Creon, King of Corinth. 

26. quam, etc. : my father was as rich as Tiers is, 

27. Epbyren : an old name for Corinth. bimarem : between the two 
seas ; situated on the narrow isthmus ; compare Met. v. 407. Scjrthia 
tenns: asfa/r as Scythia, 

28. qua : where. He holds everything on the left coast of the Black 
Sea up to Scythia on the north. 

29. bospitio : vnihliospUalUy, hospitably. Aeeta : a Latinized form 
of Aeetes. Compare poeta and Toirfr'fis. 

30. piotos : embroidered. toros : couches, on which they were sup- 
posed to recline at the meal according to Koman custom. corpora 
Graia : ye, Grecian men ; apposition. 

31. quia esses : who thou wast. 

32. Ilia fait, etc. : compare Verg. Aen. iv. 169 : 

Hie dies primus leti primusque malorum 
causa f uit. 

33. Et yidi et peril : I both saw and was overcome, nee notis ignibua 
arsi: compare Met. vii. 13: 

mirumque, nisi hoc est, 
aut aliquid certe simile huic, quod amare vocatur. 

34. ad : o^ the altars of. 

85. £t formoBOB eras, etc.: compare Met. Yir. 84 : 

Et casu solito forraosior Aesone natus 
ilia luce fuit : posses ignoscere amanti. 
Spectat, et in vultu veluti tum denique vise 
lumina fixa tenet, nee se mortalia demeus 
ora videre putat, nee se declinat ab illo. 
trabebant : were dragging m>e on. 

36. abetulerant Inmina nostra : had captivated mine, 
87. Ferflde, sensisti : faithless man, thou didst perceive it, QqIb enim, 
etc. : compare Her. xvi. 7 : 

Sed male dissimulo. Quis enim celaverit ignem, 
lumine qui semper proditur ipse suo ? 

18-65.] MEDEA TO JASON. I47 

39. lex : the condition, on which the golden fleece might be obtained, 
nt: namelj/, that. The clause is in apposition to lex. 

40. premeres : Past Sequence after the historical Present. Yomere : 
plow, plowsJiare. He was to yoke and plow the oxen. 

41. Martis taori : seems to be an inaccuracy on the part of Ovid. Ac- 
cording to Apollonius, it was the field that bore the name of Mars ; so 
Ov. Met. Yii. 101. plus quam per oomua saevi: dreadful not alone 
on accovnt of their horns, but especially on account of the flames. 

42. quonun, etc. : whose brecUh loas terrible fire. Compare Apol. Rh. hi. 
410 : <rT6fMTi <p\6ya <pvffi6iairr€s : 'breathing flames from their mouths.* 

43. aere, etc. : their feet were of solid bronze (lit. solid with bronze), wiOi 
bronze were their nostrils lined, Ovid would refine a little, in this and 
the next line, on Apol. Rh. hi. 330: 

Kal ol xaXfc6iroda$ raOpovi Kd^ie, x^^'^^^ ^^ <nf>€iav 

* and he made for him bulls with feet of bronze and their mouths were of 
46. popolos : i.e. homines. 

46. devota manu: mth a doomed hand; as his death would naturally 
have followed. 

47. corpora: poetic Plural. telis natis secum: they sprang up 

49. eustodis : that is, the dragon. 

50. ultimas labor : this was not one of the conditions, but was rendered 
necessary by the refusal of Aeetes to abide by the compact. 

52. deserit: deserts; that is, is removed from. 

53. Quam tibi tunc longe : 7tow far from thee then ; they could not 
help thee. Nearer aid was needed. Compare Met. iv. 649 : 

* vade procul, ne longe gloria rerum, 
quam mentiris,* ait, ' longe tibi luppiter absit.' 

55. prosequor : accompany. My moist eyes were fixed on thee as thou 

56. lin^^ : my tongue. 

57. male saucia: badly wounded; with the darts of love. Compare 
Vebo. Aen. iv. 1 : At regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura. 

58. nox, quanta fuit: the live-long night. acta est per lacrimas: 
was passed in tears. 

61. Hinc amor, hinc timer est: compare Met. yii. 10 ff.; Apol. Rh. hi. 
646 ff. Hinc . . . hinc : on one side. . .on the other. 

63. Bisieotam comas : loitJi hair dishevelled. comas : Ace. of Respect : 
838; A. & G. 240, e; B. 180; H. 378. adversa in otq,: face down, 
adversa : lit. turned to the bed. 

64. invenit : Perfect or Present ? 

65. Drat opem Hin3ris : sTie begs aid for the Minyans, i.e. the Argonauts, 
because she has sons in their number. altera . . . alter : the one (her 


sister)... ^^ othsr (her loYet). habebit: sTiaU receive. She granted 

the request, but not for her sister's sake. See Appendix. 

67. Est nemiiB, etc. : there is a grove, dark with the pitch-pine and the 
leaves of the holm-oak. 

68. radiis: Dative. 

69. fuerant certe : at least th^re teas. delubra : a shrine, temple. 

70. anreadea: a golden goddess ; i.e. statue. 

71. exciderxmt : faUen from thy mem/yry, been forgotten. meonin : 
as I have. Thee is often short in the Perf. ending enmt for metrical 
reasons. For the heterogeneous PI. loca, see 67, 2 ; A. & G. 78, 2, h ; 
B. 60, 2 ; H. 141. 

72. orsoB : from ordior. Avoid confusing with orior. 
74. tua est : pronounce tuSst, by Aphaeresis: 719, b. 

76. servatus : if lam saved, or my rescue will be. Compare Met. vii. 49 : 

perque Pelasgas 
servatrix urbes matrum celebrabere turba. 
Also Apol. Rh. III. 989 ff. 

78. ouncta yidentis avi: i.e. the Sun. Compare Homeb, Od. xii. 323 : 

' of the Sun who seeth all things and heareth all things. ' 

79. tripUds yultns: the three faces. Compare Verg. Aen. iv. 511: 

Tergeminamque Hecaten, tria virginis ora Dianae. 
and Ov. Fast. 1. 141 : 

Ora vides Hecates in tres vertentia partes, 
servet ut in ternas com pita secta vias. 
Medea was a priestess of Diana. 

80. ista : thy. aliquos : any special. 

81. miserere: have pity. 

82. tempos in omne : for all time. 

83. duodsi, etc. : but if perchance thou dost not disdain a Pelasgian 
husband, dost not deem a Greek unworthy to be thy husband, 

84. tarn faciles meosque : so propitious and friendly to me. Compare : 
Her. XVI. 23; faciles auras ventosque secundos ; xviii. 3: Si mihi di 
faciles et sunt in amore secundi. xmde : translate, what could make; 
for the case of deos, compare Hor. Sat. 11. 7, 116: 

Unde mihi lapidem ? 
Quorsum est opus ? Unde sagittas ? 

85. yanescat : a Wish. ante . . . qnam : before. 

87. consda: a witness. sacris praefecta maritis: the goddess who 

presides over the marriage rites, maritis is an adjective ; compare Her, 

II. 41 : 

lunonemque, toris quae praesidet alma maritis. 

89-92. Haec, etc.: compare Her. 11. 49: 

Credidimus blandis, quorum tibi copia, verbis : 

credidiraus genori nurainibusque tuis: 

67-117.] MEDEA TO JASON. 149 

credidimus lacriinis ; an et hae similare docentur ? 
hae quoque habent artes, quoque iubentur euut? 
89. quota pan: what part, implying that they are a very small part. 
91. pars fraudis : some deception. Were they genuine tears, or art thou 
able to feign them to suit thy purpose ? 

93. inadusto oorpore : mth unbumt body, unharmed by the flames. 

94. insso vomere : tvith the ordered plowshare, with the plowshare as 

95. pro : instead of. 

96. miles : soldiers; Singular used collectively. habet: the infe- 
rior MSS. have liabens, which makes a smoother reading. 

97-98. Ipsa ego, etc. : compare Met. vii. 134: 

Ipsa quoque extimuit, quae tutum fecerat ilium, 
utque peti vidit iuvenem tot ab hostibus unura, 
palluit et subito sine sanguine f rigida sedit. 

100. inter se, etc. : according to Medea's instructions, Jason threw a 
stone into their midst, whereupon they began to slay one another, 
strictas: drawn back; ready to inflict blows. The word is commonly 
used of swords. 

101. sqoamis crepitantibus horrens : bristling with his rattling scales. 

102. yerrit: sweeps. 

104. maris gemini : of the two seas. distinet : holds apart, separates. 

105. Ilia ego : /, the one, tibi : in thy estimation. sum fiieta : 
have become, 

106. sum : sc. visa. nocens : a guilty creature ; notice the repeti- 
tion of this word at the end of lines 118, 129, and 132. 

107. subduxi : subdued, medicato : enchanted, produced by enchant- 

108. et tibi, etc. : and gave thee the fleece to carry off safely, tuta is a 
kind of predicate to vellera : I made it safe. raperes : Subjunctive 
of Design. 

109. Proditus est, etc.: compare Eur. Med. 1332: 

xarpbi T€ Kal yijs TpoS&riv ij <r' idp^aro : 
* betrayer of thy father and of the land which brought thee up.' 

112. optima, etc. : compare Her. xvii. 231 : 

Non erat Aeetes, ad quem despecta rediret, 
non Idyia parens, Chalciopeque soror. 

113. te : object of reliqui. sine me : without me, behind. ger- 
mane : Absyrtus. The story is that when Medea was being closely pur- 
sued by her father, she killed her brother and scattered his limbs that 
her father might lose time in collecting them. 

114. hoc uno loco : in this one place. littera : is used frequently by 
Ovid like epistula. In prose, use litterae. 

116. tecum : that is, Jason. 

117. timerem : was I to fear. 

1 50 GOMMEXTABT. [Her. XII. 

118. credere me pelac^: it was a common notion among the ancients 
that the guilty were peculiarly liable to shipwreck. Compare Her. vii. 57: 
Xec violasse fidem temptantibus aequora proclest: 
perfidiae poenas exigit ille locus, 
fsmina, iamque nocens : though a woman, and now a guilty one. 

121. Compressoi: sc. no9« Compressoi elisiuent: had dosed and 

crushed us. 
128. neitra: my. 

123. canibus: compare Met. xiy. 52: 

Ilia feris atram canibus succingitur alvnm, 
virginis ora gerens. 
Compare also A. A. i. 881. 

124, ingratis nocere Tiris : because Minos, for whose sake she had cut 
the fateful purple hair from the head of. her father Nisus, proved un- 
grateful to her. 

126. Quaeque : that is, Charybdis. 

127. Haemoniai : that is, Thessalian. Ilaemus was a mountain in Thes- 

128. penitnr ad : compare Her. i. 26. 

129. Feliae natas : the daughters of Pelias, trusting in the magic arts 
of Medea, cut their father to pieces and boiled him in a pot to make him 
young again. pietate nooentes : injuring by intended kindness. 

131. Ut: though; compare Her. i. 116. 

133. sua: suitable, 

134. Aesonia cede dome : go forth from the house of Jason. 

135. natis: Abl. of Agent with ab omitted; compare* Fast. in. 602: 
Solo comitatus Achate. 

136. amore tni : loi'e of thee. tui : Objective Genitive. 

137. Hymen cantatus: tJie marriage song. Hymen was the god of 
marriage and his name was repeated frequently in these hymns. 

138. lampades : torches ; a Greek word, here = taedae. 

139. Mcialia oarmina: wedding hymns. yobie: that is, for thee 
and thy bride. 

140. at, etc.: but to me they were sadder than the funeral trumpet; 
compare Peop. ii. 7, 12: Tibia, funesta tristior ilia tuba. 

141. pertimui, etc. : / was thoroughly alarmed but did not yet think 
there was so great a crime; did not believe that Jason was marrying 

143. frequenter : repeatedly. There is a variant reading : freqventant, 

repeat ; see Appendix. For Hymen and Hymenaee, compare the refrain 

in Cat. lxi. : 

Hymen Hymenaee io, 

Hymen Hymenaee. 

144. quo, hoc : Abl. of Degree of Difference : tJie nearer this sound came, 
the worse off was I. peias is an adverb, comparative of male. 

118-173.] MEDEA TO JASON. . ISI 

145. Biversi: apart, turning aside, in varioita places, 

146. vellet : rhetorical Potential Subjunctive implying negative answer, 
tanti mall : of so great a misfortune. 

147. qaieqaid erat : whatever it was. potlus lavabat : it was more 
pleasing ; /, too, preferred. 

149. amore yidendi : i.e. by curiosity. For the reading here, see Ap- 

151. Hue mihi, mater, adi: come hither, mother. xnihi: Ethical 
Dative ; for the reading, see Appendix. Pompam ducit : is heading 
a procession. 

152. aureus : resplendent ivith gold. 

153. Frotinus abscissa plauzi mea pectora veste: tearing the clothes, 
beating the breast, plucking out the hair, and such modes of expressing 
intense grief, are very common in the ancient poets. 

155. Ire animus suadebat : I felt an impulse to go. mediae in agmina 
turbae : into the ranks of tlie surrounding throng. 

156. sertaque, etc. : to snatch the garlands from the well-arranged hair, 
of tlie bnde. demere rapta : seize and take off, snatch. 

157. Viz me continui : with difficulty I refrained. sic laniata 
capillos: with my hair torn as it was. capillos: Accusative of 
Respect. quin clamarem : from shouting. 

158. inicere manus: to lay the hands on; a legal term, a method of 
claiming possession. 

160. Inferias, etc. : shade of my brother, receive thy offerings. The PL 
umbrae, like manes, is sometimes used of the spirit of one person. Infe- 
riae were offerings to the dead. 

162. ooniuge goes with deseror: lam deserted by my husband; com- 
pare comitata natis, 1. 135 above. omnia: everything; compare Eur. 
Med. 228: h y 7Ap ^p fi&i vdvra : * for he, in whom was my all ' ; and Ov. 
Her. III. 51: 

Tot tamen amissis te compensavimus unum : 
tu dominus, tu vir, tu mihi frater eras. 

163. igitur: so. 

164. perdomuisse : to subdue ; Perf . as Present. Compare sopire, 1. 171. 

165. pepuli : a reduplicated Perf. ; Sedlmayer reads repuli. 

166. flammas: i.e. her love for Jason ; compare Prop. ii. i, 57: 

Omnes humanos sanat medicina dolores; 
solus amor morbi non amat artificem. 

167. Ipsi, etc. : eveii enchantments, and herbs, and magic arts fail me, 

168. nil agunt : have no power, Hecates : Greek form of the Geni- 

169. Hon mihi, etc. : compare Tib. ii. 4, 11: Nunc et amara dies et 
noctis amarior umbra est. noctes yigilantur amarae : th^ nights are 
passed in bitter wakefulness. 

173. paelez : Medea regards herself as the lawful wife. 

152 COMMENTAEY. [Hee. XII. 174-213. 

174. fraetns : Accusative Plural. 

176. te iaetare : to make a display before, 

176. ininstis aurilnui apta : things suited to unfriendly ears. 

177. in feusiem, etc. : you make new, unfounded charges against my 
appearance and character ; compare Her. i. 77. 

178. rideat, etc. : let her laugh and rejoice at my faults, 

179. Tyrio in ostro: on the Tyrian purple ; the royal couch. 

180. ardores vinoet adnata meoe : being set on fire, she will surpass my 
flames; compare 1. 166. Medea sent to Creusa as a wedding gift a robe 
smeared with poisonous ointments which caused the unhappy bride to 
perish miserably in flames. See Eue. Med. 1136 ff. 

184. animis verba minora meis: words humbler than my wrath; she 
changes from threats to entreaty. Compare Her. iii. 85 : Vince animos 
iramque tuam ; Met. vi. 368: verba minora dea = beneath the dignity of 
a goddess. 

186. nee moror procubnisse: and I hesitate not to throw myself, 

187. Si tibi sum vilis : if thou hast no regard for me, vilb : cheap, 

188. dira noverca : a step-mother's cruelty has long been proverbial. 

190. nostra: my, 

191. avitae flammae : the sun. 

192. xnoritTun : the kindness I have shown thee, pignora : dear, lit. 

193. insana : in my madness, 

194. adds fldem dictis : be true to thy promises, 

196. utque tna, etc. : or that the serpent may grow quiet, ottercome by thy 
aid; I do not ask as much as I gave. 

197. quern nobis ipse dedisti : whom thou thyself didst give me* 

198. parents : Apposition to quo. 

199. numeravimus : / counted it out, paid it in cash, Campo illo : 
on that field, 

200. qni tibi, etc. : which had to be plowed by thee before thou couldsi 
carry off (laturo) the fleece, 

201. villo speotabilis aureo : distinguished for his golden wool, aureo: 
dissyllabic by Synizesis. Aureos, standing in the MSS. at the begin, 
ning of this verse, can hardly be correct with villo speotabilis aureo ; I 
would suggest instead, At vero. 

202. dOB mea : is my dowry, Quam dicam si tibi * redde ' : if I should 
say : give it back to me, 

203. tu Bospes : thy safety, thy rescue, sospes applies also to inventus. 

204. Sisyphias opes: Sisyphus was the mythical founder of Corinth. 
As he had a bad reputation, the term is one of contempt. confer : 

205. duod : the fact that, nuptam socerumque potentis : a powerful 
bride and fatJier-in-law, 

Am. I. 3, 1-21.] A PROPOSAL. 1 53 

206. hoc ipsoniyetc..: this very fact ^ that thou hast it in thy power to he 
ungrateful, is my work; compare Trist. v. 9, 20: Hoc quoque, quod 
mem ores possumus esse, tuum est. 

207. (luoB eqnidem actutnm, etc. : those whom I immediately — but what 
advantage is it to foretell my vengeance f She refers to her children, 
whom she murders to take vengeance on her husband. 

208. Ingentis parturit ira xninas : wrath brings forth mighty threats, 

209. Facti fortasse pigebit : perhaps I shall regret the deed, 

210. et piget, etc. : I also regret having assisted a faithless man, 

211. Yiderit ista dens : let the god see to that ; referring to her threats. 

212. Hescio qnid maius : something out of the ordinary, agit : is 


Am. I. 3. — 1. Insta preoor : my prayers are just. praedata est : has 

captivated, has made me her praeda. 

2. aut amet : let her either love me, aut faciat cor : or give me 
reason to, 

3. tantnm patiatTir amari : let her only suffer herself to be loved, 

4. audierit : will have heard ; if this one request be granted, I shall 
be satisfied; all my prayers will have been answered. Cytherea : i.e. 
Venus, so called from the island of Cythera, southeast of Laconia. Near 
this island, Venus sprang into existence out of the sea-foam and here she 
was especially worshipped. 

5. tibi qui deseryiat : wh^ will continue to be thy slave, norit : 
knows how; Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

7. yetemm parentam : of ancient a^icestors, 

8. eques : a knight ; if I belong only to the equestrian rank. 

10. temperat, etc. : and my parents, both economical, spare expenses. 

11. at : nevertheless, Fhoebas : Apollo, the god of music and poe- 
try, oomites novem : the Muses. vitis repertor : Bacchus. 

12. bao fiaoixmt : are on my side ; compare Her. i. 103. at Amor : 
Amor, too. 

13. nulli cessnra fides : honor second to none. sine orimine mores : 
a blameless character, 

14. nudaque, etc. : plain straightforwardness and blushing modesty, 

15. desultor Amoris : fickle in love ; see Vocabulary. 

16. siqua fides : if thou wilt believe me. mibi onra : my love, 

17. fila soromm : the threads of the sisters ; the Parcae. 

18. oontingat : may it be my lot, te dolente : regretted by thee, 

19. matoriem : in apposition to te. 

21. Carmine nomen babent : have derived fame from poetry, exter- 

rita oomibTis lo: lo frightened by her own horns, when she was trans- 
formed into a cow by the jealous Juno. Compare Met. i. 640. 

154 COMMENTARY. [Am. I. 3, 32-2G; 

22. qnam: that is, Leda. fluminea ave: that is, m tJie guise 
of a swan, losit : deceived. adulter : Jupiter, 

23. duaeque: that is, Europa. sixniilato vecta iuvenoo: riding on 
the false biUlock ; Jupiter, disguised as a bull, carried Europa across the 
water from Asia to Europe. 

24. comua vara : the out-cv/rving horns, 
26. nostra: my, 


Am. T. 12. — 1. tristes : with sad news, 

2. Infelix : unhappy, bringing unhappiness, with sorrow fraught, 
hodle posse negat : says she cannot see me to-day, 

3. Modo : just now. 

4. dig^tos restitit iota: struck her toes and stopped; stumbling at the 
threshold was a bad omen, digitos : Accusative of Respect. Hape : 
the maid-servant who carried the note. 

5. Missa foras itemm : the next time you are sent out, 

7. difficiles : unkind. 

8. negaturis: conveying a ** No" ; which will say **No" when I in- 
terpret them. cera: the wax was spread on the wooden tablets and 
the marks were made with the steel stylos. 

9. quam : refers to cera. longae cicutae : of the toM hemlock ; a 
deadly poison, used in executions at Athens. 

10. melle sub infami xnisit : placed you to hold honey of ill repute ; ac- 
cording to Pliny, the Corsican honey was bitter. 

11. At tamquam, etc. : but you blushed, so to speak, being thoroughly 
mixed with red lead ; the poet imagines the wax to turn red from shame. 

13. Prolectae trivlis iaoeatis : cast forth, may you lie where the streets 

17. SQspendia: a gaZlows, 

18. cruoes : crosses, for crucifixion. 

19. bubonibus : owls ; a large species. Strix was the screech owl. Both 
kinds were birds of ill omen. 

21. His: sc. tabellis. commisi nostros amores: I intrusted my 

love, insanns : like one insane, 

23. Aptins . . . capiant : would more fitly receive, vadimonia garrula : 

wordy recognizances. 
, 24. quas aliqnis cognitor legat : to be read by some advocate, 

25. ephemeridas tabolasque: day-books and accounts. melius iace- 
rent: would better have lain; would have been more appropriately 

26. absumptas opes : his waited wealth, fleret,: would weep for, 

27. Ergo, etc. : therefore I found you double-fa^ed in fact (rebus) a« well 
as in name ; it was a folding tablet, the wax faces inside, the wood outside. 


12,1-30; 15,1-23.] THE TABLET — A DEFENSE OF POESY. 1 55 

28. nomenu : the number (two). There was luck in odd numbers, 
anspicii boni : of good omen; Genitive of Quality. 

29. dnid precer : what am I to pray for f nisi ym oariosa seneotos 
rodat : unless that waiting old age may gna/w you, 

30. litu: mould, 


Am. I. 15. — 1-2. dnid, etc.: why, biting envy, reproaclteat tlwu me 
with lazy years and callest poetry the work of an idle mind, 

3. non me : (charging) that I do not. dam strenua snitinet aetai : 
while the active time of life permits, 

4. seqni : pursue. 

5. leges: Ovid more than once speaks slightingly of the profession 
which his father chose for him. 

7. Mortale : for a time only. quaeris : requirest. mihi : Da- 

tive of Agent, more common with the compound tenses : 354 ; A. & G. 
232, J; B. 189; H. 388. 

9. Maeonides: that is, Homer. dnm: as long as. Tenedos: 

an island ; Ide : a mountain ; Simois : a river — all near Troy and all men- 
tioned by Homer. 

11. Ascraeos: the bard of Ascra, in Boeotia, was Hesiod, the poet of 
the farmer ; hence the mention of uva and Geres. mnstis : with juice ; 
the word usually means newly made wine, 

12. inonnra: curved. 

13. Battiades : the Alexandrian poet Callimachus, a native of Gyrene, 
of which Battus was supposed to be the founder. Ovid seems to have 
had a correct estimate of him. 

14. quamvis ingenio non valet : although he does not excel in genius ; 
Ovid often uses quamvis with the Indicative : 606, e. ; A. & G. 313, g; 
B. 309, 6; H. 515, iii. n. 3. 

15. iactura: loss; the fame of Sophocles will remain undiminished, 
cothumo: the buskin; the foot-wear of tragic actors. Aeschylus, So- 
phocles, and Euripides were the three great tragic poets of the Greeks. 

16. Aratns : a writer on astronomy. 

17. faUaz senrTis, etc. : the standard characters in the Middle Comedy. 
Menander and his school arc chiefly known to us through the translations 
of Plautus and Terence. 

19. animosi : spirited^ high-sounding, oris : utterance, speech. En- 

nius and Accius were early Roman poets. 

21. primam . . . ratem : that is, the Argo ; Yarro Atacinus wrote, 
among other things, an Argonautica. 

22. terga : hide, fleece ; poetic Plural. duoi : Dative of Agent. 
28. sublimiB : lofty, of elevated style. Ovid was one of the first to ap- 
preciate this great poet. 

156 • COMMENTARY. [Am. I. 15, 24-41; 

24. ezitio: Dative of the Indirect Object. una dies: compare 
LucR. V. 93: 

Principio marla ac terras caelumque tuere, 

una dies dabit exitio. 

25. Titynu et fruges Aenelaque arma: ie. the Bucolics, the Georgics, 
and the Aeneid of Vergil. In A. A. iii. 338 Ovid says of the Aeneid : 
nullum Latio clarius extat opus. 

26. trinmphati : conqtiered ; whose defeat had been celebrated by tri- 
umphs. The poet fondly imagines that Rome's power will always pre- 

27. ignes areuque : flames and the how. We have a number of charm- 
ing elegies by Tibullus. Compare Am. iii. 9. 

29. HesperiiB : to those of the West ; compare A. A. iii. 536 : Vesper et 
Eoae novere Lycorida terrae. Lyooris was a fictitious name of the woman, 
to whom Callus addressed some of his love-poems. The works of this 
elegiac poet have been lost. See note on Am. 111. 9, 63. 

31. com : while, although. 

83. Cedant : let them yield. 

86. poeula, etc. : cups full of Castalian water, miniBtret : a Wish. 

37. sTistineamque) etc.: and may I wear on my hair the myrtle which 
dreads the cold; the myrtle was sacred to Venus. Compare A. A. 11. 53, 
where that goddess speaks to Ovid and gives him a leaf and seeds of the 
myrtle wreath which she is wearing. 

38. multns legar : m^y I he read much ; for this adverbial use of the 
adjective, see 325, R. 6; A. & G. 191; 6. 239; H. 443. amante: Ab- 
lative of Agent ; the preposition is rarely omitted ; compare Iler. xii. 135. 

40. CTUU suns, etc.: whenfittiiig honor protects ea>ch one according to his 

41. Ergo, etc. : therefore even when the last fire (the funeral pyre) sliall 
have consumed me, I shall livcy and a large part of me loill survive ; com- 
pare HoR. Od. III. 30, 6: 

Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei 

vitabit Libitinam. 
It is noteworthy that Ovid's list of famous poets is incomplete. Among 
the Greeks there are several important names that are omitted, and among 
the Romans both Catullus and Horace are left unmentioned. 


Am. II. 6. — 1. Eois . . . ab Indis : from the Indies in the JEa^t. Indi : 
the people of India. Indus is usually the river. Of course, in Ovid's day 
there were no West Indies. 

2. ooddlt : is dead. exsequias : to the funeral ; probably Cognate 

Ace. like pompam fanerifl ire, Fast. vi. 663. frequenter : i7i crowds. 

11. 6, 1-31.] ELEGY OK THE PABKOT. 1 5/ 

3. The alliteration here and in 1. 28, and, in a less degree, in various 
other verses of this poem, seems to be intentional. 

5. Horrida lanietor plmna : let your feathers he torn and ruffled, hor- 
rida is a kind of predicate adjective, indicating the result of the action 
of the verb. pro : instead of. 

6. tuba : the trumpet was used in funerals. Compare Her. xii. 140. 

7. Boelos Ismarii tyranni : the crime of the Thra^ian King ; the story 
is told at length in Met. vi. 424 ff. Tereus married Procne, the daughter 
of the Athenian King Pandion, and afterwards cruelly deceived her 
sister Philomela. To prevent the exposure of his villainy, he cut out 
Philomela's tongue and kept her shut up in a stable. Finally, however, 
she conveyed the information to her sister by using the art of embroidery, 
whereupon the two women devised vengeance on the tyrant, and to 
this end slew the boy Itys and served him as food on his father's table. 
Procne was changed into the swallow, Philomela into the nightingale, 
and Tereus into the hoopoe. 

9, devertere in funus : turn aside to the funeral. 

11. Onmes, quae : all ye who, libratis otltbub : poise your flight. 
liquido: clear. 

13. Plena fait vobis concordia : thsre was complete concord between you 

15. iuyenifl Pbocens : i.e. Py lades. 

18. mutandis sonis : in changing sounds; Dat. of the Gerundive. 

19. quid iuvat : what availeth it, what advantage is it. ut datus 
68: when thou wast given. nostrae: my; i.e. Corinna. 

20. gloria: Voc, personified abstract substantive. iaces: thou 
liest dead. 

21. hebetare: to make dim; by comparison. The wings were bright 

22. gerens: having, and thou hadst, Punica rostra: a purple 
beak. tincta mbro crooo : tinged with reddish yellow. 

23. vooum simulantior : more imitative of sounds, a better imitator of 

24. blaeso: lisping. 

25. inyidia : by envy, unjust fate, 

27. ootumices: quails; these were so combative that quail-fighting 
ranked with cock-fighting as an ancient sport. 

28. anus: a feminine substantive because coturnices is feminine, but 
the males are especially referred to : and perhaps for that reason they 
often reach a ripe old age, or inde = of them. 

29. Plenus : satisfied. prae : for, on account of, from ; Preventing 

80. ora : Accusative of Respect. 

81. causae : in English use the^ Singular. somni : Objective Geni- 

158 -COMMENTARY. [Am. 11. 6, 33-62; 

83. duoenfl gyroi : which makes curves, 

34. graoulns : both jackdaws and crows were harbingers of rain. 

35. comix : crow ; hated for tale-telling. Compare Met. n. 562. 

36. saediB : Ablative of Time Within Which. 

39. Optima prixna : usually the best things are first snaiched away, 
m&nibas : hands ; distinguish from mfinibns. 

41. Fhyladdae : i e. Protesilaus, of Phylace in Thessaly, who was the 
first of the Greeks killed at Troy. Thflndtes : the ugliest and most 

insignificant of the Greeks around Troy. 

44. per mare : over the sea, 

46. non ezhibitura sequentem : destined to he the last. 

46. vacuo : the thread of life was used up. coins : usually feminine. 

47. ignavo : dully numb ; growing numb with the chill of death, 

49. Golle sub, etc. : at the foot of the Mysian hill there is a grove, leafy 
with the dark holm-oak, 
60. udaque, etc. : and the Tnoist earth is green with never-dyittg grass, 

51. Siqna fides dubiis : if any faith is to be placed in doubtful things, 

52. obeeenae quo, etc. : from which birds of ill omen are excluded, 
quo : Ablative of Separation. 

54. phoenix : the bird would finally cremate itself and from its ashes 
sprang another. 
65. ales lunonia : the peacock. 
56. man : mate, from mas. 
68. conyertit : attracts the attention of. 

60. quo: on which. par sibi carmen: the inscription covered the 

61. Colligor : it is inferred. . . that L 

62. docta loqui: which knew how to talk. plus aye: better than 
(could be expected of) a bird, ave : Ablative with the Comparative ; 
an abbreviated expression. 


Am. II. 10. — 1. Oraecine: a friend of Ovid's. Several of the Pontic 
Epistles (i. 6 ; II. 6 ; iv. 9) are addressed to him. negabai : wast 

wont to deny. 

2. uno tempore : at the same time. aliquem, one man ; ' any one ' 

in a negative sentence is regularly quis. 

4. turpis : to my disgrace. 

5. operosae cultibus : attentive to dress. 

6. artibus : in learning, in accomplishments, prior : superior. 

8. nobis: me. 

9. phaselos: boat, yacht. 
10. alter et alter : the tivo. 

II. 10, 1-12: III. 9, 1-27.] THE DEATH *0F TIBULLUS. I 59 

11. geminas: dost thou double. Eryoina: i.e. Venus, so called 
from Mt. Eryx in Sicily, where she had a temple. 

12. in onras satis : enough trouble, enough to occupy a man's attention. 


Am. III. 9. — 1. Memnona : Memnon was the son of Eos (Aurora, Dawn), 
Achilles of Thetis, goddesses both. 

3. flebilis Elegeia (Voc.): sorrowful Elegy ; personified. solve 

capillos: loose thy hair; a sign of mourning. indignos: innocent, 

agrees grammatically with capillosi but to be translated rather by a 
phrase : in undeserved mourning. 

i. nomen: the word elegeia {iXeyeta) meant anything written in the 
Elegiac distich. From the character of many of these compositions it 
also acquired the signification * elegy,' * lament,' which Ovid thought was 
the original meaning. Translate : now there will be too good a reason for 
thee to be called Elegy. 

5. Ille : that well-known. 

9. Adspioe, etc. : behold how pitiable he goes urith drooping wings, 
11. per: over, 

14. tectis tuis: from thy house; Abl. of Separation. lule: lulus 
was the son of Aeneas, who in turn was the son of Venus, and so the 
brother of Cupid. 

15. confusa : distressed. moriente Tibollo : at the death of Tibullus. 
iuveni: i.e. Adonis ; Dative, but to be translated as a Genitive. 

17. divum CTira ; the favorites of the gods. 

18. putent : Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

20. omnibus : Dative after the preposition in composition. obscnras 
manns : dark hands ; i.e. hands which bring darkness. Everytliing con- 
nected with the lower world is called dark. inicit manus : lays her 
hands upo7i; a method of claiming possession; compare Her. xii. 158. 

21. Qnid profuit: of what advantage was. Ismario Orpheo: the 
Throician Orpheus. Orpheo: dissyllabic by Synizesis. pater: 
Apollo*. mater: Calliope. 

22. carmine quid, etc. : of what avuil that the wild beasts stood still, 
overcome by his song. 

23. idem pater : that same father ; i.e. of Orpheus. aelinon, aelinon : 
liis woeful song. The word (originally Phoenician) comes from the 
Greek and is used in lamentations. Compare Aesch. Ag. 121 : at\ivov 
at\ivov €iir4. 

26. Kaeoniden : i.e. Homer. ceu fonte perenni : as from a perennial 
fountain. » 

27. STimma dies : the last day^ death, Averno : Lake Avernus, here 
identified with the waters of the lower world. 

l60 COMMENTARY. [Am. III. 98-68. 

28. Defaginnt: escape. 

29. Troiani laborig : tlie Trojan war, here representing the Iliad. 

80. tela retexta: t?ie web unwove7i„ Penelope, pressed by the suitors 
for an answer, asked them to wait till she wove a winding-sheet for her 
father-in-law Laertes ; but at night she unravelled what she had woven 
during the day, so that after three years the work was still unfinished. 
The circumstance here represents the Odyssey. 

81. Nemesis, Delia: fictitious names for two mistresses of Tibullus, 
which were celebrated in his poems. 

38. Qnid vos sacra iuvant, etc. : compare Tib. i. 3, 31 : 

Quid tua nunc Isis mihi, Delia, quid mihi prosunt 
. ilia tua totiens aera repulsa manu ? 
vos: i.e. Nemesis and Delia. 

84. in yaouo secubuisse toro : that you slept apart on, a vacant couch, 
as enjoined at certain times by certain religious rites, especially those of 
Isis (compare Prop. n. 24) and Ceres (compare Or. Am. iii. 10). Ovid 
repeats that this worship was in vain. 

85. dun : since, ig^oscite fasso : pardon me for speaking out, 
36. sollicitor putare: I am tempted to believe. 

87. Vive pins : moriere : live piously, you toill die ; the Imperative is 
here a vivid expression of Concession. 

88. cava busta : the hollow tombs ; see Yocabulaiy. 

89. Canninilms : i.e. good poetry cannot save you. 

40. parva quod nma capit : a small umful ; compare Met. xn. 616. 

41. Tone : -ne is the Interrogative enclitic. 

42. pasci nee timuere : and did they not fear to feed f 

43. pottdssent urere (sc. flammae) : could have burnt ; Potential Sub- 

44. sustinuere : were capable of, 

45. Eryds : Eryx was a mountain of Sicily, sacred to Venus. 

46. continnisse : that she restrained. 

47. Fhaeada tellns : a kind of earthly paradise made famous by Homer, 
here identified with Corcyra (Corfu), which was once visited by Ti- 
bullus while in attendance upon the general Messalla. A sickness which 
befell the poet here was the occasion of his poem (i. 3), to which Ovid 
alludes. Compare Tib. i. 3, 2 : 

Me tenet ignotis aegrum Phaeacia terris, 
abstineas, avidas, Mors, precor, atra, manus I 

48. vili subposuisset hiuno : had placed beneath its ba^se soil. 

49. Hie oerte madidos, etc. : compare Tib. i. 3, 5 : 

non hie mihi mater 
quae legat in maestos ossa perusta sinus ; 
non soror, Assyrios cineri quae dedat odores, 
et fleat effusis ante sepulcra comis. 
fagientis: as he was taking his flight from life. pressit: closed; 

A. A. 1-35.] ROMAN GIRLS. l6l 

compare Her. i. 103. hio . . . hio : the editors all read hino . . . hino, 

but Mnc and hie are often confused in the MSS. and hie certainly makes 
much better sense here, and its use in the corresponding passage of Ti- 
buUus is a strong argument in its favor. 

51. in partem doloris venit : shared the grief. 

52. eoxna8 : Accusative of Respect. 

53. euxn tnii sua iunxenrnt osenla : joined their lips with thine. 
prior : that is, Delia. 

54. solos : proleptic, describing the effect of the action of the verb. 

56. tibi : Dative of Agent. ignis : flame, love. 

57. Quid tibi snnt mea damna dolori : why is my loss a grief to you f 

58. Me tenuit moriens, etc. : compare Tib. i. i, 59 : 

Te spectem, suprema mihi cum venerit hora, 

te teneam moriens deficiente manu. 
Flebis et arsuro positum me, Delia, lecto, 

tristibus et lacrimis oscula mixta dabis. 

59. aliquid nisi : something besides; ' if anything' is regularly siqnid. 

60. in Elysia valle, etc. : compare Tib. i. 3, 57 : 

Sed me, quod facilis tcnero sum semper Amori, 
ipsa Venus campos ducet in Elysios. 

61. Obvius hnie venias, doete Gatulle: may est thou, learned Catullus, 
com^ to meet him. hedera : with ivy, as sacred to the lyric Muse as 
well as to Bacchus. Catullus was one of the greatest of the Roman 
poets, excelling in lyric power. Calvus was also a lyric poet. 

62. tempera : temples ; Accusative of Respect. 

63. si falsum est temerati crimen amid : if the charge of injuring thy 
friend is false. Just what G alius was accused of is not known. It 
seems that while in his cups he used some disrespectful language of 
Augustus. Compare Trist. 11. 445 : 

Non fuit opprobrio celebrasse Lycorida Gallo, 
sed linguain nimio non tenuisse mero. 
Whatever the charge, he was condemned and committed suicide. He 
was an elegiac poet of great reputation among his contemporaries, but 
none of his writings have survived. 

64. prodige : refers to his suicide. 

65. siqua est mode : if there really is any, 

66. culte : polished, scholarly. 

68. non onerosa = levis, by Litotes. 


A. A. I. — 1. artem amandi : the art of loving. 
2. legat : let him read. doctns : as a master of the art, 

35. Principio: in the first place, yells: Subjunctive of Character- 

istic, labora: strive, 


l62 COMMENTARY. [A A. I. 36-66; 45M86. 

86. miles : as a soldier. Ovid is fond of comparing love to warfare. 

87. pladtam: who has pleased you ; used in an active sense. ez- 
orare : to persuade. 

88. ut dnret : Clause of Design, parallel with ezorare. 

40. meta: goal. a4liniMa rota: by the swift wheels; it is now a 
chariot race. 

41. pasBun: here and there. loris solutis: with loose reins; the 
race has not yet begun. 

48. delapia : gliding dmvn. 

44. ooulis : Ablative of Instrument. 

45. nbi tendat : where to stretch ; Dubitative Subjunctive. 

46. moretnr : Indirect Question. 

47. qui siutinet hamos: i.e. the fisherman, 

48. quae, etc. : in what waters many fish swim. 
50. frequens sit paella : girls abound. 

58. FeneuB portarit : let Perseus carry off. 
64. Graia paella: i.e. Helen. 

66. at dicas : that you will say ; Subjunctive of Result. 
60. mater : i.e. Venus. Aeneae sai : of her son Aeneas. 

68. iavenem : a young woman ; the gender of iavenis is common. 
64. nescios : embarrassment of riches. 

66. plenios: very numerous. The poet proceeds to mention walks, 
temples, theatres, the Circus, Baiae, etc. 


A. A. I. — 459. DiBce bonas artes: learn the liberal arts. This, in 
Ovid's day, was about equivalent to * study to be an orator.* 

460. non tantom, etc.: not solely that you may defend the trembling 

461. Qaam: as. 

462. tarn: quite as mtich, dabit manas: will yield. eloqoio 
victa : overcome by eloquence. 

463. in fronte : openly, avowedly ; let art be concealed. 

464. Effagiant vooes taae : let thy language avoid. 

466. valens caosa : a strong cause. 

467. Sit tibi : use. 

470. lectoram spera : hope that she unll read it. 

471. Tempore : in tiine. difficiles : hard to break. 

472. lenta pati frena ; to endure the flexible reins ; another interpre- 
tation of lenta is restraitiing, retarding. 

477. perstamodo: only persist ; Imperative expresses Condition. 

478. wro : latCf after long delay. 

479. Legerit : should she read it 9 ~ if she should read it. 

480. fac legat oiqae : make her keep on reading. 

Rem. Am. 149-191.] REMEDIES OF LOVE. 1 63 

481. legisae : = legere. 

482. per niuneros, etc. : those things will come at the proper time. 
484. quaeque, etc. : and which mil beg thee not to trouble her. ro- 

get: Subjunctive of Characteristic. veils: Complementary Final 

486. poBtmodo : after a while. 


Rem. Am. — 149. Desidiam : idleness, puer ille : i.e. Amor. 

150. quo teneator : to occupy it. 

152. nrbanae togae : i.e. of civil life. 

153. iuvenalia nmnera : t?ie a^ctive duties, those requiring the strength 
of youth. 

154. delioiae: love, 

155. fugaz Farthus : the fleeing Parthian; this refers to the Parthians' 
favorite mode of warfare, by preteuded flight. Compare A. A. i. 210 : 

Telaque, ab averso quae iacit hostis equo. 
Qui fugis ut vincas, quid victo, Parthe, relinquis ? 

159. Aetola a cuBpide : while assisting the Trojans, Venus was wounded 
by Diomede ; compare Met. xv. 769. 

160. amatori suo: by her lo^er; i.e. Mars. She has no use for war. 
Compare Homer, II. v. 428 : 

dXXd (TiJ 7' IfjLepSevra /xer^pxco tpya ydfioio, 
raOro 5* "Aprfi Oo$ koI * K^vjh wdvra /xeX^ei : 
* not to thee, my child, has been assigned the province of war, but do 
thou attend to the charming province of marriage and all these things 
will receive the attention of impetuous Mars and Minerva.' 

170. quaelibet oura: any passion^ no matter how great. cedere: 

yield to, be driven out by. 

172. sanciet : may wound, cut. 

173. Obme versata terra : bury under the turned soil. 

174. quae: sc. eemina. reddat: Relative clause of Design. 

176. ferat : Subjunctive of Result, or Indirect Question with nt = how. 
178. tondentes: cropping. 

181. inaequali anmdine : the shepherd's pipe was composed of reeds of 
unequal length fastened together with wax ; compare Met. 11. 682. 

182. sednla: tireless. 

183. Parte aUa : in another direction, 

185. examina : swarms of bees, 

186. dempti favi : the honeycomb taken out, the removal of the honey, 
yixnina : the wickerworh on which the honeycomb rested. 

191. desectas herbas : hay. 

164 COMMENTARY. [Rem. Am. 192-211. 

192. raro pectine: mth the mde-ioothsd rake, pecten is properly a 
comb, • 

193. deponere : set out. 

194. rivos lenig aquae : streams of gentle water, for irrigation. 

195. insitio : (the time for) grafting. 

196. peregrinis operta comis : covered with foreign foliage. 
198. inritns exit : goes away harmless, 

200. Fhoebi sorore : i.e. Diana, the huntress. 

201. pronum : stretched out, running at full speed. oatnlo sagaci : 
vrith the keen-scented dog. 

202. frondous iugis : on the leafy mountain-tops. 

203. varia formidine : vyith the bright-colored scarecrow ; see Vocabu- 

204. adyersa cuspide fossus: pierced with hostile spear ; adyersa means 
that the boar and the hunter are facing each other. 

205. Nocte: at night. fatigatum; your wearied body. non 
cnra paellae : not thoughts of love. 

206. ping^ quiete : with undisturbed rest. pingui : sluggish, un- 
m^oved, free from restless tossing. 

207. Lenius est stndiaiii : it is a less exciting occupation. alite oapta : 
by catching birds, 

208. ant Uno ant calamis : eitJier with nets or lime-tvngs. 

209. quae plBda edaz, etc. : for the hungry fish to swallow with greedy 
mouth to his misfortune. 

210. Bupremis ciblB : with covering bait ; supremos is that which is on 
top or the outside. 

211. doneo dediscis : while you are unlearning, forgetting, amare : 
how to love. 


Trist. 1. 2. — 1, Di : Vocative. quid . . . supersunt : for what is left 

except prayers f It would seem more natural to us to express suporest 
after quid and omit supersunt after vota. This is also good Latin. Com- 
pare 1. 23 below. 

2. solvere parcite: loosen not. The expression is little more than a 
poetical circumlocution for the negative imperative. membra: the 
parts, especially the planks. 

3. subsoribite : second, concur in. 

4. premente deo : when a god pursues. 

5. Mulciber: Vulcan. in: against, 

6. aequa: favorable. 

7. propior : Juno was related to Tumus (compare Verg. Aen. x. 618), 
the prince of the Rutulians, who waged a bitter war with Aeneas after the 
latter landed in Italy. The cause of the war was Lavinia, who had been 

Trist. I. 2, 1-42.] A STORM AT SEA. 16$ 

promised to Turnus but became the wife of Aeneas. Juno's hostility to 
Aeneas, however, was of older date. 

8. Veneris niimine : hy the protection of Venus, his mother. 

10. patmo: Dative : 345, r. 1; A. & G. 229; B. 188, 2, d; TI. 385, 2. 

11. nobis : = mihi. aliqnod nnmen : some god. distamns ab : am 
far inferior to ; for the mood, see Am. i. 15, 14. 

12. irato deo : though a god is angry. The reference is to Augustus, 
who had just banished Ovid. adesse : to aid. 

13. frnstra: in vain. non profioientia: unavailing. perdo: / 
waste ; tautological but emphatic. 

14. graves aquae: the dreadful waters; g^ves does not refer to the 
greater specific gravity of salt waters, although this quality was known 
to Ovid. ipsa ora loqnentis : my very face as I speak. 

15. Notns: the south vrind; to the Italians, the bringer of rain, 
precesque . . . deos : and does not permit my prayers to reach the gods to 
whom they are sent. 

17. idem : Nominative Plural. ne oansa laedar in nna : that Imxiy 
not he injured in only one respect. 

18. velaqne votaque nostra : hoth the sails (i.e. the ship) and my pray- 
ers, nesdo quo : / know not whither, 

20. iam lam . . . pates : you would think they were just about to touch the 
high stars, pates: Potential Subjunctive in the Ideal Second Per- 

21. qoantae . . . valles : what valleys sink when the sea is divided. 

24. hie : the one, here refers to the former, pontas. 

25. inter atromqae : between the two. 

26. ooi domino pareat : what lord to obey. . This meaning would require 
Subjunctive in the Direct Question; see 465; A. & G. 334, b; B. 277; H. 
484, V. 

27. porpnreo Earns ab orta : th>e wind from the rosy daum. 

28. sero vespere : from the late evening, i.e. from the west. 

29. sicca ab Aroto: in the latitude of Home the Great Bear does not 
sink below the horizon, and so was not wet with the waters of the ocean, 
as the sinking constellations were supposed to be ; compare Met. 11. 171. 

80. adversa fronte : face to face. 

81. qaid fagiat : what to avoid. 
85. precanti: Ablative. 

87. nil . . . ezale : has no other cause of grief than my exile. me 
erale : Ablative Absolute of Cause. 

88. hoc onam : only this part. 

89. corpora : poetical Plural. 

41. Di bene : praised be the gods. qaod . . . passas : that I did not 
permit her to embark with me. 

42. ne : lest. bis : tunce; i.e. in her person as well as in mine. 
patienda: passive; so often the Gerundive of deponent verbs. 

l66 COMMENTARY. [Trist. I. 2, 43-110. 

43. ut: though, 

44. dimidia . . . ero : at least half of me will survive. 

45. quam celeri flamma : with how swift a flame, 

46. ab aetherio aze : from the dome of heaven, 

47. tabulae latenun : the planks of the sides. 

48. grave baUUtae onus : tli^ heavy load of the balliita ; this was a ma- 
chine for throwing heavy masses, especially stones. 

49. qui . . . fluetfiB : ^this wave which is coming. flnctUi : Accusative 
Plural. The Romans had a superstition that every tenth wave was the 

52. munuB: a boon; shipwreck had peculiar terroi's for the ancients, 
because the souls of the unburied were liable to a long period of un- 

53. fatoque buo ferroque : from cultural causes or from the sword. 

54. morieuB : goes with oorpuB. 

65. mandare buIb aliqua : to leave some messages for Okie's friends. 

57. non ego boIub hie vehor : I am not the only one on board. 

58. inmeritOB : the innocent ; it was thought dangerous to embark with 
a guilty man on board lest he should cause a shipwreck. Compare my 
Sources, etc.. Her. vii. 57. 

59. Pro : Interjection. eurae : Dative For Which. 

80. utraque turba : both groups, the gods of heaven and the gods of the 

61. quamque vitam, banc : and this life which. 

62. in loca iuBsa : to the appointed place, or whither I have been or- 
dered. Binite feram : permit me to carry, ut is omitted. 

63. pendere : to pay, 

64. ipBO iudici : according to the decision of Caesar himself, eBt 
morte minor : deserves not the death penalty. 

66. in hoc : for this, 

67. OBt illi . . . oopia : ?te has complete power over my life, emorlB : 
blood, life-bloody death. 

68. cum volet, feret : rvill take when he pleases. 
71. ut: though. 

73. ferentibuB : favorahle, 

75. divitiaB , . . parandi : desirous of gaining boundless wealth. 

76. mutandis meroibuB: for exchanging wares ; Dative For Which. 

77. petii BtudioBUB : visited as a student. studioBUB is still the colloquial 
German for student. 

79. delatuB ad : landing at. 

80. deliciae: amusements^ pleas7ires. 

81. quod opto : as to my object in praying for. facilee : favorable. 
83. Obligor ut tangam : I must reach, I am bound for. fisra : mid. 

laevi Fonti : on the left of the Bktck Sea, 
85. ut videam : Subjunctive of Design. TomitaB : the Inhabitants 

I. 3, 1-9.] OVID'S last night AT ROME. 1 67 

of Tomi put for the city. Nesoio quo in orbe poaitos : situcUed I know 

not in what part of the world, 

86. ezilem : short ; pi'edicate adjective with viam. 

87. Sen . . . sen niagis : if, . ,or if, 

88. prona sit nnmina yestra : let your divine favor he inclined, 

90. regions : Ovid often complains of the severity of the climate, the 
bleakness of the region, the proximity of the enemy, and the uncon- 
geniality of the inhabitants^ and repeatedly begs to be assigned to some 
more hospitable place. 

91. eorpora : poetic Plural. 

92. AuBonioB : poetic for Italian, 

93. fagat: banishes. 

97. acta mortalia : mortal deeds = the deeds of mortcUs, 

98. a culpa . . . mea : ye know that there is no crime in my fault. 

99. 8i : all these conditions have their conclusion in 1. 105, ita paroite 
diyi : then spare me, ye gods, imino . . . error : yea^ mare ! if ye know 
that this is true J if my mistake led me astray. 

101. quod . . . illi : if I favored that house, a thing which even the 
humblest can do. 

102. 8i satiB . . . mihi : if the general commands (laws) of Augustus sat- 
isfied me. 

103. hoc . . . Baeonla : if I called the a^ge happy under his ruU. 

104. Caesaribus : the princes belonging to the house of Augustus. 
106. alta . . . caput : m^y a high wave bury my falling head. 

109. sub condicione: conditionally; the conditions have just been 
given, and Ovid imagines that they have been accepted by the gods. 

110. fkllere qnos non est : whom it is not possible to deceive. est : 
it is possible, like the Greek iirn, 


Teist. I. 3. — 1, snbit : there comes to my mitid. 

2. qua : the antecedent is noctis ; I suspect that the reading should 
be quae. The MSS. may have been affected by the qua in the next 
line. mShitoit: Ispent. innrbe: in the city, i.e. Rome. 

8. repeto: recall, 

6. lux : the day, 

6. eztremae Ansoniae: of fartJisst Italy, extreniae with finibns is 

7. nee spatiom . . . parandi : I had had neither time nor mind well suited 
for making preparations. 

8. torpoerant peotora nostra : my faculties had grown diUl. longa 
mora : from dwelling on my misfortune, 

9. non mihi . . . fait : I paid no attention to choosing slaves or compan- 
ions, or clothing or supplies, suitable for an exile. 

1 68 COMMEISTTABY. [Trist. I. 3, 

18. ut : token, hano animi nubom : this mental cloud, 

16. eztremnm : for the last time ; Accasative of the Inner Object. 

16. modo de mnltii: o/wt of many just now; compare Met. in. 687. 
luu et alter : ttoo or three, 

17. amani : fond, 

18. per indignas genas: over her innocent cheeks, indignas indicates 
that she did not deserve this sorrow. 

19. nata procnl aberat diyerea : my daughter was far away. sub : 
in the neighborhood of, 

21. quooiimqae adipiceres : wherever you might look; Iterative Subjunc- 
tive in the Ideal Second Person. 

22. formaque . . . erat : and there was in the house the appearance of a 
mournful funeral. 

28. femina cirque, pueri qnoque : m^n, wom^n^ and children ; compare 
Ibis, 118: Gaudeat adversis femina virque tuis. Also Ex Ponto iv. 9, 96. 

24. angului omnis : every comer, 

25. grandibns exemplie in parvis : la/rge illustrations in small matters. 

28. alta : high up in the sky ; a kind of predicate. 

29. 8Ti8plcien8 : looking up at. ab bac : then, Capitolia : the 
Capitoline Hill with the temple of Jupiter and other gods ; poetic 

30. nostro lari : to my house, froetra : the nearness of the temple 
had not protected him. 

31. Bedibiu : Ablative of Place Where. 
82. iam nnnquam : tiever again, 

38. Quirini : the deified Romulus, the founder of Rome. 

84. este . . . mihi : farewell forever. mihi : Dative of Agent. 

86. banc odiis exonerate fagam : free my banishment from hatred, 

87. oaelesti viro: the divine man, i.e. Augustus. 

89. quod: Relative. poenae auotor : theinflicter of the punishment, 

40. placate dec: Ablative Absolute expressing Condition. non 
miser: contented, 

41. plnribns : at greater length, 

42. medics: halfway. 

48. Lares : the household gods, represented by statues kept in the in- 
terior of the house. adstrata : lying prostrate, passis eapillis : 
with dishevelled hair. 

44. eztinctos : in cases of mourning the hearth lire was extinguished. 

45. adverscs : face to face. Penates : the ancestral gods, spirits of 
departed ancestors, also represented by statues. 

46. non valitnra : destined not , to prevail. viro: husband, 

47. noz praecipitata : depa/rting night ; the night, like the sun, is sup- 
posed to sink into the ocean. 

48. yersaqne . . . erat : the Arcadian Bear had turned on its aacis ,* that 
is, had changed its position in the sky. 

13-91.] OVID'S last night AT ROME. 169 

49. Quid DEkcerem: what was I to do; Deliberative Question of the 
Past. Blando : enticing. 

50. ultiiiia . . . fagae : hut that was the last night before my banishment 
was to begin, 

52. vel quo . . . yel unde : either where, . .or whence; compare 1. 61. 

53. certam : fixed. 

66. indulgens animo : indulging my feeling. 

57. * vale ' : this word, as a quotation, is construed as an indeclinable 
substantive, here in the Ablative Absolute. 

58. qnaii disoedens ; as if taking my departure. summa : last. 
60. pignora cara : those that were dearest. 

62. utraqne iosta mora est : each consideration is a sufficient reason for 

65, Bodales: comrades. 

6j6. Thesea fide : in friendship like that of Theseus, who accompanied 
his friend Pirithous even to the lower regions. 

68. amplius : again. in lucre est f is that much gained. 

69. neo mora : immediately. sermonis : of my conversation. in- 
perfecta: unfmished. 

70. proxima quaeque : everything that loas nearest. 

72. gravis : ill-omenedy bringing sorrow. 

73. relinquam: translate as an Imperfect. With these incomplete 
conditional sentences, the sequence of tenses is considered rather than 
the form of the condition. 

75. in oontraria versos : turned iri opposite directions. 

76. nltores proditionis : as avengers of his treachery ; in apposilion to 
eqnos. In an important battle Mettus Fufetius treacherously deprived 
the Romans of the aid of the Albaus, their allies, and was punished by 
Tullus Hostilius in the following manner. He was tied to two four-horse 
chariots, which were then driven in opposite directions. See Liv. i. 28. 

79. nmeris abeontis inhaerens : clinging to my shoulders as I was leav- 

83. £t mihi . . . tellus : 7, too, must make the journey ; /, too, will dwell 
in the farthest land ; a vivid use instead of the Future, as if everything 
were not only decided upon but also accomplished. 

84. acoedam . . . rati : / shall he hut a small additional burden to the 
fleeing ship. 

86. pietas : affection. Caesar erit : will be a Caesar, will take the 

plaice of Caesar. 

88. viotas ntilitate : yielding to expediency. 

89. ferri (= efferri) : used of carrying out corpses for burial. 

90. sqnalidis: with neglected person. comis: here used of the 

91. ilia: that is, my wife. tenebris obortis: darkness having 
covered her eyes, i.e. in a faint ; compare Met. u. 181. 

I/O COMMENTARY. [Tbist. I. 3, 92-100; 

98. Mxniaiiimis : four syllables by Synizesis. 
93. resurrezit: recovered, 

96. 86, Penates : object of eo&plorawe, which in turn depends upon nar- 
rator, 1. 91. desertOB Penates : the deserted house. 

97. qnam si . . . rogos : than if she had seen, the bodies of both her 
daughter and her husband lying upon the ready pyre. 

98. strnctos : built up. corpns : bodies ; object of habere. 

99. moriendo : by dying. ponere : to lay aside, 
100, respectn mei : from regard for me. 


Tbist. IV. 10. — 1. Die ego . . . posteritas : that you may know what sort 
of a man I was — /, that poet of tender love whom you are reading — hear, 
posterity / faerim : Indirect Question. noris ; = noyeris ; Sub- 

junctive of Design. 

4. novies decern : ninety ^ fourscore and ten. 

5. editus : bom. nee non : and. 

6. cum: it was the year when, namely, B.C. 43 (a.u.c. 711). The 
two consuls C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius lost their lives in a battle 
against Antony at Mutina. • 

7. Siqnid id est : if this is anything, is of any importance. nsque 
a proavis : going back several generations. vetos : translate with or- 
dinis. ordinis : of the rank, namely, equestrian. heres : sc. sum. 

8. non . . . munere : not solely by the gift of fortune. Under Augustus, 
wealth (400,000 sesterce?) in itself entitled one to the equestrian rank. 

9. stirps : offspring. genito fratre : after a brother. 

10. tribns ante qoater mensibns : twelve months before. 

11. Lucifer adfuit idem : i.e. it was the same day of the year. 

12. liba : sacrificial cakes ; these were offered to the Genius (the per- 
sonal attendant spirit) on birthdays. 

13. haec est . . . prima quae : of the five-day festival in honor of Minerva 
— the qoinqaatms maiores — the second day, March 20th, marked the be- 
ginning of the gladiatorial shows. 

15. Protinus excolimnr teneri : even in early childhood we are taught. 
cura parentis : by my fathers care. 

16. ad . . . viros : to men in the city distinguished for their learning. 

17. yiridi : tender, tendebat ad : was inclined to. 

18. natus : born, fitted by nature. 

19. oaelestia sacra : the heavenly rites. He refers to poetry, the gift of 
the gods. 

22. Maeonides : that is, Homer. 

23. motus : influenced. Helicon : a mountain in Boeotia, sacred to 
the Muses. toto : translate, entirely. 


24. Boluta modis : free from measurey i. e. in prose. 

26. Compare Pope : * I lisped in numbers, for the numbers csame.' 

28. fratri: Dative of Agent. liberior toga: that is, toga virilis, 
"which was assumed by boys in their seventeenth or eighteenth year. 
Before that, they wore the toga praetezta. 

29. cum lato purpura dayo : a broad stripe of purple. The laiiclave 
was worn by the sons of senators and knights while preparing for public 

34. de yiris tribus: the tresviri capitales had charge of prisons and 
capital punishments. 

35. Curia : the senate. coaota est : was reduced. The senators wore 
a broad stripe of purple, the knights a narrow. 

38. fagax eram : / was incline to avoid. ambitionis : candidacy. 

39. Aoniae Borores : that is, the Muses ; * Aonian ' is poetic for ' Boeo- 

41. Temporis illius poetas : the poets of tJiat time. 

43. g^andior aevo : the elderly, aevo : Ablative of Respect. The 

didactic poems of Macer have not survived. 

45. ignes: i.e. love-poems; Propertius was one of the great elegiac 
poets of Rome. We have a collection of his poems. 

46. iure sodalicii : by the right of intimate friendship. 

47. herooclarus: famous for the heroic measure^ i.e. the dactylic hex- 
ameter. . Ponticus wrote a work on the battle of the heroes at Thebes, 
but it has not survived. Bassus quoque: and Bassus, His works 
also have been lost. 

48. oonvictus met : of my daily life. 

49. numerosus: translate, the poet of many measures; Horace, the 
great lyric poet of the Romans, wrote in many metres. 

51. vidi tantum : / have only seen. 

53. Oalle : the chronological order of the elegiac poets was : Gallus, 
Propertius, TibuUus, Ovid. 

56. Thalia mea: my Muse; Thalia was the Muse of comic or other 
joyful poetry. 

58. reseota fuit : had been shaved, 

59. moverat ingenium mihi : had stirred my genius ; the success of his 
first poems had fired his ambition. 

60. nomine non yero dicta : so called by a fictitious name, 

62. emendaturis : to correct. 

63. cum fugerem : when I was banished. pladtura : which might 
have pleased, 

64. studio : at my pursuit (calling). 

65. Molle nee inexpugnabile : soft and susceptible. 

66. quodque . . . moveret : and capable of being moved by a slight cause» 
moveret : Subjunctive of Characteristic. 

67. Com bio essem : although I was such. 

172 COMMENTARY. [Trist. IV. 10, 6a-132. 

68. sub : attached to, fiibida : gossip. 

69, Faene puero : while almost a boy, utilis : suitable, 
72. non . . . toro : yet destined not to remain in union urith me, 
74. sustiniLit: endured, 

76. Filia: by one of his first two wives, probably the second. Ovid*s 
third wife had been married before and brought a daughter with 
her. prixna inyenta : in early ivomanhood, 

77. genitor : my father, aged ninety. 

79. me fletnnu ademptum fait : would have wept at my death. 

80. Matri , . . tuli : next I performed the funeral rites for my mother. 
83. Me : Accusative in Exclamations. 

85. exstinotis : to the dead. aliqnid XLiri nomina restant : something 
is left besides a name. 

86. gracilis umbra: ths slender shade, the unsubstantial spirit. 

. 87. fiama mea : fams of me, rum^r in regard to my fate ; subject of 
contigit. parentales : of my parents ; Vocative with umbrae. 

88. crimina nostra : charges against me. 

89. causam : predicate after esse. vos : object of fEdlere. 

91. MSnibus: for the spirits of the departed, studiosa pectora: 

zealous hearts, kind readers ; Vocative. 

93. canities . . . venerat : my best years had passed and gray hairs hod 

95. ortns: birth; poetic Plural. Fisaea vinctus oliya: crowned 
with the Pisaea7i olive; Pisa was a town in Elis, near which the Olympic 
games were held. The prize was an olive wreath. 

96. decies : the games were held every four years, but the poets some- 
times use Olympiad as = lustrum, five years. Ovid was now fifty yeare 
old. victor eques : the winner of the chariot race. 

97. positos ad laeya Tomitas : Tomi, situated on the left. Tomitas : 
the inhabitants of Tomi ; instead of the town. 

99. niminm quoque nota: even too well known. It has, however, not 
been handed down. 
100. indicio . . . meo : must not be published by my oum declaration, 

102. ipsa fuga : than exile itself. 

103. indignata est : disdained. 

105. oblitus mei : forgetting myself. ductae per : passed in. 

106. insolita : goes with manu. temporis : of the occasion, which 
the occasion demanded ; namely, patience and resignation. 

107. quot stellae : as there are stars. 

108. oceultum : invisible, the South Pole. conspicuum : visible, the 
North Pole. 

109. mibi : Dative of Agent. aoto : agrees with mihi. 

110. pbaretratis : the quiver-bearing. The bow was the chief weapon 
of the Getae. Sarmatis ora : the Sarmatian shore. 

112. quo possum, carmine : with my only means, song. 


118. Quod, oniu referatnr ad aures : to whose ears this poetry may be 

115. quod: iJiat laboribuB.* trials. 

116. luds : = vitae. 

118. requies : predicate Nominative. vdniB : verb. 

119. ab Hifltro : from the Danube. Tomi was situated near the mouth 
of this river. 

122. ab exsequiis : after burial. 

123. qui detreotat praesontia, livor : envy, which finds fault with the 
present. iniquo dente : with unfriendly tooth. 

125. cum saecula nostra : although our cbge. 

126. maligna: unkind. 

128. plurimus leger : am read the most. 

129. quid veri : am>y truth. 

130. ut: though. 

132. iure : by merit, Candida : friendly. 


1. 'Forbidden Fruit.' Nitimur in: we strive after^ 

2. Ingenium: talent. 

8. Ferferre obdura: persevere i7h patient resignation. prodcrit 

olim : will be of advantage some day. lawis : to the sich. buous 

amarus: i.e. a bitter pill. 

4. Frona palma est : it is an easy honor. tibi : Dat. of Agent. 

vinci : Complementary Infinitive after cupientem, which is object of vin- 

6. Leniter ferendum est : may be easily borne. indigno : to an in- 

nocent man. dolenda venit: comes fraught with grief is hard to 


6. auctor : tJie giver. 

7. Certus: abiding. morum: of character. formam: beauty, 
aetas: time. placitus: pleasing,- active signification. quo: 
when. specidum: a mirror. dolor: sorrow, another cause of 

8. Spectatum : to see ; Ovid gives reasons why girls go to the theatre. 

9. Fanra : small things. capiunt : catch. Fuit . . . manu : it 
hoA been useful to many a man to arrange a pillow with easy hand. 
tabella: fan. scamna: footstools. 

10. negleota: careless, 

11. oculos : object of spectare. « 

12. Fors : Fortune, the goddess of fortune. Ovid adds a little to the 
old proverb : * fortes Fortuna adiuvat.' 

18. Nee credi labor est : nor is it a difficult matter to gain credence. 

174 COMMENTARY. [I^t^S. 

amonda : hvdble. Peodma sit, etc. : every girl, no matter how ugly, 

likes her oum looks. 

14. ex alto : from on high. 

15. According to our proverb, * Necessity is the mother of invention.* 

17. semper florent: bloom all the time. et riget amiasa spina re- 
lieta rosa : and the hard thorn is left after tlie rose is gone. iam : 
soon. quae arent : to plow, to make furrows on. molire : build up, 
acquire. qui dnret : that will last, adstrue : build to, add to. Nee 
. . . enra sit : and take great pains to improve your mind by means of the 
liberal arts. lingnas dnas : i.e. Latin and Greek. 

18. Obieqnio tranantnr aqoae : by yielding to the current you swim across 
the stream. nee : while. . .not. si . . .nates : if you should swim 
against the force of the stream. tigris : Ace. Plural. 

19. Anrea saecola : this is really the golden age, becaase now everything 
is measured by gold, everything can be procured for gold. venit : 
gnomic Perfect as parallel to the gnomic Present. Translate as a Present. 

20. deprensa: if detected. merilo: deservedly, fidem: con- 

21. adsnetudine : custom, * There is nothing like being accustomed to a 

22. mora tnta brevis : only a brief absence i> safe ; if you stay away 
too long, you will be forgotten. 

28. Luxuriant : become overweening, 

25. etiam nunc editis : you still tell the truth about your age. more : 
like. bona tarn : instead of tam bona. 

26. Prisca invent alios : let others delight in the good old times, apta 
(sc. est): suits. 

27. in incessu : in the walk. pars non oontempta : no small sJiare. 

28. Prineipiis : in the beginning. Sero : late ; that is, too late. 
mala: ills. 

29. a laribus patriis : from horns. pigebit : you will be reluctant, 

30. * Lightning strikes the highest places.' 

31. ut ipsa : that is, in a vivid image. 

32. cave relegas : never reread. 

38. Compare Herodotus, i. 32. The rich King Croesus wished to be 
pronounced the happiest of men by the wise Solon, but the answer he 
elicited was similar to our text. 

36. tam turpe: so disgraceful, quam: as. deeorum: honor- 

37. * The darkest hour is just before dawn.' locus in : room for. 

'38. These words are put in the mouth of the famous Greek philoso- 
pher Pythagoras, who came to Italy and settled in Crotona in 529 B.C. 
The modern doctrine of the Conservation of Matter is here antici- 
pated, feiciem novat : takes a new form. incipere : is subject. 

. esse : Complementary Infinitive after incipere. 

89-64.] SHORT SELECTIONS. 1 75 

89. * A friend in need is a friend indeed.' ut: as. Bpeotatnr : 

is tested. tra&pore duro : in time of trouble. fldes : true friend- 


40. MMpet: prosperous; lit. unharmed, 

41. radios per boUb enntibiui : to those going through the stmshine. 

42. * Everything that is good may be abused.' instmit : he equips, 

43. Ovid's epitaph, written by himself. In 1886, in the market-place 
of K5stendje on the Black Sea, there was erected to Ovid a statue 
upon the base of which were inscribed these lines. Hie . . . amonim : 
/, who lie here, the author of tender love-poems. moUiter ossa cubent : 
way the bones rest peacefully, 

44. In praise of an obscure life. 

45. tollit et premit : elevates and casts doum. 

46. * The path of glory is steep and dangerous.' 

47. • Time, the Physician.' 

48. Fortnna volubilis : fickle Fortune. yolubilis (from voWo) : lit. 
rolling, revolving. Fortune is often represented as on a wheel. tan- 
turn ... est : is consistent only in her inconsistency ; is always fickle. 

49. Compare Selection 3. 

60. A wish for an enemy : * pitiable but unpitied.' 

51. Neseio qua doloedine: by some wonderful charm, dncit: at- 

52. eiurat: swears off from. 

53. Spes non ez toto nulla : some slight hope. poenae : Ovid refers 
to his banishment. Haeo dea: that is, Hope. nnmina: divin- 
ities, invisa humo : on the hated soil, coxnpede : with shackles. 
videat cum: although lie sees. nee: yet... not, vena defidente: 
a^ his pulse grows weak. in cruoe : on the cross ; crucifijdon was a 
Roman method of execution. 

54. Now : * Expediency before honor ' ; 
formerly : * Virtue is its own reward.* 

55. * A foeman worthy of thy steel.' 

56. * A burnt child dreads the fire.* 

57. lapsis : the fallen,, the unfortunate. 
68. * Go to the source.* 

59. * My mind is free.' 

60. tenui pendentia filo : hanging from a slender thread. 

61. * Every cloud has a silver lining.' 

62. * Whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad.' com re : 
with prosperity. consiliom : wisdom. 

68. oaput eztulit : raised its head ; * to touch the stars (or the gods) 
with one's head ' was an expression of the highest happiness, of great 

64. *The Almighty Dollar.' In pretio . . . est: now money is at a 

premium. census : wealth. iacet : is doum, is despised. 

176 COMMENTARY. [65-68. 

65. * Every age prefers its own customs.' 

66. Cosmopolitanism, vacao . . . patet : all spcLce in the wide world. 
toto in anno : at every season of the year, 

67. A summer scene. Blanda . . . ooellii : soothing slumber crept 
stealthily over her vanquished eyes. 

68. * The Flight of Time.' 




Eer. i. 15 : Sive qnis Antilodmin narrabat ab Hectore victum. Two ob- 
jections have been made to the reading ab Hectore: (1) according to 
Homer, it was not Hector, but Meninon, that killed Antilochus. (2) ab 
Hectore, following Hectoreo in the preceding line, gives offense. 

The second objection does not strengthen the first at all. For, while 
the repetition is awkward and striking, it would be quite as awkward to 
jump from Hector in 14 to somebody else in 15 and back to Hector in 16. 
The general assertion in 14 will naturally be illustrated and explained in 
the next verses. 

Is it possible that Ovid, with his great memory, carefulness, and ac- 
curacy, overlooked this point in Homer and wrote ab Hectore without any 
authority for it ? It seems so to me (cf. my Sources of Ovid*s Heroides, 
p. 16), and in the absence of a better reading I have retained ab Hectore 
in the text. 

If any change is to be made, it should be rather in the word Antilochum. 
For instance, Amphimachum might be substituted. See Homer, II. xiii. 

Her, xii. 17 : 

Semina iecisset, totidem visurus et hostes, 
nt caderet, etc. 
Instead of visnnis, the best MSS. give que et semina (P.) or qnot seminat 
(G.). The readings seem to have come from quot semina, which is prob- 
ably a gloss explaining totidem, and replaced some verb which cannot be 
restored with great confidence. The passage has been variously emended, 
most editors putting in some word like sevisset. The construction of 
this seyisset would naturally be the same as that of the preceding iecisset 
(or sevisset, as several editors have it), but that does not fit the sense well. 
He ought to have soum an equal number of enemies does not seem to be 
the meaning, but rather he would have sown, stating that the one action 
was involved in the other. It is, moreover, not quite correct to say 
bostes serere when you simply mean that hostes spring up from the sow- 
ing. I am prepared to grant that these are both rather fine points, but 
they are sufficient to cause me to suggest a new emendation, yisunu. 
The word video is peculiarly applicable to the strange sight. Compare 
1. 98 and Met. vii. 130, 135. 



Her. xii. 65 : petit altera at alter habebit. The first hand of P (the best 
MS.) gives : alter petit alter habebit. This is defended by Salmasius and 
Birt, and edited by Sedlmayer. The second hand of P gives : petit 
altera et altera habebit. O reads the same, with habebit as a correction. 
The various editors read as follows : 

Bentley : petit altera, et alter habebat. 

Merkel : petit altera, et altera habebat. 

Riese : petit altera, at altera habebat. 

Eousman : alter petit, <impetrat> alter. 
Some inferior MS. gives the reading I have adopted. 

The difficulty comes from supposing that alter(a) . . . alter(a) must 
refer to the two sistei-s. The line, in itself, is obscure. The light, it 
seems, must come from the following line. 

Her, xii. 143 : frequenter. Several editors (as Merkel, Riese) read fre- 
qnentant on the authority of G and other MSS. It seems, however, that 
the notion of repetition belongs ds well to Hymen as to Hymenaee. 

Her. xii. 149: 

Cnm minor e pneris — is tractos amore videndi 
constitit ad geminae limina prima foris. 
I have ventured an emendation. Instead of is traetos amore, the best 
MSS. give us inssos stndioqne, which is unintelligible. Various efforts 
have been made to amend the passage, but they are all unsatisfactory. 
Every editor has attempted to give two motives why the boy took his 
stand at the door, but one seems quite sufficient. Studio may well have 
been a gloss and que inserted for metre. An expressed subject (is) for 
the parenthetical clause is very desirable. 

Her. xii. 151 : hue mihi, mater, adi. I have again dared to amend. 
Nearly all the editors follow the best MSS. and read : hinc mihi, mater, 
abi. The meaning, however, cannot well be other than that given, and 
it is very doubtful if hinc abi can, without great distortion of language, 
mean anything else than go away from here. It seems probable that 
some grammarian-copyist thought this the appropriate thing for the 
child to say, and corrected accordingly. 

Note. — Other critical notes may be found in the Commentary. 


All the long vowels in this Tocabulary are marked. 

Ir fi (Sh), interj. oh! ah! alas! 

2. fi, ab, prep, with Abl. 1. place: frwuy 

away fmm^ <nU of; 2. direction: on, a^, 

in, as fi dextrS, on the right; 3. time : 

from^ since, qfter ; 4. cause: from, after, 

in eonseguence of ; 5. agency: by. 

ab-d6, -dere, -didX, -ditnm, put away, 
hide, conceal, abdita (proleptic) t6xit| 
covered over and hid from view. 

ab-dtLo5, -dftoere, -dUxI, -daotnm, lead 
away, lead aside, carry off. 

ab-e5, -Ire, -iX, -itum: l. go away, with- 
draw, depart, disap])ear, pass by; 2. 
change {into), he trantformed. 

ab-ig6, -igere, -6gX, -Sctum, drive away, 
drive of. 

ab-lu6, -luere, -Inl, -Ifttnin, wash away, 
wash off, wash. 

ab-oleS, -ol§re, -ol6vI, -olitnin, destroy. 

ab-mmpS, -mmpere, -rUpI, -rnptnm, 

break off, break. 

ab-8ciiid6, -seixidere, -goidX, -gciBSiim, 
tear away, tear off, break off, separate. 

absfins, -entis, partic. adj. [abflum] ab- 
sent, removed. 

ab8-tmeS| -tinire, -tixml, -tentnm, 
[tene6] hold back, keep off, abstain. 

abs-tnU, see auferft, carry off. 

ab-sum, abessOi Sful, be away, be absent, 
be distant, be wanting, fail. longfi 
abessOi be far away, be of no assistance, 
fail utterly, leave in the lurch. 

ab-8fLxii5, -stUnere, -sfLxnpsI, -stUnptum, 
take away, use up, waste, destroy. 

Absyrtus, -I, m. Absyrtus, brother of 
Medea. He was slain by Medea to delay 
her father's porsuit. 

abondfi, adv. abundantly. 
So = atqiM, and. 

ao-cdd5, -cMere, -otesl, -cAnnm, ap- 
proach, draw near, be added. acoS- 
dere sacrls, take part in the rites. 

ac-oend5, -cendere, -cexidl, -censiim, set to, kindle, injiame, burn. 

aooeptnB, -a, -waif partic. adj. [accipi6] 
acceptcUUe, welcome, agreeable. 

ac-ddO, -oidere, -ddl, [oad6] faU upon ; 
happen, occur. 

ac-oing6, -cingere, -dnzl, -dnctmn, 
gird, arm, put on. Passive : gird one's 

ao-eipi6, -oipere, -c^I, -ceptnm, [capi5] 

receive, accept, learn, hear. 

Aodiu, -I, m. Acelus, an early Boman 
tragic p«et (170-84 B.C.). 

aoclXvis, -e, doping upward, ascending. 

ao-oommodS, -fire, -fivX, 'SitnmfJtt,Jit on, 
flt to, fasten on. 

ac-ciiinb6, -cumbere, -cubnl, -cabitmn, 
recline (especially at meals, according to 
Roman custom). 

acctls6, -fire, -fivX, -fitnm, accuse. 

1. aoer, -eris, n. maple-tree, maple-wood, 
used especially for writing-tablets. 

2. Seer, Seris, Sore, hot, glowing (fa- 
villa) ; keen-scented; spirited, brave, vio- 

acerbus, -a, -Hui, bitter, sharp, unripe; 
sorrowful, stem (yultiu). 

Acbillfie, -is and -X, m. Achilles, son of 
Peleus (King of Phthia in Thessaly) and 
Thetis, the Nereid ; grandson of Aeacus, 
and father of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus). 
He was the chief hero of the Greeks in 
the war at Troy, and was killed there. 

AoblVTlB, -a, -um, Grecian. Snbst 

AdhlvX, the Greeks. 
aolSs, -61, f. sharpness, sharp point ; look, 

glance; line of battle, battle, army. 



Aooetfis, -ae, m, Aeoetes, a sappoeed sailor: 
BacchoB in disguise. 

aoonltnmi -I, n. aconiU, wo^T'-banSt a 
violent poison. 

Sctor, -driB, m. [ag6] driver, hercUman, 

Actorid6B| -ae, m. descendant of Actor^ 
especially his grandson PatroduSy the 
friend of Achilles. 

fotnm, -I, n. [ag6] deed, act. 

act&taiHi adv. immediately, at once. 

acu5, -ere, acnl, acfttum, sharpen. 

ad, prep, with Ace. to, up to, towards, 
near, by,for, at. ad llinae radiOs, by 
the light of the moon, ad citharam, 
to the accompaniment of the cithara. 

adamfis, -antis, m. adamant, steel. 

ad-amd, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, fall in love 
with, love. 

ad-dl8c6, -diBcere, -didicl, learn in addi- 
tion, learn besides. 

ad-d6, -dere, -didi, -ditum, add, add to, 
join to; put on (frfina eqnlg). ad- 
dere fldem dictis, to keep one's prom- 
ise, adde quod, moreover. 

ad-dftol^, -dftcere, -dllxl, -dactom, bring 
to, lead to. addficoilltOTAf I approach 
the shore. 

ad-ed5, -edere, -6dl, -fisum, eat up, de- 
stroy, consume. 

ad-Smptos, see adimd, take away. 

1. adeO, adv. so, to sudt a degree. 

2. ad-eS, -Ire, -il, -itnin, go to, approach, 

visit, reach, consult. 

adfeotd, -fire, -SvX, -fitum, [ad-flci6] aim 

at, strive afler. 

ad-ferS, -ferre, adtuU, adlfitum, brin^ 
to, bring. 

ad-fici6, -fioere, -fBcI, -fectum, affect, in- 
flict, visit. 

adflfitus, -&s, m. breath, inspiration. 

[ad-for], -fSrI, -ffitUB sum, speak to, ad- 

ad-gredior, -gredl, -gressus sum, ap- 
proach, attack. 

ad-haereS, -haerSre, -haesX, -haesum, 
ding to, stick to. 

ad-haer6BC0, -haerescere, -haeel, -hae- 
sum, remain sticking ox fastened to. 

adhtlc, adv. up to the present, still, yet. 

ad-iei5, -ioere, -iSel, -iectum, add. Join ; 
apply to. 

ad-im6, -imere, -fimX, -Smptum, take 
away, carry qff. 

aditus, -tls, m. [2 adeO] approach, en- 

ad-iung5, -iungere, -itUud, -iOnctum, 
join to, yoke, harness. 

ad-i1ir6, -fire, -fiyi, -fitum, swear to, 
swear (per, by). 

adilltus, see adiuv6. 

ad-iuy6, -iuvfire, -iftvl, -illtum, help, 

ad-lig8, -fire, -fiyi, -fitum, bind to, bind 
up, bind, fasten. 

ad-loquor, -loqul, -loeatus sum, speak 
to, address. 

ad-mlror, -mirfirl, -mirfitus sum, wonder 
at, admire ; wonder, 

ad-mis8U8, -a, -um, [ad-mittS] partic. 
adj. at full speed, running fast. 

ad-mitt6, -mittere, -misi, -missum, let 
go at full speed, let loose, give the rein to; 
commit (soelus). 

ad-mone6, -monSre, -monul, -monitum, 
remind, advise, warn, admonish. 

ad-move8, -movfire, -mOvX, -mOtum, 

move to, bring near ; apply, use. 

ad-nu8, -nuere, -nul, -nlltum, nod to, 
yield to, concede, grant. 

ad-operi8, -operire, -operul, -opertum, 

cove?' up, conceal, hide. 

adopertus, -a, -um, partic. adj. hidden. 
adoperta vultum, with her face veiled. 

ad-opt8, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, adopt. 

ad-0r8, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, pray to, adore, 

ad-ripiS, -ripere, -ripul, -reptum, seize^ 

ad-soend$, -scendere, -scendl, -scfinsum, 
ascend, mount. 

adsiduus, -a, -um, continual, constant, 
uninterrupted, incessant. 

adsperg^, -inis, t. sprinkling, besprink- 
ling (oaMSy (f blood) ; spray, moisture, 
drops qf water. multfi adspergine 
rOrant, drip prqfusdy toith water. 

ad-spioi8, -spioere, -spezX, -speotum, 

I look at, behold, see, examine. 

AcoetSB— ftOr. 


ad-sternS, -Btemere, — , adstrfitiim, 

cast one^s self dotcn before» 

ad-st8, -stfire, -stitl, stand by, be present. 

adstrfitos, -a, -am, see ad-stem6. 

adstriotos, -a, -mil) partic adj. [ad- 
Btring6] congealed, /roeen. 

ad-8tring8, -strlngere, -strinzl, -stric- 
tnm, bind, fasten together, solidify; 
congeal, freeze. 

ad-stmO) -stmordi -strllzli -BtrtLotiun, 
build to, add to, acquire in addition to. 

ad-Bii68c$, -BTLfiBcere, -bu6vX, -BuStum, 
accustom one^s se^, become accustomed, 
be accustomed. 

adBuSttldS, -iniB| f . custom ; familiarity. 

adBuBtoB, -a, -am, partic. adj. [ad8a0BG5] 
accustomed, customary, usual. 

ad-Bum, -6886, -fal, be present, be at hand ; 
come: help, assist ; be in (annlB) : tanta 
BimplioitSs adfnit pa6rXlibii8 annlB, 
on account qfher youth she w<u so simple. 
(LfUdfer) adfnit) was present, shone. 

adnlter, -6rX, m. adulterer. 

adancuB, -a, -am, curved, crooked. 

ad-tlrd, -1ir6r6, -fUall^ -tlBtam, bum, singe, 
destroy with heat or cold. 

adtlBtoB, -a, -am, partic. adj. [adHri] 

ad-vehS) -V6h6r6, -vezi, -V60tam, bring 
to. Paeeive : arrive at, come to. 

advena, -a6, m. stranger. 

adyentoB, -tlB, m. arrival, approach. 

advenaB, -a, -am, [adv6rt8] turned to, 
opposite, facing ; hostile. 

ad-v6rt8)-v6rt6r6) -verti, -v6rBam) turn 
to, direct towards. 

A6acid68) -a6, m. descendant of Aeacus, 
especially AchiUeSj the grandson of 

A6aea8, -X, m. Aeacus, son of Japiter 
and the nymph Aegina, father of Tela- 
mon, Pelens, and Phocns. Ace. Aeacon. 

a6d68 (or a6diB)) -is, f . temple ; PI. house, 

Aefita, -a6, m. Aeetes, King of Colchis, 
father of Medea. 

A66t6B, -a6, see Aefita. 

A6gaeOn, -OniB, m. Aegaeon, a hnndred- 
armed giant, represented as riding a 

a6g6r, -gra, -g^rom) sick, weak ; sorrow- 

A6g6aB) -61, m. Aegeus, father of The- 

AegyptioB) -a, -am, Egyptian. 

a6linon (aZAivov), the refrain of a Grecian 
folk-Bong of sorrowful character, woe (to 
me)l alas/ 

a6mala8, -I, m. rival, competitor. 

A6n6ad6B, -a6, m. descendant qf Aeneas, 
especially Julius Caesar, 

AenBSa, -ae, m. Aeneas, son of Venus 
and Anchises. He was a Trojan, and 
after the destruction of his native city 
he settled in Italy. His voyages and ad- 
ventures are related by Vergil. 

A6nQiaB, -a, -am, (tf Aeneas. Aenfiia 
arma = VergiVs Aeneid, of which Aeneas 
was the hero and which begins with the 
words: arma ▼iramqa6 eanO. 

aflneaB, -a, -am, qf brome or copper, 

afinam, -X, n. bronze kettle. 

aSnuB, -a, -am, of bronze or copper, 

A60lid6B, -a6, m. descendant of the Thes- 
salian king Aeolus, especially his son 

A60lia8, -a, -am, Aeolian, qf Aeolus, 
ruler of the Winds. 

A60laB, -X, m. Aeolus, the king of the 

a6qaSliB, -6, equal, cf equal size, of equal 
a^e. Snbst. one of equal age; com- 
panion, playmate.^ 

a6qaft, -Sr6, -SvX, -fitam, equal, make 
even, make equal, level. solO aeqaSre, 
level to the ground. a6qaSta (mSnsa), 
made level. 

a6qaor, -oriB, n. [a6qaaB] the level sea, the 

a6qaor6as, -a, -am, of t/ie sea, marine ; 
dwelling on the sea, island-duelling 

a6qaam, -I, n. level, equalily ; justice, 
right. ez a6qa9, equally, amantior 
aeqaX, /(On<2«r of justice. 

aeqaaB, -a, -am, even, just ; friendly, fa- 
vorable, propitious. 

fifir, -6(riB, m. [aijp] air, aimcfphere ; 
breath (blloina ooncfipit). Ace. fiera. 

1 82 


aeripSB, -pedis, adj. with feet qf bronze, 

aes, aeris, n. brome, copper ; inetrumeut 
of bronze (.tnimpet, table of laws, fish- 
hook); the bronze age, 

AesOn, -cnis, m. Aeaon^ the father of Jar 

AesonidfiSi -ae, m. &m<tf Aeson = Jason. 

Aesonios, -a, -mn, of Aeson ; Aesonios 
hOrOs, the heroic son qf Aeson = Jason. 

aestfis, -Stis, f . summer ; AestSs, Sum- 
mer (personified), the goddess of sammer. 

aestud, -Sre, -SyI, -fitnm, boU^ glow ; bum 
with love. 

aestuB, -lis, m. heat^ burning; warmth, 

aetSs, -fitis, f . tims, age, season, life. 

aetemus, -a, -nm, everlasting, eternal. 
in aetemum, forever. 

AethaliOn, -Onis, m. Aethalion, a sailor. 

aethfir, -eris, m. [ai^ijp] ether, air, upper 
air, heavens, sky. aethSr is higher and 
lighter than SSr. 

aetherios, -a, -um, qT the sky, etherial, 
heavenly, celestial. 

Aethiops, -opis, m. Ethiopian. 

AethOn, -Onis, ni. Aethofi, one of the Sun- 
god^B horses. 

Aetna, -ae, f. Aetna, yolcanic moantain 
in Sicily. 

AetOlius, -a, -um, Aetolian, from Aetolia, 
an inland coantry of Greece. AetOlius 
hSrOs = Diomede. 

AetOlos, -a, -nm = AetOlios. 

aeTnm, -I, n. time, lifetime, age, genera- 
tion ; old age (aevO solfltX) ; viridi ab 
aevO,/rom early youth. 

Africa, -ae, f . Africa. 

tiger J agri, m., field, land; country. 

agit6, -Sre, -SvX, -Stum, [freq. of ag8] 

drive; shake, stir up; brandish (ha- 

figrmen, -inis, n. [ag5] troop, swarm, 

army. Sgmen cOgere, bring up (he 

rear, close theJUe. 

SgpiOscS, -nOscere, -nOvX, -nitum, recog- 

ag8, agere, 6gl, fiettim, set in motion, 
drive, lead; do, act; of time: pass; 
rbnSs agere, form cracks, be split; 

causam agere, plead a ease ; celebrate 
(trinmphnm) ; express (grfitfie); keep 

agricola, -ae, m. [ager, col8] farmer, 

fih (or fi), inter j. ah/ oh/ alas/ 

AI, [al] marks on the flower hyacinthus, 
interpreted as the interj. alas/ (al) and 
also as the first letters of Aiax (Ala«). 

Aifiz, -Scis, m. Afax: 1. Son of Telamon, 
King of Salamis. Of the brave besiegers 
of Troy, this Ajax was second only to 
Achilles. fL Son of OUeas, King of Locris. 
He, too, fought at Troy on the Grecian 

Si$, ait, say. 

Sla, -ae, f . toing. 

AlastOr, -oris, m. Alasior, a Lycian, ally 
of the Trojans, slain by Ulysses. 

albas, -a, -vm, white. 

Alcander, -drX, m. Akander, a Lycian, 
ally of the Trojans, slain by Ulysses. 

AloimedOn, -ontis, m. Alcimedon, a sailor. 

files, -itis, adj. [fila] winged. Sabst. m. 
and f . bird. 

Alexander, -dri, m. Alexander, the great 
King of Macedon, conqueror of Asia, 
founder of Alexandria in Egypt (Ale- 
xandrX orbs). 

alifinus, -a, -nm, [alius] belonging to an- 
other, forHgn, strange. 

aUmentom, -X, n. [al8] nourishment,food. 

Slip63, -pedis, [fila, p9s] wing-footed, 


aliqol, -qua, -%iiod, adj. pron. some, any. 

aliquis, -qua, -quid, snbst. pron. some one, 
any one. est allquid, it is something 

aliter, adv. otherwise, 

alius, -a, -ud, other, another, different. 

almus, -a, -um, [al$] nourishing ; ben^- 
cent, kind, propitious. 

alS, alere, alul, altum (or alitum), 
nourish, support, raise. Passive: feed 
one's se^f (avibus), 

AlphSias, -adis, f . Arethusa, the bride of 
the river-god Alpheas. 

altfiria, -ium, n. altar. 

alts, ady. high, Comp. altiUB, higher, too 

aeripfiB— ante. 


alter, -era, -emin, the other, second. 
alter— alter, the one— the other. Gten. 

alter, -Oris, m. [al6] foster-father. 

altum, -I, n. the deep^ the sea. 

altus, -a, -nin, [al6j : 1. high, eievated. 
altiBsima via, the highest part qf the 
way. 2. deep, profound isHen^aA), 

alamniiB, -I, m. {9^^ foster-son. 

alveus, -X, m. bed (of a stream), channel. 

am&ns, -antie, partic. adj. [am5] fond, 
loving, Sabst. m. and f. lover. 

amSrns, -a, -am, bitter (Bfteiu); fig. 
bitter, painful, sad. 

amStor, -Oris, m. [am8j U>r^. 

[ambSgee], -is, f. [amb, agSl going 
around by a circuitous route ; circumlo- 
cution, evasion, falsi positis am- 
bSgibUB Oris, avoiding deceptive cir- 
cumlocutions. In Sing, ascd only in Abl. 

ambignas, -a, -am, ambigtums, doubtful. 
(PrOteas) oT many forms, capable qf 
assuming various shapes. 

ambitiO, -Onis, f. going around; can- 
vassing, solicUing votes or a favor. 

ambitiOsafl, -a, -am, begging, solidfing. 
ambitidsa fait, used earnest entreaty. 

ambO, -ae, -9, both. 

ambroflia, -ae, f. ambrosia, the food of 
the immortalB, eaten also by tlie San 'a 

amb-tlrS, -Urere, -llssl, -tlstam, bum 
around, scorch. 

Smfins, -entie, adj. [mfins] tvithout sense, 
senseless, beside one's self, mad. 


Smentia, -ae, f. l(ws of senses, madness. 

amloa, -ae, t. friend, sioeelheart, mis- 

amictafl, -tie, m. dothing, dress, veil. 

1. amicas, -I, m. friend. 

2. amicas, -a, -woi^fnendly, kind, favor- 

fijmitt6, -mittere, -misl, -missam, lose. 

amnis, -is, m. river, stream ; personified, 
Biver, 2iiver-god. 

am8, -fire, -fivl, -fitom, love. 

1. amor, -Oris, m. love, desire ; Sing, and 
PI. abstract for concrete love, loved one, 
darling ; amOrfis, love-songs. 

2. Amor, -Oris, m. Amor, Cupid, the god 
of love, the son of VeDus. 

ampleotor, -pleoti, -plexas waasL^emlbrace. 

amplexas, -lis, m. embrace. 

amplias,adv. comT?. further, longer, more. 

an, conj. 1. in the second part of a dis- 
junctive qaestion, direct or indirect, or. 
The first part is asnally introduced by 
atram or -ne, bnt these may be omitted. 
2. in simple questions, or, whether. 3. af- 
ter expressions of doubt, whetfur. 

ancora, -ae, f . anchor. 

AndraemOn, -onis, m. Andraemon, King 
of Aetolia, father of Thoas, who fought 
at Troy. 

Andromeda, -ae, f. Andromeda, an Ethi- 
opian princess who was rescued from a 
sea-monster by Perseus. 

angais, -is, m. and f. 1. serpent, snake. 
2. the Dragon, a constellation in the 
northern sky. 

angolas, -I, m. comer. 

angastas, -a, -am, narrow, dose. r9s 
angastae, mitfortune. 

anhSlitas, -tls, m. breath, breathing, pant- 

anhfilS, -fire, -fivl, -fitam, breathe, exhale, 

anhfilas, -a, -am, panting, out of breath. 

anilis, -e, [anas] of an old woman, weak, 

anima, -ae, f . breath, life, soul ; PI. espe- 
cially, souls of the dead, shades. 

animal, -fills, n. animal. 

animOsas, -a, -am, [auimas] spirited. 

animas, -I, m. mind, spirit, foul, feeling^ 
courage, anger. animb nostrls (d6- 
trahe), from my mind, animam dl- 
mittit, directs his mind, turns his 
attention, qaid tibi animi foret, how 
would you feelt animis minOra, 
humbler than my wrath, animas 
safidfibat, myfedings urged me, I fdt 
an impulse. 

annas, -I, m. year, time, time qf life, life, 
age. crfiscentfis annOs abstalit, 
carried her qff in hen' youth, 

finser, -oris, m. goose. 
ante: l- adv. btfore, in place or time. 
anteqaam, before, sooner than, ante 

1 84 


(volat)| ahetui, in advance. 2. prep, 
with Aoc. btfor€t in the presence qf^ in 
prffwence to. ante diem, h^ore the 
timet prematurely. 

aiite-e6, -Ire, -il, -itnm, go h^ore ; sur- 
passt outrank. All forms in Ovid are to 
be read with Synizesis, i.e. the e in ante 
does not make a separate syllable. 

antemna, -ae, f . yard^ sail-yard, to which 
the sails were fastened. 

AntSnOr, -oris, m. Antenor^ a prominent 
Trojan, in favor of peace. 

Antilochni, -I, m. AntilochtUj son of Nes- 
tor, killed at Troy. 

Antinoni, -I, m. Antinous, one of Pen- 
elopers suitors. 

antlqwu, -a, -am, [ante] ancient, 
former^ old. 

antrum, -I, n. cave. 

finnlos, -I, m. ring. 

BJOBy -Ub, f. old iDoman ; as adj. old. 

anzioB, -a, -am, anxious, troubled. 

Aonios, -a, -am, Aonian, a poetic name 
for Boeotian. The Aones were an ancient 
Boeotian tribe. Aonlae SorOrfie = the 
Muses J whose seat was Moant Helicon in 

aper, aprX, m. wild boar. 

aperid, -Ire, aperol, apertom, open^ dis- 

apertS, adv. openly ; in open battle (yin- 

apertoB, -a, -am, [aperiS] open, exposed, 
unprotected; clear. 

apez, -iolB, m. poinU head, summit, 

apis, -is, f . bee. 

Apollo, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Japiter 
and Latona, brother of Diana, the deified 
Sun, the god of poetry, music, prophecy, 

1. ap-pell5, -pellere, -paU, -polsom, 
drive to; especially of a ship, land. 

2. appelld, -5re, -fiyi, -fitom, caU, coil 
upon, addressy accost. 

ap-plic6,-fire, -fivX,-fitam, direct to, land. 

aptS, ady.JUtingly. 

aptS, -Sre, -fivl, -fttam, fit on, put on, 

aptos, -a, -am, fitting^ proper, suitable, 

apod, prep, with Ace. with, in the presence 

aqaa, -ae, f . tcater. 

aqoilO, -Itnis, m. the north toind ; per- 
sonified, North-wind, Boreas. 

aqaOsos, -a, -am, [aqaa] watery, rain- 

Sra, -ae, f . altar ; the Altar, a low con- 
stellation in the southern sky. 

arfttor, -Oris, m. [ari] plowman, 

arfitram, -I, n. [arS] plow. 

ArStas, -I, m. Aratus, a Greek poet who 
flourished about 270 b.c., famous as the 
author of certain astronomical poems. 

arbitriam, -I, n. judgment, decision ; toiU, 

arbor, -oris, f . tree. loyis arbor, the 
oak. P9lias arbor = the ehip Argo. 

arboreas, -a, -am, qfa tree, qf trees. 

arbastam, -X, n. trees ; a group qf trees, 
plantation, orchard. 

arbuteas, -a, -am, of the arbutus or 

arbatas, -X, f. the arbutus, arbute-tree, 
strawberry-tree: a small tree or shrub 
bearing fruit somewhat similar to the 

arcSnom, -X, n. secret. 

arcSnos, -a, -am, secret, mysterious, 

arce6, -§re, -al, keep off, ward off, hin- 
der, jyrevent. 

ArcSsias, -I, ni. Arcesius, the father of La- 
ertes, and BO the grandfather of Ulysses. 

Arctos, -X, f . [apxroc, bear] the Bear, espe- 
cially t/ie Great Bear : a constell^ion in 
the northern sky, which to inhabitants of 
the northern hemisphere never sinks 
below the horizon, hence inmtlnis 

areas, -Ub, m. bow, e.g. Cupid's bow ; 
rainbow; zone, district in the sky cor- 
responding to a zone on the earth. 

SrdeO, -§re, SrsI, Srsam, bum, glow, 
blaze ; bum loith love. 

Srdor, -Oris, m. glow, burning, passion. 

ardaas, -a, -am, steep, high. in ardua 
montis, up the mountain-side, to the top 
of the mountain. 

firea, -ae, f. open space, ground, field; 



arena, see harfina, sand. 

fir 6ns, -entis, partic. adj. [are6] dry, 
parched, withered ; ripe. 

ftreS, -6re, be dry, be parched. 

Arethtlsa, -ae, t. ArethusOj a nymph of 
Elis in Greece, who, being pursaed by 
the river-god Alpheus, prayed for help 
and was transformed into a spring, which 
flowed under- the sea to Sicily and there 
reappeared on the Island of Ortygia, a 
part of the city of Syracuse. 

argentens, -a, -am, of silver, silver. 

argentum, -X, n. silver. 

argestes, -ae, m. the^ northwest wind, 
bringer of clear weather. 

ArgI, -Oram, m. Argos, a city of Greece. 

Arglvas, -a, -am, Argive, Grecian. 

ArgO, -tls, f- Argo, the ship of the Argo- 
nauts. Ace, Argon. 

ArgolicaB, -a, -am, qf Argos, Argive, 

Argos, n. Argos: used only In Nom. and 
Ace. See ArgI. 

argaS, -ere, -al, accuse, reproach, blame. 

Sridas, -a, -am, dry, parched, burning. 

ariSs, -etis, m. ram. 

arista, -ae, f . ear (of grain). 

arma, -Oram, n. arms, weapons^ armor. 

armentam, -I, n. [ar8] plow oasen, cattle, 

armifer, -fera, -feram, bearing arms, 
armed; warlike. 

arm6, -fire, -fivl, -Stam, arm, give arms to. 

ar8, -fire, -fivl, -fitam, plow, cultivate. 

ars, -tis, f. art, science, skiU, cunning; 
trade, profession. 

artifex, -flcis, m. [ars, faci8] artificer, 
oHginator, author, schemer. 

1. artos, -a, -am, close, close-fitting, nar- 
ivw, strait. 

2. artas, -tls, m. limb (of the body), memr- 
ber, body. Usually in PI. 

arandO, see harandO, reed. 

arvam, -I, n. [arfi] plowed land, field. 

arz, -cis, f . citadel, castle, palace ; highest 
point, summit. 

Ascraeas, -a, -nm, of Ascra, a town in 
Boeotia where lived Hesiod, the Gre- 

cian farmer-poet. Hence Ascraeas = the 
bard qf AsC7'a, Hesiod. 

Asia, -ae, f. Asia: often used of Asia 

Astraea, -ae, f. Astraea, the goddess of 


astram, -X, n. star, constellation; in PI. 
often = sky, heavens. 

Sstas, -Us, ni. cunning. 

at, conj. but, still, yet, nevertheless, on tht 

fiter, -tra, tram, black, dark; gloomy, 
sormwful, mmimful. 

Athfinae, -firam, f. Athens, the famous 
city of Greece. 

AtlantiadOs, -ae, m. descendant of Atlas, 
especially Jf«x?wry, his grandson. 

Atlantis, -idis, f. daughter of Adas, espe- 
cially Maia, the mother of Mercury. 

Atlfis, -antis, m. Atlas: 1. the giant. 2. 
the mountain in Africa. 

atqae, fio, conj. and, and also ; as, than. 

Atreos, -el, m. Atreus, father of Agamem- 
non and Menelans. 

AtrldOs, -ae, m. son of Atreus, especially 
Agamemnon (mSior AtrldOs) and Mene- 
laus (minor AtrldSs). 

fitriam, -I, n. the atiium, the main hall 
of a Boman house. 

atrOx, -Ocis, adj. fierce, hostile. 

attamen, conj. but, yet, nevertheless. 

at-tined, -8re, -tinal, -tentam, pertain 
to, concern, be of consequence. 

at-toll6, -ere, raise, l\ft. 

attonitOB, -a, -am, thunderstruck, aston- 
ished, confused. 

at-trahS, -trahere, -trfixl, -trSctam, at- 

attall, see adferS. 

aaceps, -capis, m. [avis, capi8] bird- 
catcher, fowUr. 

aaotor, -Oris, m. and f. author, originator, 
inveiitor, giver. aactor generis or 
sangainis, ancestor. 

aadficia, -ae, f . boldness, daring, courage. 

aadfix, -ficis, adj. bold, brave ; rash, reck- 

aade5, -Ore, aasas sam, dare, attempt. 
aadi8, -Ire, -IvI, -Itam, hear, listen. 

1 86 


auferi, -ferre, abstull, ablfitmn, carry 
off, take off, take away, remove, destroy; 
carry off a» a prize, win. 

auge6, -9re, auxl, auctnin, incrtate, cause 
to grow, multiply, add to. 

aaguriimi, -I, n. inierpreiatUm qf omens, 

aii|riiror, -firl, -fituB sum, prophesy, in- 
terpret om^ns : suppose, infer. 

AuglutllBi -X, m. Augustus, Emperor of 

aula, -ae, f • court, palace. 

AnliS) -idis, f. Aulis, a Boeotian seaport 
where the Grecian fleet assembled when 
about to start for Troy. 

aura, -ae, f. breeze, wind, air, breath. 

aurStos, -a, -11111, [annun] gilded, golden, 
covered or adorned toilh gold. 

aureus, -a, -nm, golden, qf gold, gold. 
yU aurea, power of turning things into 

anrifer, -fera, -femm, gold-bearing, gold- 

aorlga, -ae, m. charioteer, driver. 

anrifl, -is, f. ear. anre susurrat, 
whispers in my ear. 

1. anrOra, -ae, f. dawn. 

2. AnrOra, -ae, f . Aurora, the goddess of 

annun, -X, n. gold ; the Golden Age. 

ansim = ansns sim, see andeS. 

Ansonia, -ae, f. Ausonia, a poetical name 
for Italy. 

Ansonins, -a, -nm, Ausonian, Italian. 

anspicinm, -X, n. sign, omen ; leadership. 

anster, -trX, m. satHh wind, the bringer 
of rain. 

anstralis, -e, brought by the south wind, 
from the south, southern. 

ansnm, -X, n. [ande6] daring deed, bold 

ant, conj. or, or else. ant— ant, either— 

antem, conj. but, yet, however, neverthe- 
less, on the other hand. 

antnmnSlis, -e, of autumn, autumn. 

antnmnns, -X, m. [ange5] autumn, fall. 
Personified, Autumnus, the god of an- 

anxiliSris, -e, helpful, helping, assisting. 

anxilinm, -I, n. help, aid, assistance. 

avSrus, -a, -nm, eager, greedy, miserly. 

S-vell8, -ere, -vellX or -vnlsl, -vnlsum, 
j}luck qff, tear away. 

av6na, -ae, f. oats; straw, reed, oat of 
which the shepherd^s pipe (flute) was 

A vemns, -I, m. Lake Avemus., near Comae, 
where there was supposed t6 be an en- 
trance to the Under Woild. Hence 
AvemilB sometime» = the Under World, 
the Lower World. 

Avemns, -a, -nm, adj. of Avemus, of the 
Lower World. 

Syersns, -a, -nm, [avertS] turned away, 
fleeing ; unfriendly, hostile. 

S-vert6, -ere, -verti, -versnm, turn 

avidns, -a, -nm, greedy, eager for, desir- 
ous of. 

avis, -is, f. bird. vfilfitnr ayibns, 
clothes himself loith bifdfeafhers. 

avXtns, -a, -nm, [avna] of one^s grand- 
father, ancestral. 

fiyinm, -X, n. unfrequented way, wilder- 

avns, -I, m. granclfather, ancestor. 

axis, -is, m. oa;^ ; chariot, wagon; axis of 
tlie earth, sky, heavens. 


BabylOnins, -a, -nm, Babylonian: from 
the city of Babylon on the Euphrates. 

bSca, -ae, f . berry. bfica Minervae = 


Baccha, -ae,f. Bacchante,& raving priestess 
or attendant of the wine-god Bacchus. 

Baechfins, -a, -nm, Bacchic, pertaining to 
Bacchus, qf Bacchus. 

Bacchiadae, -Smm, m. the Bacchiadae, 
the founders of Syracuse, formerly a 
prominent family of Corinth, claiming 
origin from Bacchus. 

baccbor, -Sri, -Stns snm, revel, celebrate 
Bacchic rites. 

Baccbns, -I, m. Bacchus; the god of wine, 
son of Jupiter and Semele. By Metonymy 
= vjine. 

baonlnm", -X, n. staff, stick. 



bSlaena, -aOi f . whale. 

ballista, -ae, f. ballista^ a machine for 
throwing large stones and similar projec- 

barba, -ae, f. beard. 

barbaria, -ae, f. barbarUm, rusticity; 
barbarian lands. 

barbaricos, -a, -nm, barbarian, barbaric, 
foreign (not Roman or Grecian). 

barbams, -a, -nm, barbaric, barbarian, 
foreign. Sabst. barbams, barbara, &ar- 

Bassug, -X, m. Bassus, a Roman poet, 
friend of Ovid. 

BattiadSs, -ae, m. descendant of Baiius ; 
Cyrenean, especially the Grecian poet 
CaUimaehus, a native of Cyrene, in 

BattuS) -I, m. Battus, a herdsman of 
Neleus, King of Pylos. 

BanciB, -idis, f . Baucis, wife of Philemon. 

beStiu, -a, -nm, happy, blessed, pros- 
perous, wealthy, 9^h. 

Bfilides, -am, f- the Danaides, the fifty 
daughters of Danaiis, granddaughters of 
BehiB, who, with one exception, slew 
their husbands at the instigation of their 
father and were condemned in the Lower 
World to dip water in sieves. 

bells tor, -Oris, m. warrior. 

bellum, -I, n. war, contest, strife. 

bSlaa, -ae, f. great beast, monster; ele- 

bene, adv. comp. melius, super, optime, 
well, properly, cartfuUy, com2)letely. 

benefacttim, -I, n. good deed, service, kind- 
ness, favor, ben^t. 

benlgnos, -a, -um, kind, favorable, 
friendly, generous ; fruitful, productive. 

Berecyntius, -a, -am, Berecyntian, from 
Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygfa, 
sacred to Cybele. Hence Berecyntias 
bSrOs = Midas, the son of Cybele. 

bib6, -ere, bibi, drink. 

bicolor, -Oris, two-colored. Of the olive, 
green and black. 

bicornis, -e, ttoo-homed, two-pronged. 

bidSns, -entis, adj. having two teeth, hav- 
ing two rows qf'teeth complete. Hence 
bidfins, f . two-year-old sheep for sacri- 
fice, sheep. 

biforis, -e, haiiAng two doors or wings. 
biforSs ^^^9.^^ folding-doors. 

bifDrmis, -e, two-formed, ttoo-shaped. 

bimaris, -e, on ttoo seas. 

binl, -ae, -a, two each, tvfo. 

bis, adv. twice. 

blaesas, -a, -am, lisping, stammering. 

blandior, -Irl, -Itas sum, flatter, fawn 
upon, caress. 

blanditia, -ae, f. flattery, caressing, blan- 

blandas, -a, -tun, flattering, fawning, 
caressing, enticing. 

BoeOtia, -ae, f. Boeotia, a district in 

bonas, -a, -am, comp. melior, super, op- 
timas, good, kind, friendly j happy, 

BOOtfiS, -ae, m. Bootes (Ox-driver), a con- 
stellation near the Great Bear ; the same 
as Arctophylaz (the Bear-keeper). 

borefUl, -ae, m. north wind. Personified, 
Boreas, the god of the north wind. - 

bOs, bovis, m. and f . ox, steer, cow. 

braccbiam, -I, n . arm, fore-arm. brac- 
cbia dare ad, reach, stretch out his arms 
to, seize. 

breyis, -e, short, smaU, narrow, brief. 
breviter, adv. briefly, shortly. 

bubo, -Onis, m. o^vl, of a large species ; a 
bird of ill omen. 

b&cina, -ae, f. hjorn, shell, trumpet. 

bftstam, -I, n. tomb. 

baxam, -I, n. wood of the box-tree (baxas), 
box-wood, of a whitish color. 

cactUnen, -inis, n. head, peak, top, sum- 

cadd, -ere, cecidi, cSsam, fall, sink; 
perish, be destroyed, be killed ; (of stars) 
set, sink. 

cSdfLcifer, -fera, -feram, carrying the 
herald's «^fyr(cfidllceas), wand-bearing. 
Snbst. = Mercury. 

caecas, -a, -am, blind ; unseen, invisible, 
hidden, dark, obscure. 

caedfis, -is, f . [caed5] murder, slaughter ; 

1 88 


caed6, -ere, ceeldl, eaesvnii cut dawn, cut 
off, cut ; kiil, slay. 

caelfimen, -inie, n- bcu-relitf work, carv- 
ing, engraving. 

caelestifl, -e, [oaelnm] heavenly, celestial, 
divine, qf the gods. Subst. caeleetSs = 
the gods. 

caelicola, -ae, m. inhabitant of heaven, 

cael5, -5re, -fivX) -fitTun, engrave in relief 
toork, make raised work, adorn with 
bas-relitf, carve. 

oaelnm, -I, n. heaven^ sky ; climate. 

caemleos, -a, -am, sky-colored, sea- 
colored, qf the sea ; dark Uue, dark. 

caemluB, see caemleus. 

Caesar, -ane, m. Caesar, inclading Jalius 
Caesar, Aagastus, Tiberius, and younger 

caespes, -itis, m. turf, cut sod; grassy 
fidd, lawn. 

calamus, -I, m. reed, cane ; fishing-rod ; 
writing pen. 

calathtLB, -X, m. basket. 

calcS, -&re, -Syl, -fitnm, trexid, tread 
upon, step on, especially of treading the 
grapes in a wine-press. 

calSns, -entis, partic. adj. warm, hot. 

C3ile6, -fire, -ul, be warm, be hjoi, bum. 

oal6sc5, -ere, oalnl, become warm, grow 

calidns, -a, -urn, warm, hot, burning. 

cSlIg6, -inis, f . darkness, obscurity, mist, 

callidus, -a, -tun, cunning, clever, crafty, 
skilful. Often to be taken witli tlie verb 
and translated adverbially. 

oalor, -Oris, m. warmth, heat, glow. 

Calvns, -I, m. Calvfts (82-47 B.C.), a Roman 
poet, friend of Ca'.ullns. 

CalydOnins, -a, -nm, Calydonian. The 
spear of Diomede is called Calydonian 
because his grandfather Ocneus was 
King of Calydon in Aetolia. 

CalymnS, -6s, t. Calymne, a small island 
southwest of Asia Minor. 

campns, -I, m. field, plain. 

cande5, -fire, -nl, be white, be white hot., 

candfisoO, -ere, candnl, become white hot, 
begin to glow. 

candidns, -a, -nm, white, fair. 

cSne6, -fire, -nl, be gray, be white. 

cSn6sc6, -ere, become gray, turn white., 
become parched. 

canis, -is, m. and f. dog. 

cSnitifie, -61, f . whiteness, grayness, hoari- 

canna, -ae, f . cane^ reed ; the shepherd's 

can6, -ere, oecini, ^/>{7 .' relate; proph- 
esy, canere receptfls, give the signal 
for retreat. 

CanOpns, -I, m. Canopus, a city in Egypt. 

canOms, -a, -nm, [can6] tun^ul, musiccU, 
harmonious. TrItOna canOmm, the 
trumpeter Triton. 

cantS, -Sre, -Svl, -fitnm, sing., sing of, 

oantns, -tls, m. song, enchantment, charm. 

cSnns, -a, -nm, white, gray. cSnl, gray 

capella, -ae, f. goat, she-goat ; Capella,, a 
star in the constellation Auriga, which 
rises in the rainy season. 

capillns, -X, m. hair of the head, hair. 

capiS, oapere, c6pl, captnm, take, seize, 
grasp, catch, capture, captivcUe ; hold, 
contain ; take, receive. 

CapitOlinm,- 1, n. [capnt] the Capitol, the 
magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus 
on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Also = 
the Capitoline Hill. 

captlyns, -a, -nm, captured, captive. 
Subst. = captive. 

capt&, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, try to seize, try 
to grasp, try to catch ; catch. 

capnt, -itis, n. head ; person, life ; top, 
summit ; source. capnt (iecoris), 
head, pivtuberance on the upper part of 
the liver. 

carbasna, -I, f. sail, sailcloth. 

career, -eris, m. prison, place of confine- 
m£nt ; barrier, starting-place (of the 

cardO, -inis, m. door-hinge, hinge. 

care6, -fire, -nl, be vMh/yut, bejree from, 
be deprived of, do toithout. carendns 
dfimptO fine, lost forever. 

oaedi— ceu. 


cSrioa, -ae, f. {Carian)fig, dried Jig, 

carifis, [-SI]| f. decay ^ ruin. 

carina, -ae, f . keel qf a ship ; ship. 

cariOsiUi -a, -am, tvaeting^ decaying^ rot- 

carmen, -inis, n. song, poem ; prophecy ; 
incantation y charm ; inscription. 

camifez, -flcis, m. hangman, executioner. 

carp5, -ere, carpsX, oarptnm, pluck, 
gather; erUiciee, find fault with. 
grfimen carpere, crop the grass, iter, 
viSs- carpere, make one^s way, go, ad- 
vance. trSmes carpitnr, the path is 

cfims, -a, -um, dear, precious, beloved. 

casa, -ae, f . hut. 

cSsens, -I, m. cheese. 

cassis, -idis, f . helmet (of metal). 

cassos, -a, -nm, empty, vain, fruitless. 

Castalius, -a, -nm, Castalian, from the 
Castalian Spring on Mount Pamassos, 
which was sacred to the Moses. 

castra, -Oram, n. camp. 

castas, -a, -am, pure, chaste, innocent. 

casoB, -tls, m. [cad6] chance, fall, mi^or- 
tune. cSsft, by chance. 

Catollos, -I, m. Catullus (87-54 B.c.)t a 
famons lyric poet of Rome. 

catolos, -X, m. the young of yarioas ani- 
mals ; especially, puppy, dog. 

caada, -ae, f . tail. 

caasa, -ae, f . cause, ground ; origin, occa- 
sion ; case. caosam agere, conduct a 
lawsuit, caosam tenfire, gain a suit. 

caatfi, adv. cautiously, cartfully. 

cantos, -a, -om, cautious, careful, pru- 

cave6, -6re, cSvI, caotom, take care, be 
on one's guard, beware ; fix, order, pre- 

cavos,-a, -am, hollow; cwved. pOcola 
qoS cava sont, tlte inside of the cups. 

Caystros, -I, ni. the Cayater, a river in 
Asia Minor, famoos for the number of 
its swans. 

Cecropios, -a, -am, Cecropian = Athe- 

cdd6, -ere, c6ssl, cSssom, go, proceed, go 
away ; yidd, give way, acknowledge su- 

periority, be inferior to ; pass over into, 
be trantferred to (in amnem). 

celeber, -bris, -bre, famous, celebrated ; 
thronged with, crowded. 

celebr6, -Sre, -fivl, -Stom, celebrate; 
crowd, throng, frequent. 

celer, -eris, -ere, swift, quick, fieet. 
celer pennS, ^J^^in^ swiftly by means 
of his wings. Often to be taken with the 
verb and translated adverbially/ 

c6l6, -5re, -fivl, -Stom, conceal, hide. 

celsos, -a, -am, high, lofty, celsiorem 
Ire, go too high. 

c6nsos, -tls, m. property-valuation by the 
censor ; wealth, riches, fortune. 

Cfiphlsis, -idis, adj. fem. of the Cephisus. 

Cfiphlsos, -I, m. th£ Cephi9us, a river in 
Phocis, which rises on Mount Parnassus. 

cSra, -ae, f . wax. The writing-tablets were 
coated with wax. 

CereSlis, -e, of Ceres. CereSlia mtl- 
nera (dOna), the gifts of Ceres = bread. 

Cer6s, -eris, f. Ceres, goddess of agricul- 
ture; by Metonymy, grain. 

cernO, -ere, see, distinguisJi, behold. 

certamen, -inis, n. contest, strife, battle. 
tanti certSminis h6r6s, the winner of 
the great prize for which we are con- 

certatim, adv. emulously, eagerly; vie with 

one another in. 
certs, adv. certainly, surely ; at least. 

certO, -fire, -fivl, -fitom, strive, contend, 

certos, -a, -om, sure, certain, fixed, clear, 
unerring. certom mihi est, / am 
resolved, certom facere, certiCrem 
facere, inform. certiOrem esse, be 
informed, learn. certOB amor, true 

cerva, -ae, f . hind, deer. 

cervix, -Icis, f. neck. 

cervos, -I, m. stag, deer. 

C6ss8, -fire, -fivl, -fitom, delay, loiter, stop, 
lose time, rest, be idle, be negligent. c6s- 
sfire prO, not take an interest in. 

[cfiteros] , -a, -om, remaining, rest of. c6- 
tera via, the rest of the way. cStera, 
all else, tJie rest. 

ceo, adv. ax, just as, like, as if. 




ohaoi, (no Genitive) n. ehaoi, empty spacfi, 
oo^frtMon, By Metonymy, ttie Under 

Charops, -opiSi m. Charops, a Trojan, slain 
by Ulyeaea. 

oharta, -ae, 1 paper ^ leaf qf papyrus. 

Charybdili -is, f • Charybdis, a whirlpool 
between Italy and Sicily. 

Cliersidamfis, -antii, m. Chersidamas, a 
Trojan, slain by Ulysses. 

Clllas, -a, -nin, Chian, qf Chius^ an island 
on the coast of Asia Minor. 

chorda, -ae, f • chordt string. 

ohonu, -I, m. dance^ choral dance ; band^ 
troop. i& chorX spedem, in a dance- 
like manner. 

Chromios, -I, m. Chromius, a Lycian, ally 
of the Trojans, slain by Ulysses. 

CliryBfi, -SS| f . Chryse^ a city in the Troad, 
with a temple to Apollo. 

chrysolithos, -I, f> chrysolite^ a precious 

cibiu, -I, m. food. 

Cioones, -nnii m. the dcones^ a people of 

cicftta, -ae, f • hemlocky a violent poison 
used in executions. 

Cilia, -ae, f ■ Cilla^ a city in the Troad, 
with a temple to Apollo. _ 

cingS, -ere, cinxl, cinctum, gird, gird 
Ofiy gird up ; surround, enclose. 

cinis, -eris, m. ashes. in cinerem 
yertere, tvm to ashes. 

ClnypliiaB, -a, -um, Cinyphian, from the 
River Cinyps in Libya ; hence, Libyan, 

circS, prep, with Ace. aixmnd, about. 

circnm-dS, -dare, -dedl, -datum, s^(r- 
round, put around, encircle. circom- 
dattLB flvIS, wearing a wreath of grapes. 

circum-lin6, -linere, -litum, smear over, 

circnm-BonO, -Sre, -ul, 80U7id around, re- 
sound on every side. 

circTun-sptdd, -spicere, -epezl, -spe- 
ctum, look around. 

cite, adv. quickly. Comp. citius. sS- 
rius ant citins, sooner or later. 

clvflis, -e, i-iviX, qf t/ie state. 

cXvis, -is, m. citizen^ inhabitant^ fdiow- 

olSdfie, -is, f . Am», disaster, misfortune. 
dam, adv. secretly. 

clSm8, -fire, -fivX, -fitnm, cry, shout, ex- 
claim, call aloud. 

clSmor, -Oris, m. cry, shout, call, applause, 
vjnvar, noise. 

clSms, -a, -nm, dear, distinct, loud, 
bright, shining, resplendent, famous, 

dfissis, -is, f . Jleet ; ship. 

cland$, -ere, clansX, dansnm, dose, shut, 
shut up ; shut cff, cut off ; shut in, sur- 
round ; finish, end. 

dfivns, -X, m. a purple stripe on the tunic. 
The narrow stripe (dfivns angnstns) 
indicated equestrian rank, the broad 
(dfivns Ifitns) the senatorial. The broad 
stripe was also worn by the sons of 
knights of the highest rank if they in- 
tended to enter the service of the state 
and ultimately become senators. 

cl6m6ns, -entis, adj. mild, kind, merciful. 

clipens, -I, m. shidd Oarge and round). 

cllyns, -I, m. hiU, dope, indine, slant. 

Clymenfi, -6b, f. Clymene, mother of 

Clymenfiins, -a, -nm, of Clymene. Cly- 
menfiia prOles, sonqf Clymene, PhaS- 

coSctns, sec cOgS. 

coctilis, -e, [coqn5] burnt, mllrlcoc- 

tilSs, walls made of burnt bricks, brick 


co-e5, -Ire, -il, -itnm, go together', come to- 
gether, mad, assemble. taedae .itUre 
colssent, would have united in v-ar- 

coepi, coepisse, coeptnm, have begun, 
commenced, began. coeptns, begun, 

coeptnm, -I, n. beginning, undertaking, 

Goeranns, -I, m. Coeranus, a Lycian, slain 

by Ulysees. 

co-erced, -ere, -nl, -itnm, check, restrain, 

oOgnStns, -a, -nm, kindred, akin. 
cOgnitor, -Oris, m. advocate, attorney. 

chaos— conclfimo. 


cOgnOmen, -inis, n. tuzm^, surname^ 
family name. 

cOgnOacO, -ere, cOgnOvI, cOgn^^tum, 
perceive ; learn^ find out ; recognize, 

cOg5, cOgere, co6gI, coSotnm, [co-ag6] 
drive together, collect; compel, fai^ce; 
make narrower, make smaller (cISyhb) ; 
curdle (ISo), condense, solidify. SgmexL 
cOgere, bring up the rear, close the file. 
ntUlO oOgente, withxmt compulsion, 

cohors, -tis, t. troop, band, croiod of at- 

Colchns, -a, -nnii Colchian, of Colchis, a 
country in Asia Minor. Golchl) the 

colligO, see oonlig6. 

coIUb, -is, m. hill. 

collnm, -If n. neck. 

C0I6, -ere, -nI, caltnni, cultivate, tiU; 
practise: Jionor, worship, celebrat£ : 

COlOnos, •!, m. farmer, husbandman. 

color, -Oris, m. color, complexion. 

coluber, -bri, m. snake, serpent. 

colnbra, -ae, f- snake, serpent. 

columba, -ae, f . dove. 

colimma, -ae, f . column, pillar. 

colas, -I, f . and m. distaff. 

coma, -ae, f. hair ; leaves, foliage. 

comes, -itis, m. and f . companion, attend- 

comitS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, and comitor, 
-firl, -Stos sum, accompany, attend. 

com-memorS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, relate, 

com-mendS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, intrust, 

commentum, -I, n. lie, falsehood. 

commeroium, -I, n. trade, commerce, ex- 
change; intercourse, fellowship. 

com-mere5, -6re, -ul, -itnm, deserve. 

C0m-mina6, -aere, -uI, -Utum, break to 
pieces, shatter. 

comminns, adv. hand to hand, at dose 

com-mitt5, -mittere, -misl, -missnm, 
commit ; begin ; intrust ; let loose. 

commodnm, -I, n. advantage, weal, wel- 

commodus, -a, -nm, suitable, fit ; advan- 

com-moneO, -6re, -uI, -itnm, remind, 

com-mfLnic$, -are, -Svl, -Stnm, sfiare, 

communis, -e, common, public. com- 
mUnia, things which belong to us all, 
deeds shared by all. 

com-par5, -fire, -Svl, ^tnm, compare ; 
prepare, make ready, intend. 

oompfis, -pedis, f . shackle (for the feet), 
fetter, bond. 

comp6sc5, -ere, -nl, [compos] check, re- 
strain, sitim, quench, still. 

com-plector, -plecti, -plexns sum, em- 
brace, put arms around. 

oom-pleS, -6re, -6yI, -6tnm, fill up, com- 
plete, finish. 

oom-plOrO, -fire, -Svl, -Stnm, weep over, 
bewail, lament. 

com-p9n6, -pOnere, -posnl, -positnm, 
lay together, place toget/ier, unite ; place 
side by side, compare ; place in order, ar- 
range, smoothe, compose ; compose, write, 
represent ; place in the tomb, bury. 

compos, -Otis, adj. having potver or con- 
trol over, master of. 

com-prendS, -ere, -prendl, -prfinsnm, 
enclose, en^braxie, contain, grasp. di- 
ctls oomprendere, express in words. 

oom-nrimO, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, 
i^ieck, repress, suppress, restrain. 

concha, -ae, f. shell, used by Triton as a 

concili6, -fire, -Svl, -Stnm, gain, win, 
procure, acquire. 

concilinm, -I, n. assembly, council. 

con-cin8, -ere, -nl, sing, lyrS, to the 
accompaniment of the lyre. 

con-cipi5, -ere, -c6pl, -ceptnm, conceive, 
receive (Sfira) ; take up, draw up, suck 
up (aqnSs) ; perceive, comprehend. 
flammSs concipere, talcefire. 

con-cit5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, excite, incite, 

stir up, urge on. 
con-clSmO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, call to- 

getlier, assemble. 



Concordia, -ae, f. concord^ harmony^ 

concors, -dis, adj. concordant^ harmoni- 
ou8t agreeing. 

con-onrrS, -ere, -cnrri, -cursiuii, run 
together^ strike together^ meet, fight^ con- 

COXIC1I88118, -Us, ni. shaking, shock. 

con-cati5, -cutere, -ciuwl, -eiiBsnm, 
shake up, shake thoroughly, make up 
(tora), shake (arma, caput), shatter 

COndiciO, •Onis, f. condition, stipulation, 

con-d5, -dere, -didi, -ditiim, put to- 
gethei\ close (oculOs, IfUnina); bury, 
conceal, hide i preserve ioomtL)\ build, 
found ; bury, drive deep (finsexn). 

cOn-fer5, -ferre, -tuU, -IStnm, bring to- 
get/ier, compare ; change, 86 cOnf erre, 
betake one*s seJf, go. 

o0n-ild5, -ere, -flSiu sum, trust, have 
confidence in. 

cOn-fiteor, -fitSrl, -feBSns sum, [fateor] 
coftfess, grant, acknowledge. 

oOn-fagiS, -fagere, -fUgl, fiee, take 

cOxi-faiid5, -ere, -flLdl, -fOsTun, pour to- 
gether, mix up, confuse ; distress, make 

cOnitLnz, -ingis, m. and f. [cOniungS] 
husband, wife, spouse, consort. 

con-iflro, -are, -fivl, -Stnm, conspire. 

coxi-lig5, -ere, -16gl, -l6ctiim, [coxi,leg6] 

collect, gather ; tie up, fasten together. 
sitim conligere, become thirsty. 

con-mereS, deserve. See commereQ. 

cQnor, -SrX, -Stiu Bum, undertake, at^ 
tempt, try, endeavor. 

con-plOr5, bewail. See complOrS. 

con-primS, dose. See comprimS. 

con-qneror, -qnerX, -qnestos sam, com- 
plain, bewail. 

cOnsanguineas, -a, -um, kin, related. 

cOn-scendS, -scendere, -soendl, -scfin- 
Bum, mmint, climb, go onboard. 

cOnBciiiB, -a, -um, knotving, conscious, 
participating, privy to. 

cQnBciiiB, -I, m. confidant, go-bettveen. 

cOn-Ben68c5, -ere, -eennl, grow old to- 

cOn-Benti5, -«entire, -bSubI, -BSnsiim, 

c9n-8er$, -serere, -semi, -sertnm, join% 
unite. Join battle. 

oOn-eldO, -eldere, -eSdl, -sessum, sii 
down, take a seat, settle. 

cOmdliam, -I, n. advice ; v)isdom. 

o0n-8iBt6, -ere, -etiti, stop, stand, stay, 
remain ; take one^s place, take position ; 
become solid. 

cOn-sQlor, -firl, -atns sum, console. qii5 
cOnsOlante dolfirSs 1 who would console 
you in your sorrow f 

oOnsors, -tie, adj. sJiaring. Snbst. sharer, 
participator. cQnsors tori, consort^ 

cOn-Bpici5, -spicere, -spezi, -Bpectnm, 

behold, look at, see. 

cOnspicauB, -a, -nm, visible, conspicuous; 
striking, remarkable. 

cOnstSne, -tis, adj. constant, unchanging. 
oOnstSns in levitSte boS, unchanging 
in her fickleness. 

cOnstanter, adv. constantly, firmly, 
steadily, consistently. 

cOnstantia, -ae, f. constancy, firmness. 

cOn-stemS, -fire, -5vl, -fitnm, frighten, 
terrify, throw into confusion. 

cOn-Bii6sc3, -ere, -snSvI, -saStnm, ao- 
cusiom one^s self, become accustomed. 
c5nBu6Yl, lam accustomed. 

cOnBuStoB, -a, •um, accustomed, custom- 
ary, usual, 

cOnsul, -uliB, m. consul. The two consala, 
elected yearly, were the chief officers of 

cOnBulS, -ere, -ul, -turn, consult, ask for 
advice ; consult the interest of, look out for, 

c0n-8llm5, -ere, -BfUnpsI, -sUmptum, 
consume, use up, destroy, waste ; of time : 
pass, spend, consume. 

cOn-Burg6, -ere, -lurrexl, -surrectum, 
rise, stand up. 

cOntfictuB, -Hb, m. touch, contact. 

con-temn5, -ere, -tempsl, -temptum, 
despise, disdain, contemn. 

con-tend5, -ere, -tendl, -tentum, con- 
tend, vie ; hasten. 

conoordia— crStSr. 


oontentus, -a, -nm: 1. [contends] 
stretched^ tight ; 2, [oontine6] con- 
tented, satisfied ; cof\fined^ limited, 

conterminnSi -a, -nm, having the same 
boundary. Joining ; near, close. 

oontig^HB, -a, -nm, joining, touching, 
neighboring, near, cu^oining, ac^acent, 

con-tineS, -tinfire, -tixiiil, -tentnin., con- 
tain, hold. 

con-ting6, -ere, -tigl, -tSctnm, touch, 
seize; anoint, besmear; reacJi; Jiap- 

oontrS: 1. ady. to (or on) the opposite 
side, in o/p^posUion. 3. prep, with Ace. 
against, opposite to. 

con-trahS, -ere, -trSzI, -trSctnin, bring 
together, shorten, contract. 

contrSrinB, -a, -nm, opposite, in or from 
the opposite direction, contrary. in 
contrfiria, in the opposite direction, 

con-yal6Bc6, -ere, -valnl, grow strong, 
grow powerful; get the upper hand 

con-Yell5, -ere, -velU, -vnlsnm, tear to 

con-veni5, -venire, -v6nl, -yentnm, 
come together, meet, assemble ; suit. Jit, 
be proper. 

con-verti, -ere, -vertX, -versnm, convert, 
turn, turn to one'^s se{f, attract the atten- 
tion of. 

conyloinm, -I, n. outcry, reproaching, 

convictns, -Us, m. living together, ft tend- 

ly intercourse ; by Metonymy, circle of 


con-vinc$, -ere, -vicl, -victnm, over- 
come, convince, convict. male con- 
yictns furor, the disgraceful conviction 
of feigned madness. 

con-YOc5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, call together, 
assemble, summon. 

cOpia, -ae, f. abundance, plenty, riches; 
power, opportunity, occasion, freedom. 
cOpia mnndl, freedom qf the universe, 
permission to go wherever they pleased. 
fiet tibi oOpia nostrl, I will put myself 
in your power. 

oor, cordis, n. heart. 

oOram, prep, with AbL in the presence qf, 

Corinna, -ae, t. Corinna, fictitioas name 
of Ovid's mistress. 

Gorinthns, -I, f . Oorinth, a city of Greece, 
situated on the Isthmus of Corinth. 

comlz, -IcIb, f . crow. 

comfL, -Us, n. horn, cornna dimidiae 
Ifinae, the home qf the half-moon. 

comnm, -I, n. cornel-berry. 

corOna, -ae, f. toreath, crown. vnlgl 
stante corOnS, a circle qf common so^ 
diers standing around. 

corOnO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, wreathe, 
crown ; surround, encircle. 

corporens, -a, -nm, [corpnB] qf the body, 
of flesh, corporeal. 

corpns, -oris, n. body,form^ shape, mass, 
flesh. snmmnm corpus, the surface 
qf the body, the skin, in corporis nsnm, 
into flesh, to serve as flesh. 

cor-rig5, -ere, -r6xl, -rfictnm, correct, 
improve, make better. tna corrige 
yOta, change your wish for a better one. 

cor-fipi5, -ripere, -ripnl, -reptnm, seize ; 
attack, scold, upbraid ; cairy off, de- 
stroy, ruin. corripnfire viam, has- 
tened over the road, corripitur flam- 
mis, is seized with flames, catches flre. 

Corsicns, -a, -nm, Corsican, from Corsica, 
the island in the Mediterranean Sea, 
famous for its honey. 

cortex, -icis, m. and f. bark (of a tree) ; 
bast (the inner bark) ; rind (of fruit, as 
the pomegranate). 

coryns, -I, m. raven, 

COrycides, -nm, adj. fem. Corycian, from 
the cave Corycium on Mount Parnassus, 
sacred to the the Corycian nymphs. 

corymbus, -I, m. cluster, especially of ivy- 
branches with the berries, sacred to Bac- 

COthnmns, -I, m. buskin, a kind of high 
shoe worn by tragic actors ; by Meton- 
ymy, tragedy, tragic poetry. 

cotnrniz, -Icis, f . quail. 

crSs, adv. to-morrow. 

crSstinns, -a, -nm, of the morrow, to- 

crStfir, -Sris, m. bowl, mixing-bowl, wine- 



bowl. Wine was mixed with water in 
this vessel and then pat in caps. 

orStOra, -ae, f . = orStSr. 

orSber, -bra, -brum) frequent, numerous, 
abounding in. 

crSdibilis, -e, credible, wortJiy of belief. 

crSdS, -ere, -idl, -itTiin, believe, trust, 
have confidence in ; intrust (m6 pelagC). 

crfididitSs, -Stis, f . credulity. 

crfidulus, -a, -nm, credulous. 

cremS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, bum, bum up, 
cremate, consume!'. 

cre$, -Sre, -5vl, -Stam, create, bring 
forth, beget. TelamOne creStiu, son 
of Telamon. qnioqidd mortSle creS- 
miir, all of us mortal creatures. 

CreOn, «ontis, m. Cfreon, King of Corinth. 

orepitS, -Sre, -SyI, -Stum, sound, rattle, 
clash, crackle ; murmur. 

cr6sc5, -ere, crfivl, crStnm, grow, in- 
crease; rise» spring up, spring from. 
orfitnB, sprung from. erSscSns, grow- 
ing, immature. 

crStnB, see crfiscS. 

Cr6t6, -08, f* Crete, an island in the Aegean 

CretlBa, -ae, f . Creusa, daughter of Creon, 
King of Corintii. She was the bride of 

crimen, -inis, n. charge, accusation ; 
crime, guilt ; reproach, slander. 

crlnis, -is, m. hair. 

crocenB, -a, -um, saffron-cciored, safron, 
golden, ydlow. 

crocus, -I, m. saffron, 

crtldSUs, -e, crud, harsh, severe, 

cruentStuB, -a, -um, bloody, covered with 

cmentus, -a, -um, bloody, qf blood, 
smeared loith blood. 

crxior, -Oris, m. blood (that is shed), gore. 
crUs, cr^is, n. leg, shin. 
crux, cmois, f . cross, for execution by cru- 

cnbUe, -is, n. bed, couch. 

cnb5, -Sre, -ui, -itum, He, recline, rest. 

onlmen, -inis, n. highest pcnni, summit, 
gable, roof. 

culpa, -ae, t. fault, mistake, defect, crime. 

culpi, -Sre, -SyI, -Stum, blame, find 
fauU with, 

CUltor, -Oris, m. cultivator, tiller; wor- 
shipper, respecter, practiser. 

1. cultus, -a, -um, [ool6] cultioated, 
polished, r^ned. 

2. cultus, -Us, m. cuUivation; adornment, 

1. cum, prep, with Abl. wiVi, along with, 
in company with, 

2. cum, conj. when, while, whenever, as 
qften as, after ; since ; although. 

cumba, -ae, f . boctt, 
cumulus, -I, m. pUe, heap, mass. 
cunctor, -Sri, -Stus sum, hesitate, de- 
cUnctus, -a, -um, all together, all, whole. 

Gupldineus, -a, -um, of Cupid, the god 
of love. 

1. CupIdO, -inis, f. desire, longing, love. 

2. CupIdO, -inis, m. Cupid (Amor, e>««), 
the son of Venos and god of love. 

cupidus, -a, -um, desirous, eager, loving, 

cupi6, -Ire, -IvI (il), -Itum, desire, long 
for, be eager for ; be well-disposed, wish 

Ctlr, adv. 1. interrog. why? whertforef 
2. rel. why, reason why, cause for. cflr 
spoliSris erit, nOn cOr metuSris ab 
hoste, it will be an inducement to plun- 
der, no cause for fear on the part of the 

cflra, -ae, f . care, anxiety ; love. Abstract 
for concrete, keeper, attendant, guard- 
ian, cllra pueUae, care for your girl, 
thoughts qflove. amor est clirae (tibl), 
you are thinking of love. 

cHria, -ae, f . senate-house, senate. 

Ctlr8, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, care for, be 
anxious about, think of. 

currO, -ere, cucurri, cursum, run, hasten; 
fly, sail. 

currus, -fls, m. chariot, wagon. 

cursus, -lis, m. running, race, flight, 

curvSmen, -inis, n. curve, curving, bend. 

curvSt^a, -ae, f. curvature. summa 
curyatCLra rotae, the rim of the wheel. 

crStfira— dfifrOnStnB. 


euryS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, cvrve, bend. 

oarvTU, -a, -um, curved, bent, 

cospis, -idis, f . point, spear-point ; spear ; 
trident (of Neptune). 

oHstOdia, -ae, f» guarding, watching ; 
abstr. for concr. guard, watch. , 

CtUltOfi, -Odis, m. and f. guard, watch, 

protector, keeper ; herdsman. 
cutis, -is, f. sUn, 

Cyclades, -um, f. the Cydades, a^oup of 
islands in the A^ean Sea. 

cycnus, -I, m. swan. 

CyllfiniuB, -a -um, CyUeniani from 
Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, the birth- 
place of Mercury. Subst. GyllSnius = 

CytherSa, -ae, f. Cytherea, i.e. Venue, to 
whom the Island of Cythera was sacred. 

Daedalus, -I, m. Daedalus, a famous ar- 
chitect of Athens, builder of the Laby- 
rinth in Crete. He and his son Icarus 
flew away from' Crete with wings which 
he made. 

damn5, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, condemn, con- 

damnOsuB, -a, -um, harmful, injurious, 
causing loss. 

damnum, -X, m. loss, injury, harm, mis- 
fortune, ruin, 

Dana6, -6s, f . DanaS, who, deceived by 
Jupiter in the shape of a shower of gold, 
became the mother of Perseus. 

Danal, -Orum, ni. the Banal, a poetical 
name for the Greeks. 

daps, dapis,^ meal, banquet. 

Dardania, -ae, f. Dardania, a poetical 
name for Troy. 

DardanidSs, -um, m. the Dardanidee = 
the Trqjans,the descendants of Dardanus. 

Dardanis, -idis, adj. fem. Dardanian = 

Dardanius, -a, -um, J)ardanian= Trqjan. 

do, prep, with Abl. ./hw», away from, 
doumfrom ; out of, of; for^ conxxming, 
about, in consequence of 

dea, -ae, f . goddess. 

dSbe6, -6re, -ul, -itum, owe, be under 

obligation, ought, must. dSbitus, due^ 
owed, destined. 

dfibilis, -e, weak, feeble. 

d6bilit6, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, weaken, 
hinder, oppress, crush. 

decem, ten. 

dece6, -6re, -ul, become fit, be becoming, 
be proper, be JUting (usually impersonal). 

d6-oerp6, -ere, -cerpsi, -cerptum, pluck 
of, break off. 

d6-cid6, -ere, -^dlf fail off, fall from, fall 

deciSns, ady. ten times, 

decimus, -a, -um, tentJi. 

dfi-cipiO, -oipere, -cSpI, -oeptum, deceive, 

d6-clSm8, -Sre, -SvX, -Stum, declaim; 
use oratorical, high-sounding language. 

dSclIyis, -e, sloping doumward, down-hiU, 

dScolor, -Oris, adj. discolored, soiled, 

decor, -Oris, m. grace, charm, beauty, 

dec5rus, -a, -um, becoming, jrrop^r, 
seemly, honorable. 

dficrStum, -I, n. decree. 

decus, -oris, n. ornament, grace, beauty, 
splendor, charm. 

dSdecus, -oris, n. disgrace, shame, dis- 

dS-dlgnor, -Sri, -fitus sum, disdain, 
scorn, r^use, reject as unworthy. 

d6-dlsc8, -ere, -didici, unUam, forget. 

dedO, -ere, -idl, -itum, surrender, give 
uj>, yield ; devote. 

d6-dfLc5, -ere, -dtixl, -ductum, lead 
down, draw down, let down ; launch. 

d6-fend5, -ere, -fendl, -fSnsum, defend, 
protect, shield. 

defSnsor, -Oris, m. defender. 

d6-fer$, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, bring 
down, carry down ; carry ; land. 

d6-fici5, -ficere, -f6cl, -fectum, /ai/, be 
wanting; fail, faint, gi-ow weak, give 

dS-fleO, -6re, -6vl, -6tum, bewail, lament, 

dSfOrmis, -e, ill-shaped, ungainly, ugly, 

dOfrOnStus, -a, -um, unbridled, loose. 



d9-fagi6, -fiigere, -ftgXy -fagitiim,/M ; 

d6-fangor, -fungi, -ftLnotns sum, JlnUh, 
complete^ end. 

dSnde, adv. thm^ after Omt. 

de-lSbor, -ISbl, -iSpsiui btuil, glide doion, 
jUm down, fall. 

d9-le6, -6re, -6yI, -Otom, wipe out, de- 

DSlia, -ae, f> Ddia, mistress of Tiballus. 

dSlioifte, -Smiii, pleasure, delight, enjoy- 
' mentf voluptuousness, 

d6-lig6, -ere, -ISgl, -ISctnm, pluck, 

DSloi, -X, f . J>elos, one of the Cyclades, an 
island sacred to Apollo. 

delphin, -Xnis, m. dolphin. 

dSlUbmin, -I, n. shrine, temple. 

dSmfins, -entis, adj. senseless, mad, in- 
sane, foolish. 

dfimentia, -ae, f • madness, insanity, stu- 

d6-merg^, -ere, -meni, -mersimi, sink, 
cause to sink. 

dfi-mina^, -nere, -ul, -fLtnm, lessen, di- 
minish ; soothe. 

dSmisBUS, -a, -Qm, let down, hanging 
down, low. dSnuBsior, too low. d6- 
missls Sib, with drooping wings. 

d6-xiiitt5, -ere, -mlsl, -missimi, send 
down, let down ; drive down, strike deep 

d6in5, -ere, dfimpsi, dSmptum, [em6] 
take away, take off, remove. dfimptO 
fine, without end, forever. 

dSmiim, adv. at length, at last. 

d6-neg5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, refuse (with 
firmness, positively). 

dSnique, adv. at last, finally. 

dSns, dentis, m. tooth, tusk, prong. 

dfixuins, -a, -um, dense, thick, crowded. 

d6-pere6, -Ire, -il, -itnm, perish (utterly). 

d6-plQr5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, bewail, la- 

dS-pOnS, -ere, -posnl, -positTmi, lay aside, 
put off, put down ; quench (Bitim) ; saA- 
isfy damem). 

dSpositani, -I, n. [d6pOn5] deposit, that 
which has been intmsted or deposited. 

fallere dSpofitnm, hold hack the ds- 
posit, r<fuse to give it up, make default. 

d6-precor, -Sri, -Stos Bum, pray to be 
delivered from. hOc fLnum dfiprecor, 
this one thing I entreat you not to ask 

dS-prendS, -ere, -prendl, -prensTun, 
catch., seize, come up with, surprise, dis- 

dSHScendS, -ere, -scendl, -bcSxibilxii, de- 
scend, come down. 

d6-Bec6, -Sre, -secnl, -BectiiiiL, c%it off, 

dS-serS, -ere, -ul, -turn, desert, forsake. 

dSsertnB, -a, -tun, deserted, forsaken, 
desolate, barren. 

dO-serviS, -fire, serve faithfully, serve to 
the end. 

dCsidia, -ae, f. sloth, inactivity, idleness. 

d6-Bilid, -Ire, -silul, leap down. Jump 

d6-Bin5, -ere, -flil, -Bitnm, cease, desist, 
finish, end. 

dS-flistS, -ere, -stiti, desist, cease. 

dfisOlStuB, -a, -nm, desolate. 

d6-8pici6, -Bpicere, -spexl, -Bpectnm, 

look down ; despise. 

dS-stituS, -uere, -ol, -fLtnm, desert, leave, 
give up, expose. 

dSsnfitnB, -a, -nm, unaccustomed, un- 
wonted, unfamiliar, unseen for a long 

dCsnltor, -Oris, m. leaper, a rider in the 
circus who leaps fronv one horse to 
another. dSsnltor amOris, fickle in 

d9-Bnm, -eBSe, -fol, be wanting, be absent, 

deterior, -na, adj. tcorse, inferior, less 

d6-terred, -fee, -nl, -itnm, frighten qff, 


de-tineS, -6re, -tinni, -tentnm, hold 
back, detain. 

d6trSct5, see d6tr0ct5. 

d6trah5, -ere, -trSxI, -trSctnm, puU off, 
break off, take off, remove. 

dBtrfictS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, puU down, 
make light qf, depredate ; decline, rtfuse, 

defOgiS— distinaS. 


BeaealiSn, -Snis, m. Deucalion^ son of 
Prometheos and husband of Pyrrha. He 
was the only man saved from the flood. 

denB, -I, ni. godi deitPi divinity. 

d6-vS8t5, -fire, -Svl, -StTUXii lay waste, 
destroy^ devastate. 

d6-vertor, -vertl, -versus siii% turn 
aside, betake one's self, go. 

dfiviuS) -a, -nm, out of the way, remote. 

d6-Yord, -fire, -fivl, -fitnin., fwaUow, gulp 
down, devour. 

dS-vove8, -8ro, -v5vl, -YOtnm, vow, 
devote; curse, execrate, heap impreca- 
tions on. 

dexter, -tra, -tnun, and -tera, -terum, 
on the right, right. dezterior, more 
to the right, too far to the right, to the 

dextra and dextera, -ae, f . rtght hand. 

dl, gods. See dens. 

Dia, -ae, f . Dia, an older name for Naxos, 
one of the Cyclades. 

Difina, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the 
moon, of the hant, and of witchcraft. 
She was the sister of Apollo and daughter 
of Jupiter and Latona. 

dIo5, -ere, dixl, dictum, say, tell, speak, 
relate, call, appoint. 

dictum, -I, n. saying, expression, word, 

Dictys, -70s, m. Dictys, a sailor. 

dl-dftoi, -ere, -dflxl, -ductiim, tear 
apart, tear open, open. 

diss, -61, m. and f. day, time. ante 
diem, before the tim£, prematurely. 
Diss = l>ay, personified. 

dif-feri, -ferre, distnll, dIlStiim,in</ off, 

difflcilis, -e, difficult, hard. 

dif-fld5, -ere, -flsns sum, distrust. 

dif-fagi5, -fagere, -fCLgl, flee in various 
directions, disperse, scatter. 

dif-fimd5, -ere, -ftldl, -f&sum, pour out, 
scatter, spread out. 

digitus, -I, m.flnger, toe. 

dignus, -a, -urn, worthy, deserving. 

dl-gredior, -gredl, -gressus sum, go 
away, depart. 

dMacerS, -fire, -SvX, -fitum, tear to 

dl-laniS, -fire, -SvX, -fitum, tear to 
pieces. dUanifita comSs, with di- 
shevelled hair. 

dl-ligS, -ere, -16x1, -iSctum, love, cherish, 
esteem highly. 

dimidius, -a, -um, half. 

dl-mittS, -ere, -misl, -missum, send 
away, dismiss, give vp. cfCram dl- 
mittere, distnuss care. ctLram belli 
dimittere, give up the war. animum 
dimittere in, direct one's attention to, 
apply one's self ^* 

dl-moveS, -6re, -m5vl, -mOtum, move 
apart, divide ; stir up (cinerem). 

DiomfidSs, -is, m. IHomedes or Diomede, 
son of Tydeus. He was one of the greatest 
Grecian heroes at Troy. 

Diom6d6us, -a, -um, of Diomede. 

directus, -a, -um, straight, at right 

dl-rig5, -ere, -r6xl, -rSctum, direct, 

guide, aim. 

dl-ru5, -mere, -rul, -rutum, destroy. 

dims, -a, -um, terrible, dreadful, awful. 

Dis, Ditis, m. Dis, the Rich One = Pluto, 
the ruler of the Under World. 

dis-c6di, -ere, -cSssI, -cSssum, go away, 
depart, withdraw. 

discidium, -I, n. [dI-Bcind5l separation. ' 

dIscO, -ere, didici, learn. 

discors, -dis, adj. discordant, disagreeing, 

discrlmen, -inis, n. difference, distinction. 

disertus, -a, -um, eloquent. 

dls-iciS, -icere, -i6cl, -iectum, fear apart, 
scatter, destroy ; disarrange. 

dispfir, -paris, adj. unequal, fistula 
dispSr septem cannis, flute of seven 
unequal reeds. 

dis-pCnsS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, dispense, 

distribute, aUot. 

dis-siliO, -Ire, -silul, leap apart, burst. 

dissimiUs, -e, dissimilar, unlike, different. 

di8-Bimul5, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, make 
unlike, disguise. 

dis-8ufide§, -Sre, -sufisi, -sufisum, dis- 
suade, advise against. 

dis-tine6, -Sre, -tinul, -tentum, Iwld 
apart, separate, divide. 



di-Btingu5, -tinguere, -tinzl, -tinctnm, 

mark with differmt colors^ variegate, 
adorn ; mark out, distinguish. 

dl-8t5) -fire, stand qf, be removed^ be dis- 
tant ; differ, be different. 

din, adv. a long time, long. 

diorniu, -a, -am, [difis] qf the day, daily ; 
o/ daylight, of tJie sun. 

dI-Y6ll5, -ere, -velll or -vulgl, -vulBnin, 
tear apart, tear to 2)ieces. 

diversns, -a, -nm, opposite, in th£ opposite 
direction ; far removed, distant ; unlike, 
different. diversa petere, go in the 
op/x>site direction. 

dives, -itis, adj. rich. 

dl-vidd, -ere, -visl, -visum, divide, sepa- 
rate, tear away. divider, / tear my- 
self away. 

dlvidnus, -a, -um, divided, separated. 

divitiae, -firum, f- riches, wealth. 

dlvnB, -a, -Tun, divine. divl, the gods. 

d6, dare, dedl, datum, give, grant, be- 
stow, deliver. verba dare, deceive. 
poenas dare, suffer punishment. v6la 
dare, set sail, sail away. iUra dare, 
act as judge, rule. saltUs dare, leap. 
locum dare, give place, make room for. 

doceS, -Sre, docul, doctum, teach, in- 
form, show, relate. 

doctus, -a, -um, learned, clever, wise, skil- 
ful, used especially of the Koman poets 
who were skilled in Grecian metres. 

documentum, -I, n. proof: example. 

dole5, -6re, -Mly feel pain or sorrow, goffer, 
g7'ieve, mourn. quO oOnsOlante do- 
I6r6s, wlio would console you in your 
sorrow ? t6 dolente morl, to be mourned 
by you when I die. 

Dol5n, -Onis, m. Dolon, a Trojan, who 
went as a spy into the Grecian camp. He 
was to receive as a reward the horses of 
Achilles, but he was captured by Ulysses 
and Diomede and treacherously slain after 
be had given them valuable information 
on condition that his life should be spared. 

Dolopfis, -um, m. the Dolopians, a Thes- 
salian tribe. 

dolor, -Oris, m- pain, grief, sorrow. 
dolus, -I, m. cunning, wile, deception, 

domina, -ae, f. mistress, lady, queen, 

dominus, -I, m. master, lord^ ruler, 
owner. dominus dipel, tJis owner of 
the shield. 

dom5, -fire, domul, domitum, subjugaie, 
tame, cojitrol, rule, master, conquer, over- 
come, ferventibus undls domSre, 
soften toith boiling water, cook vjith boil- 
ing water, boil. 

domus, -Us, f. house, home, dwellingt 
abode : family. domi, at home. 

dOnec, conj. as long as ; until. 

dOnS, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, present, give. 

dOnum, -I, n- present, gift. dOna Ce- 
reSlia, the gifts of Ceres = bread. 

DQris, -idis, f. Doris, wife of the sea-god 
N«reus and mother of the Nereids. 

dOs, dOtis, f . marriage-portion, dowry; en- 
dowment, gift, good quality, advantage. 

dOtSlis, -e, of the dowry, dotal. 

dracO, -Onis, m. dragon, seipent. 

dubitSbilis, -e, doubtful, questionable. 

dubitS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, doubt, ques- 
tion, be uncertain, hesitate. 

dubium, -I, n. doubt, uncertainty. in 
dubiO, in doubt. 

dubiuB, -a, -um, doubtful, uncertain; 
doubting, liesitating. 

dtlc5, -ere, dtLxI, ductum, lead, carry, 
take; draw, pull; attract, entice; assume, 
form : derive. pompam dftcere, lead 
a procession, piscfis dQcere, pull out 
fish, catch fish. rSmOs dflcere, puU the 
oars, rimam dUcere, form a crack. 
gyrOs dUcere, make circles (in the air). 

dUdum, adv. a while ago, some time ago. 
iam dUdum, already for a long time. 

dulcSdS, -inis, f- sweetness, loveliness, 
chann. nesciS qua dulofidine, with 
a wonderful charm. 

dulcis, -e, sweet, agreeable, pleasant, 

DtUiohius, -a, -um, Dulichian, of Buli- 
chinm, a small island near Ithaca which 
was governed by Ulysses. Hence DtLli- 
chius vertex = the head of Ulysses, a 
contemptuous expression. 

dum, conj. while, as long as; until; if 

only, provided that. 
dummodo, conj. if only, provided that. 

distingaS— finltor. 


duo, -ae, -0, tu>o, both, 

dnpleK, -icis, adj. doubU^ two/old, two ; 
two-faced, deceptive. 

dflritidB, -61, and dOritia, -ae, f . hardnest. 

dUrO, -fire -Svl, -Stnm, make hard; 
grow hard ; last. 

dfLniB, -a, -am, hard; rough, harsh, 
severe, unfeeling, cruel ; thorny, prickly 

dnz, ducifl, m. and f. leader, guide, ruler, 
general, m6 dnce, under my guidance. 


ebnr, eboris, n. ivory; things made of 
ivory, as a sword-sheath of ivory, ivory 
sheath, scabbard ; statues of ivory. 

ebamns, -a, -am, [ebor] of ivory, ivory. 
ecce, inter j. behold/ lo/ 

edSz, -fids, [ed5] adj. hungry, greedy; 
biting (Uvor), gnavAng ; destructive 

6-dIsc5, -ere, -didici, learn thoroughly; 
learn, memorize. 

1. ed6, -ere, 6cU, fisom, eat, consume, de- 
stroy, pecoris Sctor edendl, driver 
qf the sheep which are to be eaten. 

2. 6-dd, -dere, -didi, -ditom, [dO] give 
forth, publish; bring forth, bear; tea, 
disclose (ortHs). Sditos, born. 

6-dtlc5, -ere, -dUxI, -ductamf lead out, 
bring out, draw out (tSlam). fidflcere 
nStam, bring her daughter out (of the 
Lower World). 

ef-fer$, -ferre, eztoU, filstom, bring out, 
carry out ; especially, carry out a corpse 
for burial ; lift up, raise, stretch forth. 

ef-ficiO, -ficere, -fSoI, -feotom, make, 
effect, accomplish. 

effigies, -61, f. ^gy, image, likeness. 

ef-fl6, -fire, -fivl, -fitam, blow forth, 
breathe out, exhale. 

ef-fodi6, -fodere, -fMI, -fossam, dig up, 
dig out. ^ 

ef-fagi$, -fagere, -ftlgl, flee from, avoid, 
escape, get rid of. 

ef-falge6, -6re, -falsi, shine forth, shine, 
be resplendent. 

ef-fand5, -ere, -fUdl, -fELeum,;tx7t/r/or/A, 
pour out, let flow, spread out. 

egSns, -entifl, partic. adj. [egcd] poor, 

eged, eg6re, <^^, want, need, be in want 
qf, be without. 

Og9, pers. pron. 7. 

6-gredior, -gredl, -gressaa sam, go forth, 
coma out. altias egressas, i/2^t< go 
too high. 

3, interj. with Dat. oh I alas! woe! 

6-iaoalor, -firl, -Staa sum, sJioot forth, 

6iect5, -fire, -Svl, -fitam, cast forth^ 
throw out. 

6-i^6, -fire, -fivl, -fitam, swear qftfrom, 
d^ure, give up, abandon. 

£leg6ia, -ae, f. ^/«^7 -(personified), the 
goddeeus of elegiac poetry. 

£l6ii8, -a, -am, Elean, from Elis, a country 
in Greece. 

6-lId6, -ere, -UsI, -Usam, squeeze, choke, 

6-lig8, -ere, -I6gi, -I6ctam, choose, select, 
Slis, -idis, f . Blis, a country in Greece. 

6loqaiam, -I, n. eloquence. 

6-lfld$, -ere, -losl, -IfLsam, avoid, escape, 

6-la6, -ere, -lol, -Itltam, wash off. 

£lytia8, -a, -am, Elysian, from Elysium, 
the abode of the blessed. 

£mat]iia8, -a, -am, JEJmathian, from 
Emathia iu Macedonia; Macedonian; 

6-mead8, -are, -fivl, -fitam, correct, im- 

6-merg8, -ere, -mersi, -mersam, emerge, 
come forth, rise up. 

6-mic5, -fire, -al, leap up, shoot foith, 

6-mine5, -6re, -al, Hand out, project ; be 
prominent, attract attention. 

6mina8, adv. at a distance,from a distance 
[opposed to commiaoB, Jiand to hand\. 

6-mitt5, -ere, -misl, -missam, send forth, 
send out, let go. 

6n, interj. behold! lo! 

eoim, conj. postpos. /or, indeed. 

S^nltor, -altl, -nizas and -nlsaB sam, 

strive, struggle up, make one^s way. 



ExmillS) -I) m. Ennius, a Roman epic 
poet (239-169 b.c). 

Ennomos, -I, m. Ennomoi^ a Trojan, 0lain 
by UlyseeB. 

Snsis, -iS) m. sword. 

1. eO, adv. thither, to that place, there, so 

2. e5, Ire, IvI and il, itam, ffo, depart, 
move, fly, advance, proceed ; pass ; flow. 
itmn. est) men went. 

eOdem, adv. to the same place, there too. 

1. 8Bti», -a, -nm, [lOs, I)awn\jof the 
daion ; of the east, eastern, £oi, the 

2. EOoB, -I, m. Mms, one of the Squ^b 

ephSmeris, -idis, f. day-book, account- 

EphyrS, -6b, f. B^hyra, an old name for 

EpimSthis, -idis, f. tJve daughter qf 
Epim^heus, i.e. Pyrrha. 

epistiila, -ae, f . letter, epistle. 

EpSpeoB, -el, m. Epopeus, a sailor. 

epulae, •Sram, f. food, dishes; meal, 
banquet, feast. 

eqoa, -ae, f . mare. 

eques, -itis, m. rider, horseman ; knight. 
The knights ranked next to the senators 
in Rome. 

equidem, adv. indeed, certainly, of course, 
at least; ased especially of the first per- 
son, I indeed, I for mypaH. 

equuB, -I, m. horse, steed. 

Erebus, -I, m. Erebus, the Lower World. 

ergO, adv. therefore, accordingly. 

Eridanus, -I, m. Eridanus, a mythical 
river in the west of Europe, identified 
with the Po. 

6-rig5, -ere, -rBxI, -rectum, raise, lift. 
firigor, raise myself, arise, stand up. 

Erinys, -yes, f. Erinys, Fury. The 
Furies were the terrible goddesses of 

6-ripi6, -ripere, -ripul, -roptum, snatch 
out, jerk out ; take away, carry off: de- 
jrrive ; save. 

errS, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, wander about, 
wander over ; wander, go astray. 

error, -Oris, m. wandering, toinding ; 
doubt, uncertainty ; error, mistake. 

6rudi5, -Ire, -IvI, -Itum, instruct ; teach 

Eryclna, -ae, f. Erycina = yennB, so 
called from Mount Eryx in Sicily, where 
she had a famous temple. 

Eryx, -ycis, m. Eryx, a mountain in 
Sicily on which was a temple to Venus. 

esca, -ae,, meat, bait. 

et, conj. andt also ; but. et— et, both— 

and. . 
etiam, conj. also, even, liketoise, still. 

etiam nunc, even now, still, to the 

present day. 

etiamnum, conj. still. 

etsi, conj. even if, although. 

Euboicus, -a, -um, Euboean, from En- 
boea, an island off the coast of Greece, 
opposite Boeotia. 

Eumenides, -um, f. [Ev/xeviScs] the Eu- 
menides, the Furies. The superstitions 
Qreeks called these vengeful goddesses 
the Well-disposed, to propitiate them and 
avoid punishment. 

Eumolpus, -I, m. Eunwlpus, a mythical 
Thraclan bard who was supposed to have 
come to Attica andjonnded the Elea- 
sinian Mysteries. 

euntibus, partic of eo. 

EurOpa, -ae, f. Europa, daughter of the 
Phoenician King Agenor. Jupiter, in the 
shape of a bull, carried her off to Crete. 

eurus, -I, ni. southeast toind, east wind. 
Eurus, Eurus, the god of the east wind. 

EurydicS, -6s, f. Eurydice, the wife of 

EurymachuB, -I, m. Eurymachus, one of 
the suitors of Penelope. 

EurypyluB, -I, m. Eurypylus, a leader in 
the siege of Troy. 

1. Euzlnus, -I, m. tJu Ehixine, the Black 
Sea. Though dangerous and stormy, the 
sea was called euf eiws (= hospitable) by 
the Greeks by way of propitiation. Cf. 

2. Euzlnus, -a, -vasiy of the Euxine, of the 
Black Sea. 

6-vfid5, -ere, -vSsI, -vSsum, come out, 
come forth ; iwn out ; ]}ass beyond, leave 
behind; escape. 

Exmiiit— ezsangnis . 


9-vSn68o8, -ere,-yfiniil, disappear. 

OventUB) -tU, ni. iasuet end, result, sequel. 

6-vert5, -ere, -vertl, -yersimi, turn up- 
side down, overthrow, destroy. 

6-V0I6, -fire, -Svl, '^Xwaiyjly forth^Tush 

6-volv6, -ere, -volvl (-voluD, -volfLtimi, 
unroll, open, disclose^ narrate. 

ex, 8, prep, with AW. out of, qf, ffvm ; 
after ; according to^ resulting from, in 
consequence of, 

exSctns, -a, -nm, [ezigS] complete, fin- 

exSmen, -inis, n. swarm (of beee). 

ex-animS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, [anima] 
deprive qf life^ HU. exanimfitnB, 

ex-andiS, -Ire, -IvI, -Itum, hear distinct- 
ly, hear, listen to. 

ex-c9dS, -ere, -eOnl, -cAmtuxi, go forth, 
go out ; exceed. 

excelsus, -a -urn, lofty, high. 

ex-cid6, -ere, -cidi, [otM] fall from, fall 
out; fall frofn the menwry, be for- 
gotten. anslB excidere, faU in an 

ex-cipiS, -cipere, -c6pl, -ceptnm, except; 
take up, receive; follow, come next; speak 
next, reply. m6 exceptO, except m£. 

ex-col5, -ere, -colui, -eultiim, cultivate, 
improve, perfect. 

excnbiae, -Smm, f . watch, guard. 

ex-ontiS, -cntere, -cosbI, -enssum, sfiake 
out, shake off, hurl from. excussani 
xnlsiBset in aequora, would have hurled 
into the sea. 

exemplimi, -I, n. model, example, sped- 

ex-e6, -Ire, -il, -itnxn, go forth, come forth; 
corns out, appear; rise, ascend; come out 
from (Abl.), leave. 

exerceS, -6re, -nI, -itxun, keep busy, excite, 
make anxious, worry, harass; practise. 
exercitos, attentive. 

ex-hibeS, -6re, -ul, -itnm, [habeS] shxm, 
exhibit, display; use, employ. 

ex-horr6BC$, -ere, -horml, shudder, 
shake, trernble. 

ex-hortor, -firl, -fitos sum, encourage, 
exhort, urge on. 

ex-ig^, -igere, -6gl, -fictum, drive out, 
drive away ; finish, complete (opus), 
flpatils ex6git quattnor annam, di- 
vided the year into four seasons (made 
the year complete with four Beasons). 
nOn satis exfiota, incomplete, un- 

exiguuB, -a, -am, small, little, slight, 
weak, insignificant, exig^um facere, 

exilis, -e, slight, thin, weak, small. 

exitiam, -I, n. [exe$l end, destruction, 
death. exitiO dedl, / killed. 

exitus, -12s, m. issue, sequel, end, result. 

ex-oner$, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, unburden, 
empty, free. 

ex-orior, -orlrl, -ortus sum, arise. 

ex-(br8, -fire, -Svl, -fitam, influence by 
entreaty, appease. 

ex-pall66c6, -ere, -pallul, turn pale. 

expediS, -Ire, -IvI, -ltuin,/r<'« from dif- 
ficulty, help out. expedit, itisqf ad- 
vantage, it is useful. 

ex-pell$, -ere, -pull, -pulsimi, drive 
away, drive out, banish. pariter 
animS rotbqae expnlit, hurled from 
the chariot and deprived of life at the 
sam£ time. 

ex-pendS, -ere, -pendl, -pSnsum, weigh 
out, weigh; estimate, Judge. 

exj^mifSmSf -entis, partic. adj. accustomed 
to, inured to, experienced in, capable of 

experior, -perlrl, -pertus sain, try, test, 

ex-pleS, -ere, -Bvl, '^tvoaL^fiU, fulfil, com- 
plete, accomplish; quench (sitim), sat- 
isfy (querela). 

ex-plic$, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, unfold, dis- 

ex-pOn5, -ere, -posul, -positum, land, 
disembark, expose. 

ex.prim5, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, press 
out, curve out. expressS splnae curvS- 
mine flecti, be bent unth an outward 
curvature qf the spine, become hump- 

ex-probrS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, reproach 
with, up^aid, charge, accuse. 

exsanguis, -e, bloodless, pale, lifeless. 



ex-secror, -Sri, -Stm sum, curte, exe- 

exseqniae, -amm, f . [ex-BBqvLor] funeral 
procession, funeral. ezseqniSs Ire, go 
to the funeral. 

ez-seri, -ere, -semi, -sertTun., thrust out, 
stretch otit, raise. 

ex-8ili5, -Ire, -silul, leap forth, spring up. 

exsiliniii, -I, n. exile, banishment. 

ex-Bist6, -ere, -stiti, spring ifp, come 
forth, arise, become. 

ex-spatior, -Sri, -Stiu sum, go out qf the 

way, leave the track, rush off; of riverSf 
leave their channels, overfow their banks. 

ez-8pect5, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, expect, 
await, long for. 

ex-8tin§ni6, -stinguere, -stinxl, -etixi- 
ctxun, extinguish, put out ; kUl. ex- 
8tixictu8, dead, 

ex-8t8, -stfire, -etitl, step forth, come 
forth, standout, arise; exist, be. 

ex-8tni5, -stmere, -8trfLxI, -strftotmn., 
heap up, pile up, load. 

ezsul, -ulis, m. and f. exile. 016 ex- 
sule dolet, grieves at my banishment. 

ez-8TLrg6, -ere, -snrrfizi, -STirrSctimi, 
rise, stand up. 

exta, -Orum, n. vitals : heart, liver, lungs, 

eztemplO, adv. immediately. 

eztemns, -a, -nm, foreign, strange, 
Sabst. stranger, foreigner. 

ez-terred, -Bre, -uI, -itnm, fHghten, ter- 

ez-tim68C$, -ere, -timul, be frightened, 
be terrified, be afraid. 

eztrOmiu, -a, -um, last, farthest, ex- 
treme. eztrOmom, ady. for the last 

fabricd, -fire, -Svl, -fitum, make, manu- 
facture, fabricfita fSg9, made out qf 

faciSs, -61, f. form, shape, appearance, 
featwes, countenance; beauty. 

focilis, -e, [faoi6] easy to do, easy; 
friendly, favorable. 

fadniu, -oris, n. [fiaciS] deed ; especially 
evil deed, crime. 

faei6, facere, fBcI, faetum, do, accom- 
plish, bring about, render; make, build, 
compose; commit; procure. liSc fa- 
oiiLnt, are on (act on) our side, arbi- 
trinm fScit, gave the liberty, posse 
capl faeiendO, by making it possible to 
capture it. 

factTun, -I, n. deed, event. 

facuItSs, -Stis, f. possibility, power, 
ability, opportunity. 

fficundia, -ae, f. eloquence, fluency qf 

fScundtis, -a, -nxn, eloquent, fluent. 

faennm, -I, n. hay. 

faenns, -oris, n. interest, increase. 

faez, -ois, f. brine; dregs. 

iSgus, -I, t. beech, beech-wood. 

falcStos, -a, -um, scythe-shaped, curved, 

fallScia, -ae, t. deception. 

fallSz, -Sois, adj. deceptive, deceitful, 

fallS, fallere, fefelU, falsnm, deceive, 
cheat; escape the rtoiice of; of time, 
pass, pass pleasantly, while away, d6- 
positnin fallere, keep the deposit (not 
give it ap as by duty boand), make de- 

falsns, -a, -am, false, deceptive. fer- 
tilitSs falsa iaoet, the fertility proves 

falx, falcis, f. scythe, sickle; pruning- 

fSma, -ae, f.fame, rumor, report. 

famSs, -is, f . hunger, famine ; greed, de- 

famnltis, -I, m. house-servant, servant, 

fSnom, -I, n. shrine, temple. 

fSs, indecl. n. right (divine and fated). 
fSs est, it is right, it is proper, it is per- 
mitted, it is possible. 

fasstis, see fateor. 

fSstlginm, -I, u. gable, gable-end; roof, 

fStSlis, -e, qf fate, fated, faUful ; fatal. 

fateor, fatSrI, fassus sum, confess, ac- 

fStidiens, -a, -nm, [ffitnm, dIo5] prophr 

esying, fate-revealing. 



fatIgS, -Sre, -Svl, -Sttxm, weary, tire; 

c/u)ke, exhaust, destroy (messSs). 
fStum, -I, n. fate ; prophecy ; death» 

fStniiL nOn est, a is not fated. 
faveS, favfire, fSvI, fantnin,/awr, help, 

assist, befiiendly to. 

fayllla, -ae, f . ashes, glowing ashes, em- 
bers, cinders. 

favor, -Oris, m./awr, good-tviU, interest, 
partiality, approbation. 

favm, -I, Toa. honeycomb. 

fax, facia, f- torch, firebrand, used espe- 
cially in funerals and weddings. 

f9cimdu8, -a, ^waiy fruitful, fertile. 

f6llciter, adv. happily, successfully. 
feilcius amSta sum tibi, happier was 
your love for me. 

feilz, -Icis, adj. happy : fortunate, pros- 
perous ; fertile, rich. 

fSmina, -ae, f- vxnnan,female ; of animals, 
especially cow. 

fSminenB, -a, -um, of woman, woman's ; 
female, feminine. d6 fBmineO iactU, 
from the woman's thivwing. 

fera, -ae, f. wUd beast, beast, animal. 
ferSz, -Scis, adj. [terh] fertile, productive, 

fer8, adv. almost, nearly, about ; tisuaUy. 
feriO, -Ire, strike, hit, beat. 

ferS., ferre, tull, latum, bear, carry, 
btirig: carry off; offer, give; relate, 
say; get, receive; suffer, endure; carry 
out for buriai, bury ; passive : be borne, 
go, hasten, rush. I6g6s ferre, make 
laws, ifbsta ferre, bting the proper 
gifts, perform the funeral rites. nSm 
ferendus, unendurable.*- bI fors tulit, 
if it so happened, pretiuxn ferre, carry 
off the prize. aequOs oalOrSs ferre, re- 
ceive proper heal. 

ferCz, -Ocifl, adj. fierce, wild, anid, bold. 

ferreus, -a, -tun, q/' iron, iron; hard- 
hearted, unmerciful ; cruel, teriiMe. 

ferrUgO, -inis, f . iron-rust, color of iron- 
rust, dark color. 

fernun, -I, n. iron ; things made of iron, 
especially sword. 

fertilis, -e^ fertile, fruitful, pivductive. 

fertiUtfis, -5tis, f.fertUUy. 

ferns, -a, -am, wUd, fierce, crud. 

ferveS, fervftre, fervl, boil, grow hot, 
burn, glow ; boil vp, rage. 

fervor, -Oris, m. hmt, glow. 

fessus, -a, -um, tired, weai^y, exhausted. 

fSstlnd, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, hasten, hurry. 

festum, -X, and fSsta, -Qnim, n. festival, 

holiday; feast. fBstnm agere, hold a 


fBstus, -a, -um, festive, of holidays, holi- 
fStus, -fts, m. fruit, offspring. 
fibre, -ae, f. the entrails of a victim. 

fictilis, -e, [fingS] of clay. Subst. flctilia, 
n. earthenware vessels. 

fldfilis, -e, true, faithful, sincere, 

fides, -el, f. faith, beliif; honor, sincerity, 
truth ; fulfilment, verification. v6rl 
fids mSiOra, grecUer than can be believed 
to be true, incredible. 

fldS, -ere, flsus sum, trust, put confi- 
dence in. 

fldUcia, -ae, f . confidence ; self-confidence, 

fldus, -a, -um, true, faMhful, sincere, 
honest, reliable. 

flg8, -ere, flxl, fizum, fix, fasten ; press 
(Oscula, lips). aere fIzO, on the fixed 
brass (the bronze tables of laws which 
were set np in public places). 

figtlra -ae, f. [fingS] shape, figure, form; 
appearance ; beauty ; style, manner. 

flUa, -ae, f. daughter. 
fUius, -I, m. son. 

fUum, -I, n. thread ; especially, the thread 
of life as spun by the Fates. 

find$, -ere, fidi, fissum, split, divide, 

fingS, -ere, finzl, fictum, form, fashion, 
make ; imagine, fancy ; make up, in- 
vent, trump up. quern prSdere finzit, 
whom he falsely accused of betraying. 

flniO, -Ire, -IvI, -Itum, finish, end, con- 
clude ; especially, finish speaking. 

finis, -is, m. and f. end, bound, boundary, 
limit. sine fine, d6mpt0 fine, with- 
out end, forever, finem impOnere, i?i/< 
an end to, finish. 

finitimus, -a, -um, neighboring, near. 
fl5, fieri, factuS sum, [used as a passive of 
f aciO] be made, become, arise, happen. 



fXrmS, -fire, -fivl -Stum, Btrtngthen, enr 
courage^ eomfwt ; confirm, establish. 

firmnB, -a, -am, strong, firm^ abiding. 
nQn firma fatflra, not destined to re- 

fiflsns, 8ee flnd5, split. 

fistula, -ae, f. pipe, a lead pipe for car- 
rj'ing water; fiute, the shepherd's pipe 
made oat of seven unequal reeds. 

fizas, 8eeflg5,/a;. 

flagrS, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, burn, blaze. 
cupldine flagprSre, bum with desire. 

flfimen, -inie, n. [fioi breath, blast, toind. 

flamma, -ae, f. fiame, fire, fire-brand, 
heat : love, passion, fiammie oorripl, 
be seized with fiames, catch fire, flam- 

mSe imiX&nAyMfne-li^' trifida flam- 
ma, tlie three-pronged fiame of light- 

flammeuB, -a, 'Van^fiaming,fi£ry. 

flammifer, -fera, 'i&roim^fiam£-bearing, 
flaming, fiery. 

flSvSsci, -ere, turn yellow, turn golden^ 
turn to gold. 

flSvuB, -a -um, yellow, golden; golden- 
haired, blond. 

fl6bili8,-e, [fleS] mournful, sad. 

flectO, -ere, flezi, flezum, bend, curve ; 
turn, direct; influence, sway ; appease. 

fleS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, toeep ; lament. 

flfitus, -Us, m. weejnng ; tears. 

flezuB, -a, -um, [fiect5] curved, bent. 

flOreS, -Bre, -uI,^0MH«/i, bloom, 2)rosper. 

fiOs, flSris, m. fiower, bloom. 

fluctus, -Us, m. wave, billow, fiood, tide. 

fluit5, -Sre, -Svl, 'S,tum,fiow, run: 

fltlmen, -inis, n. stream, Hver. Personi- 
fied, rivei'-god. 

flfUnineus, -a, -um, of a river, river. 

fluO, -ere, fiuzf, fluxum, flmo, pour, 
drip. palmis fiuere, flow from the 
hands ; capilUs, fiom the hair. 

fluvius, -I, m. stream, river. 

focus, -I, m.flre-place, hearth ; altar. 

fodid, fodere, fOdI, fossum, dig, dig up ; 

foedS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, disfigure; defile, 
pollute; disgrace. 

1. foedus, -a, -um, dirty, vile, horrible. 

2. foedus, -eris, n. treaty, agreement, 
bond ; condition, law. 

folium, -I, n. leaf. folils trunoSre, cut 
qf tlie leaves. 

fOns, fontis, m. fountain, spring. 
[for] fSrI, fStUB sum, speak, say. 
forSmen, -inis, n. opening, hole. 
forSs, adv. out of doors, out, forth. 
fore = futflrum esse, 
forem = essem. 

foris, -is, f . door, toing (of a folding door). 
PI- iorkay folding door, double door. 

fOrma, -ae, f.form, shape; beauty. 

formldSbilis, -e, to be dreaded, formi- 
dable, feat ful, dangerous. 

formldfi, -inis, f . fear, terror. ySria 
formldO, variegated scarecrow, made of 
feathers of various colors and used in the 

f5rm5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, form, shape, 
m^ke, fashion. 

fOrmOsus, -a, -um, shapely, beautiful. 

fornSz, -Scis, f. oven, furnace. 

fors, [-tis], f. chance, accident, luck. 
fOTte^ by chance, perchance. Pereonifled, 
Fortune, the goddess of fortune. 


fOrsitan, adv. [fors sit an! perhaps, per- 
chance, it may be. 

fortSsse, adv. perhaps, perchance. 

forte, see fors. 

fortis, -e, strong, brave, courageous. 
fortia, brave deeds, fortia dicta, brave 
words, threatening language. 

fortiter, adv. strongly, bravely, courage- 
ously, fortius Utere lOris, make 
greater use of the reins. 

fortUna, -ae, f. fortune, chance, luck. 
Personified, Fortune, the goddesa of for- 
tune. fortUna pUgnae, the result of 
the combat, 

forum, -I, n. forum, market-j^ce. 

fossa, -ae, f. [fodiS] ditch, trench, fosse, 

fossor, -Oris, m. digger, ditcher. 

fossus, see fodi5. 

foveS, -fire, fOvI, fOtum, care for, cherish, 
fa cor, support. 

firagilis, -q^ fragile, easily broken, brittle, 
frail, weak. 

flnii5— garraliis. 


fragor, -Oris, m. breaking^ eracUiig; 
crash ; peal of thunder. 

frSgnm, -I, n. strav^terry, 

frangd, -ere, frfigl, frSotnm, breaks shat- 
ter ; weaken^ overcome. 

frSter, -trii, m. brother ; also = frSter 
patrnfilis, cousin. 

frStemnB, -a, -nm, qT « brother, brother^s; 
qf a cousin, cousiri^s. frSterna pet5, 
I demand the property of my cousin. 

frauB, -dis, f. fraud, deception, trickery, 
treachery, cunning. 

frem6, -ere, -ul, roar, murmur, 

frendS, -ere, frSsxim, gnash (the teeth). 

frSnum, -I, n. bit, bridle ; check, rein. 
frSna remittit, lets the reins loose. 

frequfins, -entis, adj. num,erous, in 
crowds ; abounding in ; often to be 
translated as an adverb, qf ten, frequently. 

frequenter, adv. in crowds ; qften, fre- 

frequentia, -ae, f. crowd, throng. 

frequents, -5re, -5vl, -Stum, visit in 
large numbers, visit often, frequent; 
throng around, attend; celebrtUe (sacra). 

fretum, -I, n. strait; sea. 

frigidus, -a, -um, cold, chilled. 

frigus, -oris, n. ccOd, coldness, chill. 

frondSns, -entis, partic. adj. le<tfy, green. 

frt>ndei, -6re, -ul, bear leaves, be covered 
with leaves. 

frondOsus, -a, -um, leafy, covered vnih 

1. frOns, -ondis, f. leaf; leaves, foliage. 

2. frOns, -cutis, f. forehead ; countenance, 
face ; front. 

frfLctus, -lis, m.yv-wW ; reward, success. 

fruor, frul, frfLctus and fruitus sum, 
enjoy, rejoice in. 

frUstrS, adv. in f>ain, to no purpose. 

fruteK, -icis, m. bush, shrub. 

frflz, frUgis, f. fruit, grain ; usually PI. 

friga, -ae, i. flight ; banishment. 

frigftz, -Sds, adj. fleeing. fagSz am- 
bitiOnis eram, I had no inclination to a 
public career. 

fugiS, ftigere, fttgl, fugitum, Jlee, run 
away, depart (= die. Am. iii. 9, 49) ; be 

banished; Jlee from, avoid, escape; 
escape Vie memory, be forgotten, 

fril, see sum. 

frilgeS, -6re, frilsl, fidsum, shine, flash, 

folmen, -inis, n. lightning, thunderbolt. 
Ylrfis ftilminis, the strength of the 
thunderbolt, the power of lightning. 

ftmO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, smoke. 

fUmus, -I, m. smoke. 

fundS, -ere, fUdl, IQsum, pour, pour out ; 
rout,jmt to flight, dtfeat; lay loio, knock 
down. resuplnum f&dl, / laid him 
lowj laid him on his back, knocked him 

fOnebris, -e, qf a funeral, fktneral, fune- 
real, sad, mournful. 

fOnereus, -a, -um, qf a funeral, funereal. 
f&nerea yestis, mourning dress, 

fUnestus, -a, -um, deadly, fatal. 

fungor, fungi, ftLnctus sum, perform, 
carry out, execute, finish. sepuIcrO 
foetus, buried. 

fOnis, -is, m. rope, cable. 

fCLnuB, -eris, n. funeral ; death. 

furca, -ae, t.fork ; fork-shaped |?fY?p of a 

forSns, -entis, partic. adj. raging, mad. 

fririOsus, -a, -um, raging, furious. 

forS, -ere, rage, be furious, rate, storm. 

furor, -Oris, m. madness, insanity, raging. 

fortim, adv. by stealth, secretly. 

furtum, -I, n. theft ; deception, trickery. 

f&silis, -e, [fundO] capable qf being 
poured, liquid. 

fULsus, -I, m. spindle, on which the thread 
is \vound in spinning. 

fatHrus, -a, -um, [future partic. of sum] 
about to be, future. Subst. fatflrum, -I, 
and fat^a, -^irumf future. 

galea, -ae, f . helmet. 

Oallus, -I, m. Oallus, Roman elegiac poet 
(69-26 B.C.). 

Gkurgara, -Orum, n. Gargara» the summit 
of Mount Ida in Mysia. 

garrulus, -a, -um, garrulous, prattling, 
loquacious, talkative. 



g&ude&, -ire, gSTbiii tnm, r^oice, be 
glad. g&ndenB altire receptO, de- 
lighted to get back hU/oster-fat/ter. 

gaadimn, -I, n.Jay, enjoyment ^ pleasure. 

gelidns, -a, -urn, cold^ cool, chilly. 

geminS, -fire, -StI, -Stuxn, double. 

gemixms, -a, -tun, double^ two-fold, two- 
formed ; twin, two. 

gemitiu, -lis, m. groaning, sighing; 
groan, Hgh. 

gemma, -ae, f . gem, precious stone. 

gem5, -ere, -ul, groan, sigh ; bewail. 

genae, -fimm, f . cheeks. 

gener, -eri, m. son-in-law. 

generOsos, -a, -um, noble, qf noble birth, 
high-bom ; spirited. 

genetrlz, -lois, f. mother. 

geniSliter, adv. menHy. 

genitor, -Oris, m. father ; ruler ^ lord. 

genitHms, genitus, eee gIgnS. 

genius, -I, m. genius, guardian spirit. A 
maa^B genius was Bupposed to attend and 
protect bim throngbont life and to it were 
offered sacrificial cakes on birthdays. 

g6ns, gentis, f . race, people, nation, tribe, 
family. gentft, countries (Met. ii. 

genu, -tis, n. knee. 
genul, see gIgnS. 

genus, -oris, n. [glgrng] Mrih, descents- 
family, race: kind. generis auctor, 

ancestor, father. 

germSnns, -I, m. brother. 

ger5, -ere, gessi, gestnm, bear, carry, 
wear, have ; manage, execute, carry on, 
wage. gerfins, having, with. 

gestSmen, -inis, n. burden, load. 

gestiS, -Ire, -IvI, -Itnm, be eager, long. 

gestS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, bear, carry. 

Oetae, -Srum, ni. the Getans, a wild, war- 
like tribe living north of the Banabe near 
its month. 

gIgnS, -ere, genul, genitum, bear, bring 
forth, beget, produce. Subst. genitus. 


glaciSlis, -e, icy, 
glacifis, -61, f . ice. 
gladifitor, -Oris, m. gladiator. 

gladins, -I, m. noord. 

glaeba, -ae, f. dod, lump qf earth. 

glSns, glandis, f. acorn. 

glQria, -ae, f . gltfryt fame ; honor, oma- 

gnfita, -ae, f . [= nfital daughter. 

gnfitus, -X, m. [= nfitus] son. 

gracilis, -e, slender, graceful; thin, sUgM. 

grficulus, -I, m. jackdaw, supposed to 
prophesy rain. 

Grfidlvus, -I, m. Oradivus, another name 
for Mars. 

gradus, -tte, m. step, walk, carriage. 

Oraecia, -ae, f. Greece. 

Graeclnus, -I, m. Graednus, a friend of 

OraeeuB, -a, -um, Grecian, Greek. 

Orfiius, -a, -um, Grecian, Greek. Subst. 
Ghrfiius, Greek. , 

grfimen, -inis, n. grass. 

g^Smineus, -a, -um, of grass, grassy. 

grandaevus, -a, -um, aged. 

grandis, -e, great, grand, important. 

grSnum, -I, n. grain, seed. 

g^Stfis, PI. f. thanks. grStSs agere, 
thank, express thanks. 

g^Stia, -ae, f . charm, grace ; favor, love, 
fjiendship; influence, popularity; thanks. 

grfitulor, -Sri, -fitus sum, congratulate. 

grStus, -a, -um, agreeable, acceptable, 
pleasing, dear ; friendly, grattful ; wel- 

gravidus, -a, -um, heavy, full, laden. 

gravis, -e, heavy, weighty ; important, 
serious, great ; severe, hard, bad, sad. 
sonmO gravis, drunk with sleep. 

gravitSs, -Stis, f . weight, heaviness : im- 
poi'tance, dignity. 

g^vO, -Sre, -Svl, -fitum, make heavy, 
weigh down, load, opjrress, make worse 
(forttlnam). gravStus, heavy. 

grez, gregis, m. herd, flock; troop, band. 

gubemStor, -Qris, m. pilot, helmsman. 

gurges, -itis, m. whirlpool ; deep water, 
lake, river. 

gutta, -ae, f . drop ; tear. 

guttur, -uris, n. throat ; pi. guttura. 

gyrus, -I, m. circle, curve. 

ganded— hlo. 


habena, -ae, f . [Iiabe6] rHnj line. 

habed, -Ore, -nI, -itum, have, hold, oc- 
cupy, possess ; regard, consider, amor 
habendl, avarice. nOn babebam quod 
speculSreri / had nothing more to find 

habitfibilis, -e, habitable. 

habitS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, inhabit ; dwell. 

habitus, -Qs, m. dress, clothing. 

bfie, adv. this way, on this side^ here. 

bSctenus, adv. so far, to this point. 

haedus, -I, m. kid. 

Haemonia, -ae, f . Haemonia, an old name 
for Thessaly. 

HaemoniuB, -a, -um, Haermmian = Thes- 

Haemos, -I, m. Haemus, a mountain in 

baereS, -6re, baesl, baesum, hang, cUng, 
be fastened, remain, stick ; hesitate, 
doubt (an baec sit). 

baerfis^ -6diS| m. h^r, see b6r6s. 

Halius, -I, m. Halius, a Lycian, ally of 
the Trojans, slain by Ulysses. 

bamus, -I, m. fiook. 

bara, -ae, f. hog-])en, sty. cHra in- 
mundae barae, keeper of the JUthy sty, 

barSna, -ae, f . sand. 

banmdS, -inis, f. reed, cane ; rod, fishing- 
rod ; fiute. 

basta, -ae, f. staff; spear, lance: the 
thyrsus, the wand of Bacchns. 

baud, adv. not. 

bauriS, -Ire, bausi, baustuxn, drink, 
swallow; empty, exhaust; shed (oru- 

baustus, -Us, ni. draught, drink. ac- 
cipe baustds, drink. 

bebes, -etis, adj. duU, stupid. 

bebetS, 'Sre, -5vl, -Stum, make dull, 

Hecatfi, -68, f. Hecate, goddess of witch- 
craft, often represented as having three 
heads (triplicis vultlls) and confused 
with Diana. 

Hector, -oris, m. Hector, the chief hero of 
the Trojans, killed by Achilles. 

HectoreuB, -a, -um, (if Hector, Hector'' s. 

bedera, -ae, f. ivy, (dusters of ivy, sacred 
to Bacchns. 

Helens, -6s, f. Helen, wife of Menelans ; 
carried off to Troy by Paris, she became 
the cause of the Trojan war. 

Helenus, -X, m. Helenus, son of Priam, 
skilled in prophecy ; he was captui-ed by 

HelicS, -ft, f . Helice, (he GrecU Bear, the 
constellation which was most used by 
the Grecian sailors in directing their 

HelicOn, -Snis, m. Helicon, a mountain in 
Boeotia, sacrcKl to the Muses. 

Henna, -ae, f. Henna, a city in Sicily. 

Hennaeus, -a, -um, of Henna. Hennaea 
■ moenia, (he city of Henna. 

berba, -ae, f. herb, plant, grass, green 
stalk. prfmis in berbis, as soon as 
tfiey spring up. 

berbOsus, -a, -um, grassy, green. 

b6r6s, -6dis, m. heir. b6r6s certSminis, 
winner of (he prize. 

b6r9s, -Ois, m. hero, demigod. Bere- 
C3rntiu8 Ti^rGa = Midas. LSertius 
b6r0s = Ulysses. 

bfirOus, -a, -um, heroic, epic. Subst. 
b6r0us, e2Hc verse, hexameter. 

Hesperia, -ae, f. Hesperia, land of the 

Hesperides, -um, f. the Hesperides, the 
nymphs who, iu the far west, guarded 
the tree with the golden apples. 

Hesperius, -a, -um, Hesperian, western. 
Subst. Hesperil, Westerners, inhabitants 
of the far west. Hesperils nOtus et 
EOIs, known from the far west to the ex- 
treme east. 

Hesperus, -I, m. Hesperus, the evening 

besternus, -a, -um, of yesterday, yester' 

beu, interj. aZas ! oh! 

1. bic, adv. here, in this place. 

2. bIc, baec, bOc, this, such. bIc— bIc, 
the one— the other. bIC— ille, tlie one — 
the other, the latter— the former, the 
former— the latter. bOc, Abl. of Comp. 
so much, by so much. 



liieitts, -ends, f . tpinter ; storm ; cold. 
HiemSi Tfin^ (personified). 

hinc, adv. JieMe^fnym this^from this place, 
from this cause./rom (his time, hereupon. 

hinnltuBi -fls, m. neighing. 

hlrslLtiui, -a, -iim, hairy, rough, shaggy. 

cfinOs hlnUta capillOs, bristling with 

gray hair. 
h&rtTU, -a, -um, hairy, rough, bristling. 

hlBohf -ere, open one's mouth, speak. 

Hister, -tri, m. Hister, Danube (the lower 
part of the DaDiibe River). 

hodiS, adv. to-day, at the present time. 

holus, -eris, n. vegetables, mainly cabbage. 

Homfinu, -I, m. iJomer, the Greek epic poet. 

homS, -inis, m. man, human being. 

liOnestG, adv. honorably, becomingly. 

honestiis, -a, -um, honorable. 

honor or honOs, -Oris, honor, distinction, 

fame ; office, rank ; ofering, sacrifice. 

hOra, -ae, f. time, hour. HOrae, the 
Hours (personified), goddesses of time. 

HorStiiui, -I, m. Horace, Roman lyric 
poet (65-8 B.C.). 

horrendus, -a, -um, horrible, dreadful. 

horred, -fire, -ul, be rough, bristle, rage ; 
tremMe, shudder ; dread. tempestSs 
horret, the storm rages. 

horrfiscS, -ere, horrul, begin to be ixmgh, 
bristle, rage; tremble, shake, shudder; 

horridus, -a, -um, bristling, shaggy, 
rough; terrible, horrible. 

hortamen, -inis, n. encouragement, ex- 

hortfitor, -Oris, m . inciter, encourager, 

hortor, -firl, -Stus sum, encourage, urge 
on, incite, exhort. 

hortus, -I, m. garden. 

liospes, -itis, m. guest, stranger ; hmt. 
nOn hospes ab hospite tUtus, the guest 
is not safe from his host, dl hospitOs, 
the divine guests. 

hospita, -ae, f. stranger, guest. 

hospitium, -I, n. hx>spitality. hospitiO 
recipere, receive as a guest, entertain 

hospitus, -a, -um, hospitable, friendly. 

hostia, -ae, f . victim, sacrificial offering. 

hostis, -is, m. and f. enemy. 

htUs, adv. hither, to this place, here. 

htLmfinus, -a, -um, human. 

humilis, -e, [humus] humble, low ; plain^ 
common, unimportant. 

hULmor, -Oris, m. moisture, liquid. 

humus, -I, f. earth, ground, soil, land. 
humi, on the ground. humO, from the 

hyacinthinus, -a, -um, of a hyacinth, 
hyacinthine. hyacinthina lllia, hya- 
cinthine lilies, perhaps simply hyacinths, 
but not our hyacinths. 

Hyacinthus, -I, m. Hyacinthus, a youth 
who was accidentally killed by Apollo 
^^'ith a discus and then changed into the 
flower hyacinthus, which was, however, 
different from our hyacinth. 

Hyades, -um, f. the Hyades, a constella- 
tion betokening rain. 

Hymen, -enis = Hymenaeus. 

hymenaeos, -I, m. tlie marriage hymn. 

Hymenaeus, -I, m. Hymen, the god of 

iaced, -Ore, -ul, lie, lie prostrate; have 
fallen, be conquered, be destroyed. 
TrOia iacet, Troy has fallen. vultfUi 
iacentOs, jn-ostrate face, falsa iacet, 
proves false. dOplOrSta vOta iacent, 
the hopes lie lamented. 

iaci5, iacere, iSd, iactum, thr&io, hurl, 

cast forth; utter. 
iactO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, hurl repeatedly, 

toss back and forth, toss about, throw 

about, toss, throw ; shake. 

iactUra, -ae, f . loss. 

iactus, -Us, m. throwing. fOmineO 
iskOtVij from the woman's throwing. 

iaculor, -Sri, -Stus sum, throw, hurl. 

iam, adv. already, now. iam iamque, 
immediately, on the very point of, just 
about to. iam nunc, already, iam 
nOn, no longer, iam numquam, never 
again, si iam nequeS, if I can no 
longer, si iam nOn, if no longer. 

iambus, -I, m. iambus, iamJtnc verse ; PI. 
iambic poetry. 

hiexns— impOnS. 


iamdfLdnm, adv. already for a long time. 
i&nua, -ae, f. door^ gate, 

lapetlonidSs, -ae, m.the son qf lapetus 

= Atlas. 

ISsOn, -onis, m. Jaton^ the son of Aeson, 
and nephew of Pelias. By the latter he 
was sent to Colchis on the Argonautic 
Expedition in search of the Qolden 
Fleece. Here Jason met Medea, who 
became his wife. Afterwards he deserted 
her and married Creasa, the daughter of 
the King of Corinth. 

ibi, adv. there^ in that place. Met. iii. 
610, in him. 

1. Icarins, -I, m. Icarius^ the father of 

2. loariuB, -a, -am, Icarian. Icaria 
aqna, the Icarian 8ea. 

loaniB, -I, m. Icarus^ son of Daedalus. 
Flyiog away from Crete on wings made 
by his father, he soared too high, the wax 
with which his wings were fastened was 
melted by the snn, and he fell into the 
water which was thereafter called the 
Icarian Sea. 

IcS, loere, Id, ictam, strike, hit. ictiui, 

ictiui, -Us, m. sti'okey blow, 

Ida, -ae, f . Ida, a mountain near Troy. 

idcircO, adv. thertfore,for this reason. 

Id6 = Ida. 

Idem, eadem, idem, the same, sometimes 
to be translated adverbially, also, too, like- 
wise, eadem nobis, the same as we. 

Idomenens, -el, m. Idomen&iis, leader of 
the Cretans in the Trojan war. 

iecnr, -oris, n. liver. 

iSiunium, -I, n. fasting; hunger. Used in 

igitur, adv. therefore, accordingly. 

IgnaruB, -a, -nm, ignorant, not aware, 
not knowing. 

IgnSvnB, -a, -urn, lazy, dvU, inactive, 

Ig^6Bc5, -ere. Masse, begin to bum. 

Ignifer, -fera, -Uiramy fire-bearing, fiery. 

Ig^8, -is, m. fire, fiame; glow, heat, 
splendor; lightning; fire of passion, 
love. Ignfis concipere, catch fire. 

IgnOro,.-Sre, -fivl, -Stum, be ignorant, 
be unaware, not know. 

Ign08c6, -ere, IgnOvI, IgnHtxim, pardon, 

IgnOtiLS, -a, -nm, unknown, strange. 

Ilex, Ilicis, f. holm-oak, an evergreen. 

Ilia, Ilinm, n. PI. abdomen, fiank, side. 

Iliacns, -a, -nm, qf Ilium, Trqjan. 

Ilios, -I, f . Hium, Troy. 

illfic, adv. by that way, (hat way, on that 
side, there. 

ill-, in compound words = inl-, 

ille, -a, -nd, that; he, she, it. ille— 
hie, the former— the latter. 

ilUc, adv. there, in thcU place. 

illUc, adv. thither, to that place, there. 

imSgo, -inis, f . image, likeness ; form^ 

imbellis, -e, unwaHike, cowardly. 

imber, -bris, m. rain, rain-storm. 

imitStor, -Oris, m. imitator, 

^nitfitrlz, -trlcis, f. imitator. 

imm-, in compounds, see inm-. 

Immo, adv. nay, verily, indeed. 

im-pati6ns, -entis, adj. incapable of en* 
during, incajTable of controUing (Irae). 

impediS, -Ire, -IvI or -ii, -Itnm, hinder, 
obstruct, hamjjer ; encircle (rfimOs), «m- 

im-pell6, -ere, -pnll, -pnlsnm, strike^ 
beat ; sjilash. 

im-pendd, -ere, -pendl, -pGnsnm, sjiend, 

imper6, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, command, 
order, control (illis). 

impetus, -^, ni. force, imj)etus, impulse, 
inclination. impetus eBt^feel an im- 
pulse, be strongly inclined. 

impins, -a, -nm, impious, wicked. 

im-ple5, -6re, -6vl, -6tnm, fUl, fill up, 

im-plOr5, -fire, -Svl, -Stnm, implore, be- 
seech, beg. 

im-pOnS, -ere, -posul, -positnm, place 
(put, lay, set) in or on, impose. flnem 
impOnere, put an end to ; finish, ma- 
nnm Ultimam imp9nere,p»^ the finish- 
ing touch€<<<, end, cmnplete. 



importtlniis, -a, -um, troubietome^ ob- 
iiitsive ; crud^ unsparing. 

improbus, -a, -um, unjuaty wicked^ body 
shameUs». improbe, you wretch. 

im-prlLdSns, -entis, adj. unaware^ off one" a 

impHne, adv. without being punished^ 
unpunished, toithout paying the penalty, 
with impunity. per m6, at my hands. 

ImoB = InfimuB from Inferos. 

in, prep, with Abl. and Ace: Avith Abl. in, 
on, at, among ; with Ace. into, to ; un- 
til, in diem, /or a day. in vioSs, 
in turn, in aorXgam, against the 
driver, in Bpeciem chorl, like a dance. 
tempore in illO, on that occadon. in 
qnibns, among whom, in illO, in his 

in-adfLstoB, -a, -am, unbumt, unscorched. 

in-aeqafilifl, -e, unequal, unlike. in- 
aeqnfilis hamndO, Jlute composed of 
reeds qf unequal length. inaequftlSs 
antomnl, changeable autumns. 

in-amoenu8, -a, -mn, disagreeable, un- 
pleasant, inamoena rfigna = the Un- 
der World. 

infinie, -e, empty, vacant ; used espe- 
cially of the Under World and the incor- 
poreal spirits of the dead. 

in-arStuB, -a, -nm, unplowed, unculti- 

inbellis, unwarlike. See imbellis. 

in-cal68c5, -ere, -calul, become warm, 
grow hot. 

in-cautos, -a, -um, incautious ; off one's 

in-c6dS, -ere, -cSssI, -cSssom, waik, ad- 

incendinm, -I, n. burning; fire, flame, 

in-certom, -I, n. doubt, uncertainty. in 
incertO, in doubt. 

in-certu8, -a, -um, uncertain, doubtful. 

inc6885, -ere, -IvI, attack. 

incCssos, 'Z&y m. walk, carriage. 

in-cld5, -ere, -cidl, -cisam, [caedS] cut 
in, carve in, engrave'in. 

in-cipi5, -cipere, -c6pl, -ceptom, begin, 

inclitns, -a, -nm, /amou^, renowned. 

in-oOgnitUB, -a, -nm, unknown, 

incola, -ae, m. inheUiitant. 

incolamUi, -e, sqfe, unharmed. 

in-crep6, -Sre, -nI, -itnm, rcUl at, scold, 
upbraid, flnd fault with. 

in-enmb5, -ere, -onbnl, -cnbitom, bend 
to, lean upon, fall upon (ferr5). 

incnrs5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, run against, 
strike against. 

incnrvas, -a, -um, curved, bent. 

in-cflstodltus, -a -um, unguarded^ unr 


inde, adv. thence, from there ; from that 
time, after thai., Uun ; from that cause, 
for that reason. 

in-d6iectuB, -a, -um, not cast down. 

in-deiebilis^ -e, indestructible, imperish- 

index, -ids, m. and f. informer, dis- 
closer. nUllS Bub indice, unt/u>ut 
being cauglU up with in efforts to evade, 
without trying to evade. 

indicium, -I, n. disclosure, informing, in- 

indlgnor, -Sri, -Stus Bum, disdain, 
deem unworthy. vestis lectO nOn 
indlgnanda, clothes not unworthy of 
tlie bed, suitcible to the bed, at which the 
bed could not complain. 

in-dlgnuB, -a, -um, unworthy, undeserv- 
ing ; innocent. 

indol6sc6, -ere, -dolul, be pained^ be 
hurt, be grieved. 

in-domitUB,' -a, -um, unconquered, invin- 

in-d1lc5, -ere, -dtLzI, -d'uctum, bring in, 
lead in ; 2)ut on, cover, overspread. 
nUbila indlLoere, bring up doudr, cd- 
Itct clouds. 

indulges, -ere, indulsl, indultum, in- 
dulge, yield to. 

induS, -uere, -ul, -Htum, put on, clothe 
with, dress in, deck with. indUta 
yariOs colOrfis, dressed in various 


InduB, -a, -um, Indian, of India. Indl, 
the Indians, the Hindus. 

inermiB, -e, [arma] unarmed, d^enseless, 

iners, -tiB, adj. [an] inactive, lazy, slug- 
gish, idle. nee iners pauperque 

importfiLnuB— InmllniB. 


volontfis, and a good vnU that was ac- 
five and Hch. 

in-6xpetrtiis, -a, -am, untried^ unproved. 

in-6xpfignfibili8, -e, invincible, ineradi- 

InfSmis, -6, infamous, disreputable, no- 

iB-fBlIz, -XoiS| adj. unhappy^ unfortu- 

Inferiae, -fimm, f. offerings (to the dead). 

Inferius, adv. lower, too low. See Infenu. 

InfemuB, -a -tun, of the Under World, be- 
longing to the Under World, infernal. 

In-fer6, -ferre, -toll, -iStum, bring in, 
carry in {into, to). laticfis in nfivem 
Xnferre, carry water into the ship. 

Infems, -a -am, low ; often used of the 
Lower World. Comp. Inferior, inferior, 
lower, too low. Saper. Infimos and 
Imos, lowest, deepest, bottom qf. pec- 
tas sab Imam, under the lowest part qf 
the breast. 

InfBstas, -a -am, hostile, inimical ; dan- 

in-fldas, -a 'Xaa^faithless, unti'ustwoTtJiy. 

In-flg6, -ere, -flxl, -tirajn.^ fasten in. 
IniijmBf fastened. 

Infitior, -Sri, -fitos som, deny, disown. 

In-fl6, -Sre, -fivl, -Stam, blow in, blow 
(an instrument). 

In-fand6, -ere, -fOdl, -ftUiam, pour in, 
poar into^pour upon, scatter around. 

ingeniOsas, -a, -am, adapted,fU; ski^ul, 
clever, ingenious. 

ingeniam, -I, n. natural endovoment, in- 
tellect, talent, genius, gifts ; nature, nat- 
ural disposition ; quality. 

ingfins, -entis, adj. mighty, great ; huge, 

ingenaas, -a, -umy free-bom, free: liberal, 
noble. ingenaae artfis, the liberal 
arts, studies and pursuits adapted to the 
free-bom in contradistinction to slaves. 

inglnviSs, -61, f . greed, gluttony. 

in-grStas, -a, -am, disagreeable, hateful, 
unwelcome; ungrateful. 

in-gredior, -gredl, -gressns sam, enter, 
march in, oorrtl ing^edl, drive in. 

ingaen, -inis, n. groin. 

in-haere6, -haerfire, -haesl, -haesom, 
stick to, cling to. 

in-hibei, -6re, -al, -itam, [habeS] check, 
stop, hinder, prevent. 

in-bonestas, -a, -am, dishonorable, dis- 
graceful, inbonesta v6la parSre, 
prepare a disgraceful flight. 

in-bonOrStas, -a, -am, unhonored. 

In-ioi6, -icere, -ifici, -iectom, thiow upon, 
lay upon, put vjion. manOs Inicere, 
lay hands on, claim as one's own. 

in-imlcoB, -a, -am, [amIcaB] hostile, un- 
friendly, inimical. 

in-Iqaas, -a, -am, [aeqaas] unjust ; un- 
friendly, unfavorable, unkind, hostile ; 
impatient. nec inlqoS mente, with 

inittria, -ae, f. injury, wrong-doing, 
wrong, injustice. 

in-ifLstOB, -a, -am, unjust, unfair. 

in-lfictas, -a, -am, [leg6] unread. 

in-lin5, -ere, -iSvI, -litam, smear, spread, 
lay on; anoint. c9rS in^iuA^ smeared 
with wax, having a layer of wax. 

in-lUdS, -ere, -iQsI, -lILsom, nuxke sport. 
inlfLdOns, making sport of them. 

inlflfltris, -e, shining, bright, brilliant. 

inmfinis, -e, huge, monstrous ; terrible. 

in-memor, -oris, adj. forgetful, ungrate- 

in-mfinsas, -a, -am, [metior] vnmeamred, 
im,measureable ; immense, immoderate, 
boundless. in inmSnsom, to an im- 
mense size. 

in-meritO, adv. undesei'vedly, innocently. 

in-meritos, -a, -am, undeserving ; inno- 

in-mined, -fire, -al, hang over^ project 
over ; im])end, threaten ; be intent upon 

in-mittO, -ere, -misl, -miBsam, send in, 
send upon; let go. inmittere ba- 
bfinfis, let the reins loose, inmissi ca- 
pilll, hair hanging down loose. 

in-mandas, -a, -am, unclean, filthy, dirty. 

inmUnis, -e, [mllnas] free fwm duties, 
free from bvrdens, under no obliga- 
tion ; free, having no share. inmUnis 
aeqaoris Arctos, fhe Oreat Bear, which 
never touches the sea, never sinks below 



t/U horizon, telltts inintlniS) the earth 
wider no obligation^ because no seed had 
been planted and no work done. 

in-murmorS, -Sre, -SvX, .fttnm, mur- 
mur (Uy murmur against (m9, Met. iii. 

in-nfitOB, -a, -unii born in^ bom on, na- 
tive. innStO mUrice tfictnm, covered 
toith iJie purple-Jish growing there. 

in-nltor, -nltl, -nlXTU sum, support one's 
se^on^ lean vpon ; rest upon. 

in-noeuTis, -a, -nm, [noceS] harmless, in- 

in-nuinenis, -a, -imi) innumerable , count- 

in-opB, inopU, adj. poor^ needy, without 
means, witJiaut. 

in-omStuB, -a, -um, unadorned, undeco- 

in-perfectus, -a, -uin, unfinished, incom- 

inp*, in compoands, sec imp*. 

inquaxn, defective verb, / sai/. inquiti 
he says, says he. 

in-qtLlr6, -ere, -qulslvl, -qolsltam, in- 
vestigate, examine, inquire. in pa- 
triOs ann03 inqolrit, asks questions (of 
the astrologers) concerning his father'^s 
years, aims at his life. 

in-requifitOB, -a, -um, unquiet, restless. 

inriguus, -a, -am, well-watered. 

inrltSmen, -inis, n. incitement, induce- 

inrltSmentnm, -I, n. incitement, induce- 
ment. malOrum, to evil. 

inrituB, -a, -um [ratiui] in vain, power- 
less, ineffective. 

in-rOrS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, sprinkle ; be- 
sprinkle, moisten, wet. 

iB«nimp6, -ere, -rUpI, -ruptum, break 
forth in, rush into. 

InsSnia, -ae, f • madness, insanity. 

In-BSnus, -a, -um, mad, insane, raging. 

InsciuB, -a, -um, ignorant, unaware, not 

In-Bcrlb6, -ere, -BcrlpsI, -scrlptum, write 
on, inscHbe, write. 

In-sequor, -sequi, -secUtus sum, pursue, 

In-serS, -ere, -serul, -sertum, insert, in- 
troduce, mix, intrude. 

Insidiae, -firum, f. ambush, ambuscade, 
snare, plot, stratagem, treachery. 

Insidior, -Sri, -Stus sum, lie in ambush 
for ; plot against. 

Insignia, -e, [slgnum] distinguished, 
conspicuous ; adorned. 

lUBitiO, -Onis, f. gr<\fting; tim^ of graft- 

In-Bolitus, -a, -um, unaccustomedy un- 
In-sOns, -Bontis, adj. innocent. 

lUBopor, -OriB, adj. [sopor] sleepless, 

In-8pici5, -Bpicere, -spezi, -spectum, 
look into, examim ; prove, test (fldem). 

In-8plr5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, blow intOy 

In-Btabilis, -e, [8t6] fickle, changeable. 

Instar, n. indecl. nsed averbially, qfter the 
fashion qf, like. 

In-st8, -stSre, -stitl, stand on, stand 
above,' press on, pursue, urge, impor- 
tune ; threaten ; be near. 

In-Btru5, -ere, -strtlzl, -strlLctum, draw 
up, prepare^ make ready, equip ; in- 

InsultO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, leap upon, 
dance upon. 

In-8uperSbilis, -e, unconquerable, invin- 
in-tSotus, -a, -um, [tang5] untoucfied. 

integer, -g^a, -grum, whc^e, safe, unin- 

in-tendS, -ere, -tendl, -tentum, stretch 
out; turn to, aim at, give attention to, be 
intent upon. 

inter, prep, with Ace. between, among; 
during. inter s6, one another. 

interdum, adv. sometimes. 

intereS, adv. in the mean while, in the 
mean time. 

inter-e5, -Ire, -il, -itum, perish, be de- 
stroyed, die. 

inter-imS, -ere, -9ml, -Gmptum, km, 


inter-mitt5, -ere, -mlsl, -missum, inter- 
rupt. nOn intermiflsus, uninter- 

inxnurniTirO— index. 


in-tenitUB, -a, -nm, unUrtified, un- 

intibnmi -I, n. endive^ chUxory^ a vege- 

ixL-tonS, -Sre, -fivl, -atnm, thunder, in- 
tonate it thunders. 

in-torqned, -SrO) -torsi, -tortum, twisty 
turn; brandish^ hurl. 

intrfi, prep, with Ace. vMhin^ in. 

in-tremlsoS, -ere, -tremul, tremble^ 

intr6, -Sre, -SvX, -Stum, enter^ come in^ 
go %n, Utora intrSvit, came to the 
shores, intrfita mihi est, I entered. 

intns, adv. within^ inside. 

in-oltns, -a, -tun, [ulclsoor] unavenged^ 

in-Utilis, -e, useless; injurUmSy harmful. 
sibi inUtilior, to his own greater in- 

in-veniS, -Ire, -vfinl, -ventani, come 
upon^ meet up with^Jlndy discover. 

In-victus, -a, -tun, unconquered; invin- 

in-yide5, -9re, -vldl, -visum, envy, be en- 
vious, grudge. nOn invideStis, do 
notpreventy i.e. permit. 

invidia, -ae, t envy, jealousy, hate. 

invidiOsus, -a, -tun, envious ; angry, full 
of h itred ; causing hatred, exciting ill- 
will; hatefid, disagreeoMe; enviable, en- 
vied. cSrIs liarSnls invidiOsus, an 
object qf envy on account of its pt'edous 

invidus, -a, -um, envious; unfavoraMe, 

invlstis, -a, -um, [invideS] hated. 

invltus, -a, -um, unwilling, against one*s 
will. m6 invito, against my will, in 
spite of me. 

inviuB, -a, -um, [via] out of the way, re- 
mote; impassable. 

in-volv5, -ere, -volvl, -volfltum, involve, 
wrap up. 

lO, I&S, f. lo, daaghter of Inachus, changed 
into a cow by Jupiter to avoid the jealous 
wrath of Juno. 

iocOeus, -a, -tun, sportive, playful, merry. 

IphitidOs, -ae, m. son of Iphitus, i.e. 

ipse, -a, -um, self, himself, etc. ; even, very, 
likeunse, in pei'son. in stils ipsum 
castrls, himself in his own camp, ipsa 
tellils, the earth itse{f, of its own accord. 
ipse clipetis, the shield itself, ipse 
KaeonidOs, even Homer. 

Ira, -ae, f. anger, wrath. Also Plural. 

Irfiscor, IrSscI, Irfitus sum, become angry, 
become enraged ; be angi-y, be enraged. 

IrStUB, -a, -um, angry, enraged, wrathful. 

Ire, see c6. 

Iris, Iridis, f. Iris, the goddess of the 
rainbow and messenger of Juno. 

irr-, in compounds, see inr-. 

Irus, -I, m. Irus, a beggar in Ithaca, 
friendly to the suitors. 

is, ea, id, that, such ; lie, she, it. 

Ismarius, -a, -tun, Ismarian, from Mount 
Ismarus in Thrace ; hence = Thracian. 

iste, ista, istud, that, that by you, that of 
yours ; often in a contemptuous signifi- 
cation, such. 

Ister = Hister. 

Isthmus, -I, m. the Isthmus (of Corinth). 

ita, adv. so, thus, in this way, under these 
circumetances. ut-ita, (hough— yet. 

Italia, -ae, f. Italy. 

iter, itineris, n. [ire] journey, voyage ; 
way, road, street, passage. 

iterum, adv. again, a second time. 

Ithaca, -ae, f. Ithaca, an island in the 
Ionian Sea, home of Ulysses. 

Ithacus, -a, -tun, Ithacan. Snbst. Itha- 
cus, the Ithacan, i.e. Ulysses. 

It3rs, -yos, m. Itys, the little son of Terens 
and Procne, who was slain by his mother 
in punishment of his father. 

1. iuba, -ae, f. mane ; crest. 

2. Iuba, -ae, m. Juba, l^ing of Numidia, 
defeated by Julius Caesar. 

iubar, -aris, n. radiance, light, splendor, 
bngJitness; something bright, a star. 

iubeS, -6re, iflssl, iHssum, order, com- 
mand, itlssus, ordered, as 07'dered. 
iflssOs lapides mittunt, they throw the 
stones as ordered. 

ilLcundus, -a, -um, pleasing, pUasard, ac- 

index, -icis, rn. and f. judge. 



iHdiciam, -I| n. judgment decision^ 

iugnlS, -Sre, -fivl, -fitum, cut the throat 
of, glay, kill. 

iugum, -I, n. yoke ; mountair.Mdge^ 

ItLlTU, -I, m. Iulu8^ son of Aeneas, ances- 
tor of the Julian gens. 

iiuig6, -ere, iftnzl, -iOnctam, join, 
unite; yoke, harness. itLncta aqnilO- 
nibiui, ioin^c? to tfu north winds, i.e. 
near them. fSmina iHncta suO tanrO, 
a cow along with her mate. 

ItLnO, •Onis, f . Juno, daughter of Saturn, 
wife and sister of Jupiter. 

IfiLnOniuB, -a, -tun, of Juno, Juno's, sacred 
to Juno. 

lUppiter, lovis, m. Jupiter, chief of the 

i1ir6, -Sre, -5vl, -Stum, swear. iOrfitus, 
also active, having sworn, eadem nObiB 
ittrfitoB in anna, who took the same 
war-pledge as we, who j)ledged hirnsel/ to 
the same war. dis itbranda palfls, 
the pool (Styx) by which tlie gods must 

ifls, iHris, n. right, justice; law, custom. : 
claim, privilege, jyrerogative ; jurisdic- 
tion, iflre, rightly, with justice. 
illra dare, give laws, hold court, rule. 
illre taedae, by the right of the torch, in 
mai-riage. pars hlc mihi mfizima iH- 
ris, I have the most authority here, itls 
et xnoderfimen equOrum (Hendiadys), 
the light to guide t/te steeds, 

ifLssum, -I, n. [iube5] order, command, 

iOstitia, -ae, f . justice. 

iUstus, -a, -nm, just, honest, fair ; proper, 
due,fittin{i. iflsta dare, to give the 
due (funeral honors), peifonn the funeral 

invenSlis, -e, [iuvenlB] youtliful, young; 
strong, vigorous. 

iuvenSliter, adv. _in youthful fashion, 
youthfully ; strongly, vigorously. 

invencus, -I, m. bullock, steer. 

iuvenis, -is, adj. young, youthful. Subst. 
youth ; young man, rarely young uxmian. 

inventa, -ae, f . youth. 

inventtLs, -Utis, f . youth ; young men. 

iav6, -Sre, itiyl, ifiLtum, help, aid, assist; 
please, delight. quae invat herba, 
beneficial plants, helpful herbs, 

ifLxtS, adv. near, dose. 

IxIOn, -onis, IxUm, a Thessalian king 
who, for a crime against Jano, was con- 
demned in the Lower World to revolve 
forever on a wheel (orbis). 

labO, -Sre, -Svl, -atiun, roll, totter. 

1. iSbor, iSbl, iSpSQB sum, glide, glide 
along, go smoothly, slip, sink, fall, pass. 

2. labor, -Oris, m. labor, toil, exertion, 
work, effort; trouble, difficulty; suffering. 
labor est inhibfire, the trouble (difficulty) 
is to hold them back. 

labOrS , -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, work, labor, 
strive, exert one's sdf, make ^ort. 

iSc, laotis, n. nMk. iSc coSctnm, cur- 
' died milk, cheese. 

LacedaemOn, -onis, f. Laaedaemon, 
Sparta, a city in Greece. 

lacer, -era, -enun, torn, mangled, lacer- 
lacertus, -I, m. upper arm, arm. 

lacessS, -ere, -IvI, -Itom, diaUenge ; at- 
tack, harass, assail. 

lacrima, -ae, f . tear. lacrimXs obortls, 

with (ears in his eyes. 

Iacrim6, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, weep, shed 

lacrimOsus, -a, -am, tearful, tear-bring- 
ing (ftlmus). 

lacuB, -Us, m. lake, pond, pool. 

laedd, -ere, laesl, laesnm, injure, hurt, 
pain, offend. 

LSertSs, -ae, m. Laertes, father of Ulysses. 

LSertiadOs, -ae, m. son of Laertes = 


LSertins, -a, -am, (f Laertes. LSertins 
bOrOs, the heroic son (tf Za«r/€«= Ulysses. 

laetitia, -ae,, gladness. 

laetor, -Sri, -Stas sam, r^oice, be glad. 


laetas, -a, -Jim Joyful, glad, happy, merry, 


laevos, -a, -am, left, on the left, laeva, 
left hand, left. S laevS, laevS, on the 
lift, laevam pete, direct ^ur course to 

the left. 


Ifidioiam— libldi. 


ICmmina, -ae, f . layer (of metal). Ifim- 
mina folva premit dapM, a yellow 
layer (gold) covers Uie meat. 

lampaa, -adis, f. torch, light. 

Ifina, -ae, f . rwol, 

langaed, -6re, lang^ be faint, be weak, 
be languid. 

langoidtis, -a, -nm, languid, weak, dull, 

languor, •Oris, m. languor, weariness, 

iSniger, -gera, -gerom, wool-bearing, 

laniS, -Cre, -fivl, -Stum, tear to pieces, 
mangle, lacerate. 

lapis, -idis, m. stone. 

laquens, -I, m. noose, gallows. 

Ur, larifl, m. Lar, household god ; house, 

iSsoIvns, -a, -uxn, playful, sportive, frolic- 
soms; lascivious. 

Ias86, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnxo, tire, weary, 
make tired. 

laisus, -a, -nm, weary, tired, exhausted. 
Sobet. lasBOB, jMtient, sick man. 

iStft, adv. btvadly, widely, extensively, far 
and udde. 

Iate6, -ere, -ul, lie hid, be concealed, hide. 

latex, -icis, m. Jluid, liquid, especially 

latrO, -Onis, m. robber. 

iSttLnu, see ferS. 

1. iStns, -a, -nm, broad, wide, extensive. 
in iStnm crfiscit, becomes broad. 

2, latnB, -eris, n. side, flank. 

land5, -Sre, -fivl, -fitnm, praise, extol. 

lane, landia, f. praise, approval; glory, 

Iav5, layfire, IfiyI, lavStnm, wash, bathe. 

lea, -ae, f . lioness. 

leaena, -ae, f . lioness. 

Lebynthns, -I, f. Lebynthus, an Island in 
the Aegean Sea. 

lector, -Oris, m. []eg6] reader. 

leetus, -I, m. bed, couch. vidnO discO- 
dere lectO, to give up my widoivhood. 

legS, -ere, l9gl, leetnm, gather, pluck ; 
choose, pick ; read. 

Lemnoe, -X, f. Lemnus, an island in the 
Aegean Hea, south of Thrace. There 
Philoctetes was left behind by the Greeks. 

iSna, -ae, f . procuress. 

Lenaens, -X, m. Lenaeus, another name 
for Bacchus. 

iSnie, -e, mild, gentle, gracious, lene 
(n. Ace.) Bonfins, gently sounding, lightly 

Ifiniter, adv. gently, mildly, smoothly. 

lent6Bc6, -ere, grow mild, relax. 

lentuB, -a -nm, smooth, pliant, soft, gentle; 
calm, quiet, slow; lingering; cold, in- 

led, -OniB, m. lion. 

lepuB, leporie, m. hare. 

LeeboB, -I, f. Lesbus, an island in the 
Aegean Sea. 

letfillB, -e^ fatal, deadly, mortal. 

letum, -X, n. death. I9t0 dare, kill. 

levSxnen, -inis, n. alleviation, consolation, 
solace, comfort. 

levis, -e, light, not heavy, not burdensome, 
endurable ; fleeting, swift ; fickle ; un- 
important. lev6B popnll, the weight- 
less crmvd, the airy throng, the spirits qf 
the departed. 

levitfiB, -StiB, f. lightness ; fickleness, in- 

leviter, adv. lightly, slightly, gently. 

levS, -Sre, -fivX, -fitnm, lighten, tnake 
light; relieve; lift, raise; take dovm 
(fnrcfi, with a fork). bacnllB levfitl, 
supjMM'ting themselves on staffs. 

iBx, l6giB, f . law, order ; condition, stipu- 
lation, term, sine lege, without order. 
legem sibi dizerat ipse, he himself 
had established the precedent for his case. 

1. Uber, -bera, -bemm, free, unlimited, 
unhindered. Uber revertendl, free 
to return, toga libera (pflra, yirHiB), 
the manly toga, which was assumed by 
Roman boys when about seventeen years 
old. nOn est mora libera, delay is not 

2. Uber, -eri, m. Liber, identified with 
Bacchus, the wine-god. 

libet, libere, Ubnit, it it pleasing, a de- 
sire is fell. 

libido, -iniB, f. passion, desire, lust. 



Ilb8, -are, -5vl, -Stum, draw (UquOrfc) ; 
pour out as offering to the gods, makf. a 
libation, cffer. 

llbum, -I, n. sacrificial cake (offered to the 
genius or guardian spirit on one's birth- 

libys, -yos, m. Libys, a sailor. 

licentia, -ae, f. freedom, license, unre- 
straint ; presumption. 

licet, licBre, licult, t^ is permitted, it is 
possible, one may: as a conj. with 
Snbjv. though, although. placeat 
gibi quisque licGbit, though each one 
may have a good opinion of himself, 

lignum, -I, n. wood. 

ligS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, bind, tU, fasten, 

lUium, -I, D. lUy. 

lima, -ae, f.^. 

llmen, -inis, n. threshold ; entrance, door; 

Umes, -itis, m. boundary-Hne ; path,way. 
llmus, -I, ni- mud, slime. 
lingua, -ae, t. tongue ; language, speech. 

Iinqu5, -ere, llqui, leave, leave behind, 
desert, abandon. 

linteum, -I, n- sail (of linen). lintea 
dare, set sail. dextrS lintea dare^ set 
sail to the right. 

llnum, -I, n.Jlax; linen; thread, line, rope. 

liquiduB, -a, -um, liquid, Jlowing, fluid ; 
clear, pure, transparent. 

liquor, -Oris, m. liquid, Jtuid ; especially 

lis, litis, f. strife, quarrel ,• contest, suit. 

Iit5, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, give good omens. 

Uttera, -ae, f- letter (of the alphabet) ; 
letter, epistle. 

lltus, -oris, n. sTiore, coast, beach, strand, 

lituus, -I, m. (curved) trumpet, comet. 

llvor, -Oris, m. bluish color; envy, llvor 
edSx, biting envy. 

loc6, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, place. 

loous, -I, m. place, locality, spot, post, posi- 
tion ; region, country ; room. locum 
requiemque, a resting place, locus 
nfitfilis, Urthplace, native land. locO 
medius, placed in the middle. PI. usu- 
ally loca, -Orum. 

lolium, -I, n. tares. 

longaevus, -a, -um, aged. 

lorige, adv. far, far off, far rem&ved, at a 
great distance ; by far ; for a long time, 
long. longS abesse, be far qff,^ be un- 
able to assist. 

longinquus, -a, -um,/ar, distant. 

longus, -a, -um, long, extended, of long 

loqufix, -ficis, talkative, loquadous, chat- 

loquor, loqul, locfltus sum, talk, speak, 
teU, relate, say. mfigna loquI, boast. 

lOrum, -I, n« line, rein. 

iace6, -ere, lUxI, shine, sparkle, gleam, be 

LUoifer, -ferl, m. [Itlx] Lucifer, the 

morning star ; day. 
Lucretius, -I, m. Lucretius, a Eoman poet 

(98-55 B.C.), author of the philosophical 

poem " De Rerum Natura." 

lucrum, -I, n- gain, profit. in IflcrS 

mihi est, I count as gain. 
ItLctus, -fls, m. gri^f, sorrow, mourning, 

lUous, -I, m. sacred grove; grove, forest. 

lIldB, -ere, lasl, Wsum, play, sport, make 

fun; make sport of ; deceive. 
ItLmen, -inis, n. light, brightness ; torch; 

eye. per tantum lUmen, in so great 

a light. 

1. lana, -ae, f. mwn. 

2. Lfina, -ae, f . Luna, Diana, the goddess 
of the moon and sister of Apollo, the 
Sun. Each rode in a chariot through the 

LtLnfiris, -e, qf Luna, of the Moon. 

luB, -ere, lul, Itltum, wash off; expiate, 

aUmefor ; suffer. poenfis lucre, pay 

the penalty. 

lupus, -I, m. tDoi^. 

lUridus, -a, -um, pale, ghastly, colorless, 

deathlike; producing pallor, deadly 

lUsor, -Oris, m. player; frivolous writer. 

tenerOrum lUsor amOrum, author of 

tender love-poems, written in a light 


11Xstr8, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, view, examine, 
I look through ; visit, wander over: purify. 



IGfltmnii -I, n. purificatory offering which 
the cenBors performed at the end of their 
term of office, every five years. Hence 
lustrum = period qf five year», hatf- 

lusus, -1l8, m. jiiayy sport. 

lux, Iflcig, f . light, sunlight, daylight, day: 
light qf life, life. Iflce, 6y daylight. 

ItlruriO, -Sre, -ttvl, -«turn, be rank, be 

lUzuriOsus, -a, -urn, luxuriant, exuberant, 

Lycabas, -bantis, m. Lycabas, a sailor. 

Lycius, -a, -um, Lycian. basta Lycia, 
the Lycian spear, the spear of the Lycian, 

LyoOris, -idis, f. Lycoris, fictitious name 
of the mistress of the poet Gallus. 

Lydus, -a, -um, Lydian. 

lynx, Ijrncis, m. and f. lynx. 

lyra, -ae, f. lyre, lute, a stringed instru- 

LyrnGsius, -a, -um, Lymesian, of Lyr- 
nesits, a city near Troy which was con- 
quered by Achilles. 

Macer, -crX, m. Macer, a Roman didactic 
poet and friend of Ovid. 

mactS, -fire, -fivl, »atum, slay, kiU ; 

madefaci6, -faoere, -fScI, -lactum, 
moisten, wet. 

madeflO, -fieri, -factuB sum, be moistened, 
be wet. 

madeS, -fee, -ul, be moist, be wet ; drip. 

mad6Bc6, -ere, madul, become, moist ; be- 
come wet. 

madidus, -a, -um, tnoist, wet, dripping. 
aurO madidlB glaebls, with clods 
soaked with gold. 

Maeandros, -I, m. Maeander, a river in 
Asia Minor famous for its many wind- 

Maeouia, ^e, f. Maeonia, an old name 
for Lydia. 

KaeonidSs, -ae, m. the Maeonian, i.e. 
Homer, supposed to have been a native 
of Lydia. 

Kaeonius, -a, -um, Maeonian, Lydian. 

maered, -Sre, grieve, mmtm, lament. 

maestus, -a, -um, sad, soirovful, un- 
floppy ^ glocmy. 

magis, adv. more, in a higher degree, 

mAgister, -tri, m. teacher, master, leader. 

mSgnanimus, -a, -um, great-souled, high- 
spirited, courageous. 

KSgnetis, -idifl, adj. f. Magnesian. 
Kagnfitis ArgO, the Magnesian ship 
Argo, which was built at Pagasae in 

mSgnus, -a, -um, (Comp. mSior, Snperl. 
mSximus) great, large, mighty ; lovd ; 
important. mSzima opScI mundl, 
greatest in the dark world, queen of tlie 
lower regions. mSior, mSximus nfitu, 
older (elder), oldest, fidfi mSius, incred ■ 
ible. mSgna loqul, boast. mSgna 
petis, you ask for something great, your 
request is extraordinary. 

KSia, -ae, f. Maia, daughter of Atlas and 
mother of Mercury. 

mSior, see mSgnus. 

male, adv. (Comp. peius, Superl. peg- 
8im6) badly, not well; foolishly, vnfo?'- 
tunately, to one's injury, to one's misfor- 
tune; hardly, scarcely, male UsUrus, 
destined to moke a foolish use. male 
g^Stus, ungrateful. 

male-dlcd, -ere, -dizl, -dictum, abuse, 

mAlXgnus, -a, -um, unkind; niggardly, 

mSlS, mSlle, mSluI, [magis, volO] pre- 
fer, wish rather, clioose rather. iam 
mSllet numquam tetigisse, now he 
would rather never have touched. 

1. mSlum, -I, n. apple. 

2. malum, -I, n. evil ; loss ; misfortune, 
trouble, affliction. inrltSmenta ma- 
lOrum, incentive to tvicked deeds. 

malus, -a, -um, (Comp. peior, Superl. 
pessimus) bad, wicked, evil, harwr 
ful. p6ior yfina, a worse vein, 
cheaper metal. 

mandStum, -I, n. command, order ; com- 
mission, instruction, message, charge. 

mand6, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, give over, in- 
trust, leave, commit; command, ofder, 



enjoin^ inttruct. FortGnae eStera 
manddi I leave the rest to triune. 

mSne, adv. in the morning^ early. 
mSne erat, et, it was morning^ am/, i.e. 
w^ien morning came. 

mane6, -ftre, mSnal, mSnanm, remain ; 
be l^t : last, continue. liominum 
ezempla manSmiis, we are the only 
human specimens left. 

mSn63, -iuin, m. the manes, the spirits of 
the departed ; the Under World. 

manifBstS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stiun, disclose, 
sJuoio, lay bare. 

manifBstus, -a, -nin, clear^ plain, visible, 

maniui, -tis, f . hand ; band, troop. 111- 
tixnam manum impOnere, put on the 
last toucJies, finish, manfls cOnserere, 
join battle, fight. 

mare, -is, n. sea. 

margo, -inis, m. margin, border, edge, 

marlta» -ae, f. wife, spouse. 

1. marltus, -I, m. husband. neque 
praedOne marltO digna est, and she 
does not deserve to have a robber for a 

2. marltiui, -a, •um, pertaining to mar- 
riage, conjugal, nuptial. 

marmor, -oris, n. marble. 

marmorenB, -a, -nm, of marble, marble. 

ICSrs, KSrtU, m- Mars, son of Japiter 
and Jnno and god of war ; by Metonymy, 
war, battle, strife. MSn apertos, 
open battle. 

KSrtiTU, -a, -urn, of Mars. 

mfis, maris, m. male. 

mSssa, -ae, f. mass, lump; nugget (of 
gold). mfissa lactis coSctI, lump of 
curdled milk, cake of cheese. 

mSter, -tris, f . mother ; m^ron, dame. 
mSter deum = Cybele ; mSter amOrum 
= Venus. 

mSteria, -ae, and mfiteriSs, -61, f. ma- 
terial. mSteriem in carmina, ma- 
terial for songs, source qf inspiration for 

mSterniLS, -a, -um, of a mother, maternal. 
mSternS ortIL generOsior, of nobler 
birth on my mother^s side. 

mStertera, -ae, f. aunt, mother^ s sister. 

mStrOna, -ae, f . m>arried woman, matron, 
lady; wife. 

mStflrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature; early. 
cum iOstOs mStttra perSgerit annOs, 
when, ripe in years, she has, filled out her 
allotted time, sum mStHrior, I came 

KfivOrs, -ortis, = Kfirs. 

KSvortius, -a, -nm, = liSxtvtia,of Mars. 

]C6d9a, -ae, f- Medea, daughter of Aeetes, 
king of Colchis. When Jasou came there 
in search of the Golden Fleece, he obtained 
the assistance of Medea and carried her 
off to Greece as his wife. When he de- 
serted her to marry Creasa, princess of 
Corinth, Medea killed her two children, 
destroyed the bride and the bride's father, 
and fled away to Athens. 

medicfibilis, -e, curaUe. 

medicfimen, -inis, n. medicine, drug^ 

1. medicfitus, -a, -urn, partic. adj. [me- 
dio5j anointed, doctored, sprinkled witli 
thejuice of herbs. 

2. medicfitus, -tts, m. medical treatment^ 
medicine, charm. 

mediclna, -ae, f. tnedidne, remedy. 
tH mediclna venis, thou comest as a 


medic6, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, sprinkle with 
thejuiceqf herbs, medicate. 

medius, -a, -um, middle, middle of, in 
tlie middle, in the midst. mediSs ter- 
rfis cingere, surround tfie land (lying 
in the middle). mediO pont5, in the 
middle of the sea. looO medius, in the 
middle in place, placed in the middle. 
mediae liSrae, the intervening hours. 
medius frfitris et sorOris, as mediator 
between brother and sister. mediO, in 
the middle. 

KedOn, -ontis, m. Medon : 1. the herald 
in the bouse of Ulysses. 2. a sailor. 

Kedflsa, -ae, f. Medusa, a monster with 
serpent-locks and a face which turned all 
beholders into stone. Perseus, by using 
a mirror, slew her. With her head he 
transformed the giant Atlas into a 

ICedllsaeus, -a, -um, of Medusa, Medusan. 
KedfiLsaeum mOnstrum, the Medusan 

mSne— metuens. 


monster Cerberus, the three-headed dog 
of the Lower World, who was descended 
from Chrysaor, who in tarn sprang from 
the blood of Medusa. 

mel, mellifl, n. honey. 

Kelanthiiis, -X, m. MelanthiuSi a goat- 
herd of Uly88«5. 

KelanthuB, -I, m. Melanthus^ a sailor, 
melius, see bonus, bene, 
membnun, -I, n. member^ limb. 
mement5, imperative, remerrU)er, See 

meminl, -isse, remember^ bear in mind, 

KemnOn, -onis, m. Memnon, king of the 

Ethiopians, son of Aurora. He was 

killed at Troy by Achilles. 

memor, -oris, adj. mindful, remembering; 
grat^ul. memorem esse, rem,em^r. 

memorfibilis, -e, memorable, noteworthy, 
remarkable, famous. 

memor6, -Sre, -Svl, -fitum, relate, tell, 
mention. bovfis memorantur prO- 
cfississe, the cows went forward, as (he 
story goes. 

Menandros, -I, m. Menander, a Greek 
comic poet. 

mendSx, -Scis, suOiy false, deceptive, lying, 

Menelaus, •!, m. Menelaus, son of Atreus 
and brother of Agamemnon. He fought 
at Troy for the recovery of his wife Helen, 
who had been carried off by Paris. 

mSns, mentis, f. mind. Intellect; con- 
sciousness ; sense, understanding ; dispo- 
sition, feelings, character, heart. nec 
inlquS mente, and with resignation, 
patiently, mentfis ex aequO captae, 
hearts eqttally captivated. 

mCnsa, -ae, f. table; m^al, course. m6n- 
sae secundae, second course, dessert. 

mSnsis, -is, m. month. Also personified, 

mSnsor, -Oris, m. measurer, surveyor. 

mSnsflra, -ae, f . measure. elavl m6n- 
silra coScta est, the stHpe was made 
narrow. Ovid resigned himself to his 
equestrian rank and wore the correspond- 
ing narrow stripe of purple instead of 
aspiring to the senatorial rank, which 
was entitled to the broad stripe. 

menta, -ae, f . mint. 

mentior, -Irl, -Itus sum, He, tea false- 
hoods; invent, feign, makeup. 

mentum, -I, n. chin. 

mercStor, -Oris, m. merchant. 

mercSs, -6dis, f. reward, pay ; price. 

Kercurius, -I, m. Mercury, son of Jupiter 
and Maia and grandson of Atlas (hence, 
Atlantiades). He was the messenger of 
the gods and god of traders and of 

mere5, -6re, -ul, -itum, deserve, m^rit, be 
entitled to; gain, win, acquire. meri- 
tns, deserved, due ; deserving. nOn 
meritus, innocent. 

meretriz, -Icis, f. courtesan, prostitute. 

mergS, -ere, mersi, mersum, dip, dip in, 
immerse; plunge into, sink, overwhelm. 
mersae r6s, the deluged world. 

Kfirionfis, -ae, m. Meriones, charioteer of 

meritus, -a, -um, deserved; deserving. 

See mereS. 
meritum, -I, n. service, kindness, favoi\ 

benefit, merit. ex meritO, according 

to desert. meritO, deservedly, justly, 


Kerops, -opis, m. Merops, king of the 
Ethiopians and husband of Clymenc, 
who was the mother of PhaStlion. 

merus, -a, -um, i^wrc, unmixed. Subst. 
merum, -I, n, pure wine (wine without 
water), tvine. 

merx, mercis, f • wares, goods. mercfis 
fSmineae, women's wares, articles for 

messis, -is, f. harvest ; crop; grain., 

m6ta, -ae, f . goal, end of the race, end. 

Methymna, -ae, f . Methymna, a city on 
the island of Lesbus, famous for its 

metier, -Irl, m6nsus sum, measu7'e, 
measure off, turvey ; sail over, cress 

KettUS, -I, Ul. Melius, leader of the Al- 
bans, who for his treachery was, by 
order of Hostilius, king of the Romans, 
torn asunder by horses pulling in op- 
posite directions. 

metufins, -entis, partic. adj. fearful. 



metnfins deOmm, god-fearing^ reverent. 
metuSns frigora, incapable of enduring 
cold^ tender. 

metu6, -ere, metui, /«ar, be afraid. 
metuendns, to be feared. 

xnetus, -fU, m. fear ; danger. pl6na 
metiSf full cf tenw\, full of danger. 

meus, -a, -nm, my, mine. meX, my 
family and fronds, meuin est, is my 
work, viz meiim, almost beside myself 
(badly excited, lacking in self-possesBion). 
Voc. meuB) Met iv. 265. 

ml = milii, see egO. 

mica, -ae, f. grain^ bit^ especially a grain 
of salt. 

mic6, •Sre, micul, dart, flash ; vibrate, 
quiver, shake, tremble, jjalpitate. 

MidSfl, -ae, in- Midas, a Phrygian king. 

miles, -itis, m. soldier. 

militia, -ae, f. military service, warfare, 

mllle, PI. milia, -ium, a thousand. 

mllans, -I, ni. kite, a bird of prey. 

minae, -fimm, f • threats. 

minans, -antis, partic. adj. threatening. 

minSx, -acis, adj. threatening. 

Minerva, -ae, f. Minerva, the unmarried 
daughter of Jupiter, goddess of the arts 
and sciences. slgnam Hinervae, the 
statue of Minerva, which was carried 
from Troy by Ulysses and Diomede. 
baca sincCrae Kinervae, the berry of 
Vie chaste Minerva, the olive, which was 
sacred to her. 

minimus, see parvus. 

minister, -tri, m. servant, attendant. 

ministerium, -I, n. service; office, occupa- 
tion, work. m6 ministeriO sceleris- 
que artisque remOvI, I withdrew from 
the performance of the crim£ and of my 
profession, J gave vp my office and re- 
fused to aid them in their crime. 

ministrO, -are, -Svl, -atum, serve, wait 
v]xm, attend; serve up, pour out; fur- 
nish, give. 

minium, -I, n. red-lead. 

1. minor, see parvus. 

2. minor, -arl, -Stus sum, threaten. 
KlnSs, -Ois, m. Minos, king of Crete. 

minu5, -ere, minul, minutum, make 
small, diminish, weaken; break to 
pieces, break vp (rSmSlia). 

minus, adv. less. si minus, if not. See 

Uinjrae, -Srum, m. the Minyae, the Argo- 
nauts: The Minyae were a Thessalian 
people and possessed the town of lolcns, 
from which the Argonautic expedition 

mirfibilis -e, [mlror] wonderful. 

mIrSculum, -I, n. wonder ; strange form. 

mIrStor, -Oris, m. admirer. 

mlror, -firl, -Stus sum, wonder ; wonder 
at, admire. 

mirus, -a, -um, wonderful, strange. 

misced, -6re, -ul, miztum, mix, mingle, 
unite ; stir vp, confuse. 

miser, -era, -erum, unhappy, miserable, 
wretcJied, pitiable. 

miserabilis, -e, pitiable, icretcJied, lam- 
entable, sad. 

miseraadus, -a, -um, pitiable, ivretched. 

misereor, -6rl, miseritus sum, iMy, have 
pity, have cotnpassion. 

KithridfitSus, -a, -um, qf Mithridates, 
the greatest king of Pontus. 

mItigS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, make mild, 
soften ; soothe, assuage, mitigate. 

mitis, -e, mild, gentle, soft, pleasant, 
friendly, kind. 

mittO, -ere, misl, missum, send, send 
forth, let go ; throw, hurl, shoot ; cease. 
lets mittere, kill, mitte precarl, leave 
off praying. 

moderSmen, -inis, «. instrument of guid- 
ing, rudder (of a ship), helm. ; guidance^ 

moderStor, -Oris, m. regulator, director, 

manager ; driver ; pilot. 

moderStus, -a, -um, tnoderate, modest 


moderor, -Sri, -Stus sum, regulate, 
moderate, manage ; rule, control, guide. 

modestus, -a, -um, modest, moderate, 

modo, 1. adv. only; just now, lately. 
mode— modo, now — now, sometimes — 
sometimes, si modo, if only. 2. conj. 
if only, provided tliat. 



modnlor, -firl, -fitUB Bum, regulale, ting, 

modus, -X, m. measure, time ; verse-^neas- 
ure, verse ; limit, end; manner, style. 
modom dare rSmIs, give the tim^ for 
the oars, reguUUe the stroke. quO modO, 
in what way, how. verba BOlUta mo- 
dlB, i.e. prose. 

moenia, -iiun, n. waUs, /orHfications ; 
waited town, city. Hennaea moenia, 
the city qf Henna. 

mOlBs, -is, f. mass, bulk, weight; rock, 
diff ; bank, shore; effort, exertion. 
mOlBs clipel, massy shield. 

molestuB, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying, 

mOlImen, -inis, n. efort, exertion, under- 
taking ; structure, size. 

mOlior, -Zrl, -XtaB Bun, set in motioti, 
move, v}ield ; undertake, plan, make 
ready, prepare, try, stHve. mOlXre 
currum, drive the chariot. 

molli5, -Ire, -IyX, -Xtnm, soften, make 
soft ; boil, cook ; knead (cSram) ; soothe, 
calm, pacify. 

molliB, -e, tq^; mild, gentle, tender (annl); 
pleasant, agreeable. 

molliter, adv. gently, peac^Uy, calmly, 

moxie5, -Bre, -nI, -itum, remind, warn, 

monimentiim, -I, n. [moneS] memorial, 
monument ; tomb, sepulchre. 

monitom, -Ijn. [moned] warning, advice. 

monituB, -IIb, m. [moneS] warning, ad- 

mOnB, montiB, m. mountain, mountain- 

mOnstrft, -Sre, -SvX, -Stum, point out, 
show ; explain, tell. 

mOnstnun, -X, n. omen ; wonder, strange 
appearance, monster. 

montSnuB, -a, -um, of a mountain, 
mountain. montSna fraga, mountain 

mora, -ae, f. delay, postponement, hesita- 
tion; cause of delay; long time, length. 
mors, gradually, after a while, longa 
referre mora OBt, it would take too Img 
to relate, nee mora, and without delay, 
and immediately. 

morboBf -I, m. disease, sickness. 

morded, -fire, momordi, morBnm, bite, 
gnaw; injure. 

morior, morl, mortnoB Bum, die, perish; 
6e destroyed, disappear. 

moror, -Sri, -StuB Bom, delay, hesitate; 
cause to delay, stop, hinder. paulum 
morStHB, cifter a short delay. ocnlOB 
panlum tellfLre morStfie, his eyes, 
which had remained for a short time 
fixed on the ground. 

morB, mortiB, f . death. 

morBUB, -tlB, m. biting ; pain, 

mortSliB, -e, mortal, perishable; human. 
quicquid mortSle creSmnr, all qf us 
mortal creatures. 

mOrtlm, -I, n. miUberry; blackberry. 

mOroB, -I, f. mulberry-tree. 

mfis, mOriB, m. custom, habit, usage. 
dfi, ez mOre, according to custom, as 
usual. mOrfiB, manners, morals, char- 
acter. mOre, like. 

mOtuB, -Ub, m. motion. terrae mOtoB, 
earthquake. mOtUs dare, move. 

moveS, -fire, mOvX, mOtum, move, set in 
motion, shake; stir up, excite, influence. 
moveor, be moved, move, mfita locO 
cur sim, why I have changed my place. 
neryfis ad verba moventem, accom- 
panying his words on the cit/iara. mfi- 
verat ingeninm, Aoe^ stirred my genius. 

mox, adv. soon, presently; afterwards; 
thereupon, then. 

mUcrfi, -finis, m. point, edge (of a eword); 

mtlgltlis, -Us, m. lowing, bellowing ; 


mnlced, -fire, mulsX, mnlsum, soothe, 
flatter, caress, stroke; put to sleep, calm; 
fan, touch gently, play aiound (zepbyrl). 

Mulciber, -beris and -berl, m, [mulced] 
Mulciber (the Softener, the Smith), a name 
for Vulcan. 

multifldus, -a, -nm, [multus, findd] 
split in maty jneces, finely split. 

multum, adv. very. multom miserl, 
very unhappy, most wretched. 

multUB, -a, -um, (Comp. plQs, Snpcrl. 
plfLrimuB) much, many, numerous, 
pletiteous, abundant; large, great. 
multO, Abl. of Comparison, mtich, far» 




qufi plttrimas exit, where it comes forth 
most copiouely^ with gretUeet force. 

mnnditiae, -Snuii, f. neatness, cleanli- 

mnndos, -X, m. world, universe; heavens; 
earth. poaitUB sub terrS mundiis, 
the Under World. 

mttnlmen, -inis, n.fortiJlcatUm. 

mttniu, -eris, n. service, qfflce, duty ; help, 
assistance; gift, present. mfUllUi 
Cereris, the gift of Ceres, i.o. grain, 
bread, mliiiiu BtLOtihl = wine. prO 
mttnere, instead of a gift. prO mflnere 
fLsTun, a loan, not a gift. mlUiera belli, 
the duties of war, military service. 

mflrex, -ids, m. purple-fish, a kind of 
snail from ^rhich purple dye was made ; 

mnnnnr, -uris, n. murmur, murmuring, 
rumbling, humming, eBpecially the in- 
distinct sound of human voices. 

munis, •!, m. waU ; protection, defense ; 
defender. OrSiam mtLms, a watt of 
difense for t/ie Greeks. 

MfLsa, -ae, f. Muse, p^oddess of poetry. 
There were nine of them, daughters of 
Jnpiter and Mnemosyne, and they dwelt 
on Mount Helicon. 

mfLscns, -I, m. moss. 

xnustTun, -I, n. must, new wine, grape- 

mUtSbilis, -e, changeable, capable of 

Mutina, -ae, f. Mutina, a city in upper 

mlltS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, change, trans- 
form, alter ; excfiange. 

mUtns, -a, -am, mute, dumb, silent, still. 

mfltiLus, -a, -um, mutual. 

Mycfinae, -Snun, f. Mycenae, a city of 
Greece, the home of Agamemnon. 

mjrrtlLB, -I, f. myrtle, myrtle-tree, sacred 
to Venus. 


Nfiias, -adis, f . = NSis. 

Kfiis, -idis, f. 'Naiad, water-nymph, 

nam, cxmyfor, namely, for instance. 

namque, conj. strengthened form of nanii 
for, namely, for instant. 

nanclseor, nanclsol, nactos and nanc- 
tUB sum, obtain, procure, reach, find, 

Kap6, -68, f. Nape, Ovid^s maid-servant. 

Nardssos, -I, m. Narcissus, a youth who 
fell in love with his own reflection in the 
water, perished, and was transformed 
into the like-named flower. 

nSris, -is, f. nostril. PI. nfirfis, nose, 

narrStus, -Us, m. t^le, narrative. 

nfirrS, -Sre, -ftyl, -fttnm, teU, relate. 

nSseor, nSscX, nfitns snm, be bom; 
arise, spring up ; be adapted by nature 
(ad farta). quft sfmns orXgine n&tl, 
from what source we are sprung. 

NSsO, -Onis, m. Naso. P. OvidiiiB 
NSsO, Ovid, 

nSta, -ae, f . [nSsoor] daughter. 

nStSlis, -e, of birth, natal, native. 
solum nStSle, locus nStSlis, native 
land. Subst. nfitSlis, -is, (sc. di6s) m. 

natS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, swim; overflow, 
cover (with water). qaot piscibus 
unda natStnr, as numerous as thefisfies 
which swim in the sea. 

nfitfLra, -ae, f. nature; natural disposi- 
tion, natural qualify. 

naafragiam, -I, n. shipwreck, destruction. 

naafrtkgUMf -I, m. one shipwrecked, s/iip- 
wrecked person. 

Kaupliadfis, -ae, m. son qfNcwplius, i.e. 

nauta, -ae, m. sailor, seaman. 

nSySle, -is, n. dock. 

nSvigS, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, sail; sail 
over, navigate. 

nSvis, -is, f . ship, vessel. 

nftyita, -ae, m. sailor, seaman. 

Kazos, -X, f. Naxos, an island in the 
Aegean Sea, sacred to Bacchus. 

1. n6, 1. adv. not. n6 qoidem, not 
even. 2. conj. that not, in order that 
not, lest. n6 ntLlU, that some. 

2. -ne, adv. interrogative particle : 1, in 
direct question untranslatable ; 2, in in- 

mandi tiae -nite6. 


direct qnestion, wheiJur ; in the second 
part of a dlsjanctiye question, or. 

nebula, -ae, f. misty vajxfr, cloudy fog. 

nee, see neque. 

necesse, adj. n. necessary^ vnavoidabley in- 

nec5, -Sre, -fiyX, -fttom, tiUy put to deaths 

necopInoB, -a, -am, unexpected; un- 
suspecting^ qff one's guard. 

nectar, -aris, n. nectar^ the drink of the 

nectS, -ere, neznl and nezi, neznm, 
bind^ ttoine^join., unite. 

nefandns, -a, -am, unspeakcMe^ wicked^ 

nefiSe, n. indecl. wrong^ impiety^ crime^ 

negStnm, -X, n. [negS] forbidden thing, 

negleg5, -ere, -I6zl, -lectnm, neglect, 
disregard. neglfictUB, careless. 

negO, -Sre, -Svl, -fitom, say no, say that 
not, deny; refuse. 

NfilfiiuB, -I, m. son of Neleus, i.e. Nestor. 

Nfil^OS, -el, m. Neleus, king of Pylns. 
Pronounce dissyllabic N6lei, Met. 11. C89. 

Nemesis, -is, f. Nemesis, fictitious name 
of a mistress of Tibullus. 

nOmd, -inis, m. and f . ho one, nobody. 

nemorSlis, -e, woody, sylvan. 

nempe, adv. indeed, without doubt, surely; 

nemos, -oris, n. grove, wood, forest. 

nepQs, -Otis, m. grandson ; descendant. 

neptis, -is, f. granddaughter. 

KeptfLnins, -a, -tun, of Neptune, Nep- 
tune'^s, Neptunian. Keptflnia Per- 
g^ama, tfie walls of Twy, built by Nep- 

KeptfLnns, -X, ni. Neptune, son of Saturn, 
brother of Jupiter and Pluto, god of the 

neqne, and nec, conj. and not, also not, 
not even, nor. neqne adhUo, and not 
yet. neqne iam, no longet\ nec nOn, 
and also, and even, neque enim,./br— 
not. neqne— neqne, neither—nor. nec 
renovStns ager, and the land, un- 
plowed. nec inlqnS mente ferendO, 
and by bearing it with resignation. 

neqneS, -Ire, -il, be unable. si iam 
nequeS, if lean no longer. 

nSqnIquam, adv. in vain, to no purpose. 

K6r6is, -idis, f. daughter of Nereus, 
Nereid, sea-nymph, 

NfirSins, -a, -nm, Nereian^ of Nereus, 
descended from Nereus. N6r6ia ge- 
netrlz, the mother (of Achilles), i.e. 
Thetis, the daughter of Nereus. 

NSr^ils, -el, ni. Nereus, a sea-god. 
nervns, -I, m. string, bowstring ; chord, 
string (of a musical instrument). 

nesciS, -Ire, -IvX or -ii, -Xtnm, not know, 
be unaware, be ignorant. nesciO qnis, 
etc. , somebody, somebody or other. nesci6 
qnS dulc6dine, by some wonderful 
charm. * 

nescius, -a, -nm, not knowing, unaware, 

Kestor, -oris, m. Nestor, son of Nolens. 
He was a very old man when he went 
with the Grecian army to Troy. 

nen, see nSve. 

n6ve, and nen, conj. and not, nor; and 
that not. 

nez, necis, f. murder, death. 

nexus, -Us, m. embracing, entwining, 

nl, sec nisi. 

nidus, -I, m. nest. 

niger, -gra, -grum, bla<:k, dark, gloomy. 

nigr6sc5, -ere, nigrul, grow dark, be- 
come black. 

nihil, n. indecl. nothing. nil nOn = 
everything. As adv. not at all, not. 

nil = nihil. 

Nllus, -I, m. Nile, the river in Egypt. 

nimbus, -I, ni. raih-cUmd; rain, rain- 

nimis, adv. too much, too, excessively. 

nimius, -a, -um, excessive, too much, too 
great. nimius imber, too much rain. 
nimium = nimis. 

Kinus, -I, ni. Ninus, Icing of Assyria, 
husband of Semiramis. 

nisi, and nl, conj. unless, if not; except. 

nitSns, -entis, paftic. adj. shining, bright, 

niteS, -6re, shine, be bright, sparkle. 



nitidus, -a, -nm, shining, glittering, 
bright, brilliant, clear ; sleek (vaooa). 

1. nitor, -OriSi m. splendor, brilliancy, 

2. nitor, nitl, nXxns and nlsos Bum, 
support one's self on ; strive, strive after 
(in), «SDeri one^s self, make one'*s way. 
nltuntnr cllyO vestigia pOnere, la- 
boriously climb the hill. 

niveas, -a, -am, snowy ; snow-white. 

nivOsuB, -a, -am, snowy, covered with 

niz, niviB, f ■ snow. 

nXxuB, -Us, m. la^xtr, travail, child-birth. 

no, nSre, nfivl, nStnm, swim. 

nObiliB, -6, noUe, of noble birth ; distin- 
guished, renowned. 

n9bilitSs, -atis, f. nobility of birth, no- 
bility ; nobU ancestor (Met. xiii. 147). 

nocfins, -entiB, partic 2ndi^.harmful,injuri- 
ous ; guilty, wicked. 

noceS, -6re, -nl, -itnm, harm, injure, do 
harm. nocitfira, destined to bring 

nocturnHB, -a, -tun, of the night, by 
night, nocturnal. noctomOs IgnSB, 
the^res of the night = the stars. 

NoCmOn, -onis, m. Noemon, a Lycian, ally 
of the Trojans, slain by Ulysses. 

nOlS, nolle, nOlnl, be unwilling, not wish. 

nOmen, -inis, n. nams ; fame. nOmen 
habOre, have a name, be called ; be 
famous. nOaiine, by name, ad nOmen, 
at the name. 

nOminS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, name, call by 
name, caU. 

nOn, adv. nU. 

nOndum, adv. not yet. 

nOnnO, adv. not, used in questions expect- 
ing affirmative answers. nOnne erat 
satis, was it not enough t 

nOniis, -a, -nm, ninth: one of nine (in 

nOsc5, -ere, nOvI, nOtnm, learn,find out, 
perceive, recognize, know. nOvI, / 
h/ive found out, I know, I understand. 
nOrant, they knew. 

noBter, -tra, -tmm, our, ours ; my. 
▼ix ea nostra yoc5, / hardly call those 
things our own. 

nota, -ae, f . mark, sign. 

notftbilis, -e, remarkable, conspicuous, 

nOtitia, -ae, f . acquaintance ; knowledge. 

not5, -fire, -Syl, -Sttim, mark, distin- 
guish; notice, observe: mark with let- 
ters, torite on (chartam). 

1. nOtns, -a, -am, [nOsci] known, well- 
known ; famous. 

2. notas, -I, m. south wind, the bringer 
of rain. Also personified, Kotas, the 
South Wind. 

novem, nine. 

noverca, -ae, f . step-mother. 

notions, adv. nitie tim£S. 

novitSs, -Stis, f . newness, strangeness. 

nov8, -5re, -Svl, -Stam, make new, r«- 
new ; change. 

noTOS, -a, -am, new ; strange, tvonderfiil, 
vnheard-of, unknown. novissimas, 
last, latest, novissima oaada, the end 
of the tail, novissimos exit, is the last 
to dejtart. novissima verba, the last 

noz, noetis, f . night ; darkness, noete, 
by night, in the night. 

nflbOs, -is, f. cloud. nllbOs animi, 
mental doud, gloom. 

nUbilas, -a, -am, cloudy : cloud-bringing 
(aoster) ; dark, gloomy ; unfortunaie. 
tOtO nflbila voltfl, with her whole face 
covered toith a doud, carrying a storm 
in her countenance. Subst. PI. nflbila, 

nUbS, -ere, nflpsi, nflptom, marry (used 
of the bride). nova nflpta, bride. 

nfldS, -Sre, -SvX, -Stum, lay bare, expose, 

nfldos, -a, -am, bare, naked, unclothed, 
uncovered. operam nfldom oertS- 
men, a simple contest of deeds, a contest 
based soldy on what each has done. 
nUda simplieitSs, straightforward 

nfUlos, -a, -am, no, none. Subst. nflUas 
= nOmO, no one, nobody. ntUlO vin- 
dice, with no one to inflict punishment^ 
without fear of punishment. nfLlIO 
cOgente creStIS, which sprang up uHthr- 
out compulsion, qf their own accord. 



nam, adv. in direct qnestions expecting a 
negative answer ; in indirect questions, 
whether. optima num sflmat, should 
he receive the best ? 

nflmen, -iniB, n. (divine) will; (divine) 
•power; divinity^ god. mlt6 deum 
nfLmen, the gods are merciful. 

nomerS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, county num- 
ber; = have (multOs amIcOB). 

namerOsoB, -a, -am, abounding in num- 
bers. namerOsas HorStias, Horace, 
the poet qf many measures. 

nameras, -I, m. number, crowd; measure^ 
rhythm ; verse. 

Namida, -ae, m. Numidian^ one of a tribe 
which dwelt in the northern part of 
Africa. As adj. Nutnidian (leOnSs). 

namqaam = nanqoam, never. 

nanc, adv. now, at the present time, under 
these circumstances. nanc qaoqae, 
even now. nanc— nanc, now— now, at 
one tim£—at another. 

nanqaam, adv. never. nanqaam am- 
plias, nevermore, never again. 

nUntia, -ae, f. messenger, informer. 
nfLntia IflnOnis = Iris. 

nUntias, -I, m. messenger, informer. 

nflper, adv. lately, recently. 

nUpta, -ae, f . [nab$] married woman. 
nova nUpta, bride. 

narus, -Qs, f. daughter-in-law; young 

nflsqaam, adv. nowhere. 

nfltriS, -Ire, -IvI, -Xtam, nourish, feed, 
support. ntLtrit IgnSs foliXS, feeds 
the flames with leaves. 

ntLtrIz, -Icis, f . nurse. 

nfttos, -tLs, m. nod. 

nox, nacis, f. nut. Collectivelj, nuts. 

1. nympha, -ae, f. nymph. Tlie nymphs 
were inferior goddesses living in the water 
(Naiades), on the monntains (Oreades), in 
the forests (Dryades), or in trees (Hama- 

2. nympha, -ae, f . bride, young woman. 

5, interj. 0/ Oh/ Used especially with 
the vocative. 


ob, prep, with Ace. on account of, for. 
ob hOc,/or this. 

ob-dUcS, -ere, -dflxl, -dactam, draw 
over, cover, becloud. 

ob-dUrd, -Sre, -fivl, -fttam, be hard; hold 
out, endure, bear. 

Ob-iciS, -icere, -iScI, -iectam, put for- 
waiyi; throw up to, upbraid, reproach 
with. praestO obiecta, placed before 
your eyes. 

obitaB, -flB, ni. death, 

oblectS, -Sre, -SvX, -fitam, delight, please. 

ob-ligS, -are, -Svl, -Stam, ol>lige, compel. 
obligor at, l must. 

ob-linS, -ere, -Ifivl, -litam, besmear, 
smear, anoint. 

obllqaoB, -a, -am, oblique, slanting, cross- 
wise, in obllqaam, in an oblique 

oblitiu, Bee oblinS. 

obllvXscor, -vIbcI, oblltas %iim^forget. 
oblltaB, forgetting, forgetful, unmind- 

obllviam, -I, n.forgetfuiness, oblivion. 

obnoziaB, -a, -am, subject, obedient. 

ob-orior, -orlrl, -ortas Bam, arise, spring 
up, burst forth. lacrimXs obortis, 
with tears in his eyes, tenebrae ocalls 
obortae Bant, darkness arose before his 

ob-r6p5, -ere, -rfipsi, -rfiptam, creep over, 
steal upofi. 

ob-raS, -ere, -ral, -ratam, cover, bury, 

obscGnas, -a, -am, ill-omened, of evil omen 
(av5s) ; fllthy, obscene. 

obscUniB, -a, -am, dark, gloomy; hidden, 

obseqaiam, -X, n. yieldingness, yielding, 
compliance, complaisance. 

obses, -idis, m. and f. hostage. 

ob-sideO, -6re, -sfidi, -Bessam, besiege. 

ob-sistd, -ere, -BtitI, stand in the way of, 
withstand, oppose. 

ob-stip6Bcd, -ere, -stipal, be thrown into 
confusion and astonishment, be aston- 
ished, astounded, amazed. 

ob-stO, -stSre, -BtitI, stand in the way, 
resist, oppose, hinder. 



ob-BtnL6, -ere, -BtrtLzX, -strlletam, ;H/e 

vp in the way^ block up ; cut off^ shut off- 

ob-yert$, -ere, -vertX, -venum, turn to- 
wards. rSmOs obvertere, ply tfu 

obTioB, -a, -nm, in the way^ opposite to^ 
meeting. obTiuin Ire, ffo to meeU tneet. 
obviom esse, meet, obyins nndlB, vp 
the stream. 

OCCfisoB, -Us, m. setting^ sunset^ tvest. 

1. oc-cIdS, -ere, -cXdl, -clsiun, [caedd] 

cut down,, slay^ kill. 

2. oc-oidO, -ere, -cidi, -cSsnm, [cadS] 
/all ; jierish^ die. 

occulS -ere, -culul, -cultom, hide, con- 

oeciilt5, -Sre, -ftvl, -fttam, hide, conceal. 

occultus, -a, -um, [ocoulS] hidden, con- 
cealed, secret, invisti)le (polos). 

occup6, -fire, -SvX, -fitom, seize, take 
jMssession of; ascend, mount (cnrriim, 
collem). commtlnia occapSre, claim 
all credit /or deeds in which others share. 

Oceanns, -X, m. the Ocean, vast body of 
water sapposed to surround the land. 

ocellus, -X, ni. (diminutive of ocullis, ex- 
pressing endearment), eye. 

Ocior, -us, adj. comp. quicker. quO 
nOn alius Goior, than whom there was 
none quicker. 

Ocius, adv. comp. more quickly. 

oculos, -X, m.eye.* oculOs comprimere, 
close the eyes (of the dead). 

OdX, Odisse, hate. 

Odium, -X, n. hatred, iU-toiU, enmity. 

odOrStus, -a, -um, /ragrant, sweet- 

Oebalius, -a, -um, Oebalian., o/ Oebalus, n 
mythical king of Sparta. OebaliO dS 
Vulnere,/ro/7i the wound qf llyadnthus, 
who was a descendant of Oebalus. 

Oetaeus, -a, -um^ Oetaean, from Oeta, 
a mountain in Thessaly. 

of-fer5, -ferre, obtulX, oblStum, qffer, 

offlclum, -X, n. service, aid; duty, per- 

/Ofynance o/ duty, work. rSmigis 

offlclum, the position {rank) o/ the 

rower. nOnus in offlciO, ninth in the 

offer 0/ his services. 

OXl^us, -eos, m. Oileus, king of Locris. 
Aifix OXleos, AJax, the son qf Oileus. 

dlenia oapella, -ae, f. the Olenian goat, 
the constellation, originally the goat 
Amalthe&i which had given suck to the 
infant Jupiter near the city of Olcnus 
and had, as a reward, been transferred to 
the heavens. 

oleS, -6re, -uX, sm^l, give out odor. 
olGns sulpure, sm£lling o/ sulphur. 

Olim, adv. owe vpon a time, once, for- 
merly ; some day. 

olXva, -ae, f. <^ive (tree or fruit). 

olor, -Oris, m. swan. 

Olympus, -X, m. Olympus, a mountain in 
Thessaly, home of the gods ; heaven, 

Omen, -inis, n. omen, sign, token. 

omnipotOns, -entis, adj. almighty, omnir 
potent, used of Jupiter. 

omnis, -e, all, every, whole. omnia, 

onerOsuB, -a, -um, heavy, burdensome. 
onerOsa gravisque, burdensome and 
opiyressiie, too heavy. 

onus, -eris, ". burden, load ; difficult task. 

opScus, -a, -um, dark, shady. opficua 
mundus, the dark world, the Under 

operi6, -Ire, operuX, opertum, cover, 
cover up ; hide ; close. 

operOsus, -a, -um, busy with, engaged in ; 
laborious, toilsome, troublesome. 

OpbeltOs, -ae, m. Opheltes, a sailor. 

opifez, -ficis, m. artificer, maker. 

oportet, -Ore, -uit, it behooves, is proper, 
is Jilting ; ought, must. 

op-pOn$, -ere, -posuX, -positum, i>lace 
b^ore, put/orward (as a protection). 
oppoBuX mOlem clipeX, / placed my 
huge shield in/wntqfhim. 

op-prim$, -ere, -pressX, -pressum, op- 

press, press down ; overwhelm, cover ; 

[ops], opis, f.aid, assistance; means; 
powei', might; riches, wealth, resources. 
quS ope, by what means t Often used 
in the PI. e£Ebdiuntur opOs, men dig 
out riches, i.e. the precious metals. 

optimus, sec bonus. 



optd, -are, -fiyi, -fitiun, choose; wishj de- 
sire. SabBt. PI. optfita, wUh. adnmt 
optStls, he granted tJie wish. 

opuB, -eriSi n. work^ labor ; thing done or 
made^ work^ deed; toorkmanship^ artistic 
work. inter opuS) daring the work. 
opoB meum ezplet, performs my work^ 
Jills my place. mSteriam BuperSbat 
opuB, the skUl qf th£ work surpassed the 
material, opiu ex6gl, / have finished 
the work (book). opuB eet, it is needful^ 
it is necessary^ must. 

Or a, -ae, f. border^ edge ; coasts shore ; re- 
gion. Buperft in OrS, in the vppei^ 

QrSculom [OrSclnm], -I, n. oracle (orac- 
ular response, or place where such was 

OrStor, -OriB| m. ambassador; orator. 

orbiB, -iB| in. circle ; wfieel ; circle of the 
earthy worlds universe ; region^ country^ 
land. quaerentX dSfoit orbiB, i.e. 
sfie had searched the whole world in vain^ 
no place was left for her to look. IxIoniB 
orbifli Ixion's wheel. 

orbnB, -a, -nm, deprived of ; fatherless ; 

Ordior, -Irl, OrBiiB Bum, begin; especially, 
begin to speak. 

OrdO, -iniB, m. (^rdery row ; rank^ position. 
OrdO BanguiniB, /am% ranA;. Ordine, 
in order, in Ordine, in a row TpennaB). 
nfLllO Ordine, without order. OrdO ra- 
diOrom, the row qf spokes. 

OreBtfiB, -ae, m. Orestes, son of Agamem- 
non . He avenged the m urder of his father 

. by killing his mother Clytaemnestra and 
was afterwards pursued by the Furies. 
He was accompanied by his true friend 

orgia, -Qnun, n. Bacchic rites. orgia 
trSdere, teach the Bacchic rites. 

oriSnB, -entiB, m. [orior] sunrise ; Sdst, 

OrlgO, -iniB, f. [orior] origin, source, be- 
ginning, descent. patrufiliB orlgO, 
descent from a paternal uncle, cousin- 

Orldn, -onis, m. Orixm, the constellation 
(man with a drawn sword). 

orior, -W, ortUB Bum, rise, spring from, 
be bom. ortnB, bom, sprung from. 

Present tense-forms according to third 

OmS, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, adorn, deck; 

OrS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, beg, beseech, en- 
U'eat, pray for. 

1. OrpbeiiB, -el, m. Orpheus, Thracian 
bard, husband of Enrydice. After she 
died, he went to the Lower World to get 
her back. 

2. OrphfinB, -a, -nm, <if Orpheus. 

0rtllB,-fLB,m. rising; sunrise; east; origin, 
source; birth, descent. 

Ortygia,' -ae, f. Ortygia, an island on 
which the oldest part of Syracuse was 

1. (SB, OriB, n. m^yuth ; face, countenance ; 
speech, voice. 

2. OB, OBBiB, n. bone. OBBa, bones, espe- 
cially of the dead. 

Osenlum, -I, n. [diminutive of Ob] mouth, 
lip; kiss. (Sscula iXgere, imprint 
kisses, press the lips. CTun tills Oscula 
Bua ifLnzSmnt, joined their lips with 

OBtendS, -ere, OBtendl, OBtentum (ost6n- 
BTun), show, point out. 

ostentO, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, repeatedly 
point out, call attention to. dfisine 
OBtentSre nObiB, cease coiling ovr atten- 
tion to. 

OBtium, -X, n. entrance, door ; mouth (of a 

(Sstnim, -I, n. purple. 

Otium, -I, n, ease, quiet, repose ; freedom 
from vxn-k; quiet, peaceful life. 

ovis, -iB, f . sheep. 

[ov5], -Sre, rejoice, exult, celebrate an ova- 

Ovum, -X, n. egg. 

pSbnlum, -X, n. [pSscS] food, fodder ; 
pasturage, grass. 

paclBOor, pacXBcX, pactnB Bum, m^ke an 
agreement, agree, stipulate, demand (as 
a reward), pacta arbor, (he appointed 
tree, the tree which had been agreed upon. 

FactOloB, -I, ra. Pactolus, a river in Lydia 
famous for its golden sand. 



paotnm, -I, n. [paolsoor] agreement^ com- 
pact, pacta placent, they like the 
plan, paoti fidO, in fu(/Ument qf his 

pactns, see paclscor. 

paelez, -ids, t. concubine, mistress. 

Paellgnl, -Onun, m. the PaeUgnians, a 
people of central Italy ; the land of the 
Faelignians, including Sulmo, Ovid^s 

paene, adv. almost,, nearly. 

paenitet, -6re, -mt, repent. mS paeni- 
tet, / repent y am sorry. paenitnit 
iilrSsse patrem, the father was sorry lie 
had taken the oath. 

Pagasaeus, -a, •am, Pagasaean, from 
Pagaaae, a to\Yn in Thessaly where the 
Argo was built. Pagasaea carina, 
the Pagasaean ship, the Argo. 

palam, l. adv. openly, publicly. 2. prep, 
with Abl. before, in tfie presence of. 

PalamfidGs, -ae, m. Palamedes, son of 
Nanplius. He detected the ruse of 
Ulysses, who feigned madness to avoid 
going to the Trojan war. Ulysses after- 
wards buried some gold in the tent of 
Palamedes and then accused Palamedes 
of being bribed by the Trojans with this 
gold. On this charge Palamedes was 
put to death. 

PalStiam, -X, n. the Palatine mil in 
Rome, upon which stood the house of 

palStom, -X, n. palate. 

Pallcl, •Onun, m. the Palici, twin sons of 
Jupiter, worshipped near a lake in Sicily. 

Pallas, -adis, f. Pallas (Athena), Greek 
goddess identified with Minerva. 
raptS CTun Pallade, along with the 
statue of Pallas which was carried off. 
This statue, as long as it remained in 
Troy, saved the city from destruction. 
It was carried off by Ulysses and Dio- 

pallSns, -entis, partic. adj. pale; pale 
yellow (cortex) ; yellow (arva). 

palleS, -Sre, -ol, be pale; be discolored 

pallfiscS, -ere, pallol, turn pale; turn 
yelloav (aurO). • 

pallidus, -a, -urn, pale, pallid. 

pallor, -Oris, m. pallor, paleness. 

1. palma, -ae, f . palm of the hand, hand. 

2. palma, -ae, f . palm-tree, palm ; palm- 
fruit, date; palm-branch, palm (ns a 

palmes, -itis, m. branch or shoot qf the 
vine, vine-sprig. 

palQs, -Udis, f . pool, lake : swamp, marsh. 
dis iUranda palfLs, Out pool by which 
the gods must swear, i.e. the Styx. 

palflster, -tris, -tre, of the swamp, from 
tlie swamp, swamp ; swampy, marshy. 

pampineus, -a, -nm, of the vine. pam- 
pinels frondibus, with vine-leaves. 

pampinus, -X, m. vine-tendril, shoot of the 

pandS, -ere, pandX, passnm, spread out, 
loosen (capillOs, COmSs, as a sign of 
mourning) ; open ; disclose, relate. 
passXs capillls, with loose, dishevelled 

pandus, -a, -am, curved, bent. 

panthfira, -ae, f. panther. picta, 

papSver, -eris, n. poppy. somnX cansa, 
the cause of sleep, sleep-bringing. 

papyrifer, -fera, -ferom, papyrus-bear- 

pfir, paris, adj. equal. 

1. parfttos, -Us,«77ara^ion; display, 
style, dapibas nllllXsqne paratibos, 
for their unpretentious dinner. 

2. parStos, -a, -nm, [parS] ready, pre- 

Parca, -ae, f . the Parca, goddess of fate ; 
Fate. There were three of them (Clotho, 
Lachesis, and Atropos), who decided the 
fate of men, spun out the thread of life, 
and cut it off. 

parcS, -ere, pepercl, spare ; use sparingly. 

parens, -a, -nm, sparing, close, economical. 

parens, -entis, m. and f. [pariS] parent, 
father or mother; PI. parents; ances- 
tors, mens illlnsqne parentM, my 
father and his. 

parentSlXs, -e, of parents, parental. 
parentSles nmbrae, ye shades of my 

pSreS, -ere, -nl, obey. Idem pfirentqne 
inbentqne, the same persons obey and 

pactum— patior.^ 


give orders^ i.e. they are OiHr ovm ser- 

paries, -etiB, m. wail (of a hoase). 

parilis, -e, equal. parill aetSte, oT 
equal age. 

parid, parere, peperl, partum, hear^ 
bring forth; produce; acquire^ gain. 

Paris, -idis, m. Paris^ son of Priam, who 
carried off Helen, wife of Menelaus, and 
80 cansed tlie Trojan war. 

pariter, adv. equally^ liketoise; at the 
same time; together', side by side. 

parma, -ae, f . small round shield ; shield. 

Pamasins, -a, -um, Parnassian, of Par- 

Pamasus, -I, m. Parnassus, a mountain 
in Pbocis, sacred to Apollo and the 
Muses. Near by was Delphi, containing 
the celebrated oracle, first of Themis, 
afterwards of Apollo. ^ 

parS, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, prepare, make 
ready ; prepare for (bellom) ; acquire, 
procure. paraxidI,/or making prep- 

Parofl, -I, f. Paros, one of the Cyclades 
Islands in the Aegean Sea, famons for its 

Parrliasis, -idis, adj. f. Parrhasian, from 
Parrhasia, a district in Arcadia; hence = 
Arcadian. Parrliasis Arctos, the 
Parrhasian Bear, the Great Bear. Cal- 
listo, the daughter of the Arcadian king 
Lycaon, had been transformed into a 
bear and afterwards into the northern 

pars, -tis, f. part, portion; direction; 
place, region. dimidia pars, half. 
sua pars laudis, his share of honor. 
maxima pars, the greatest part, most. 
cfLnctIS 6 partibus, in every direction. 
pars— pars, some— others. 

Partbus, -a, -um, Parthian. Subst. Par- 
thus, a Parthian. The Parthians were 
troublesome enemies of the Romans on 
their eastern frontier. 

parturiS, -Ire, -IvI or -ii, labor, be in 
travail, bring forth, ingentls parturit 
Ira minSs, m?/ wrath is boiling over 
with great threats. 

1. partus, see pariS. 

2. partus, -fLs, m. [pariO] bearing, giving 

birth, birth. nostrG partH fidita est, 
was bom qfme, is my child. 

parum, adv. too little; not enough, not 
completely, not perfectly. 

parvus, -a, -um, (Comp. minor, Snperl. 
minimus) smaU, little, narrow', short ; 
unimportant, insignificant ; gentle, low ; 
modest, humble. minor, smaUet\ in- 
ferior, younger, minorfis, younger 
contemporaries; descendants, posteinty. 
animis verba minSra mels, words 
more hum,ble than consistent with my 
proud spirit. plSnus eras minimO, 
tfvou wast satisjied with very little. mur« 
mure minimO, in a low whisper, mini- 
mum laudis, very little honor. 

pSsc5, -ere, pSvI, pfistum, /<?«</ (trans.), 
pasture ; passive : feed (intrans.)» graze ; 
eat, live on; gnaw, consume. 

pSscua, -Orum, n. pastures. 

passim, adv. h£re and there, in various 
directions, everywhere; far and wide. 

1. passus, partic. See pandS. 

2. passus, partic. See patior. 

3. passfLs, -Us, m. [pandS] step, pace; 
track. mllle passfls, (Roman) mile. 

pSstor, -Oris, m. shepherd, herdsman. 

pSstOrius, -a, -um, of a shepherd, shep- 
lierd''s. pSstOria pellis, shepherd^s 
skin, cloak. 

patefaciS, -facere, -feci, -factum, open, 

pateS, -ere, -ul, be open, be exposed ; be 
plain, be dear, be visUtle ; extend, reach. 
quS ferrum patuit, as far as (he blade 
extended, up to the hilt, caelum patet, 
the sky is open, quid fScundia posset, 
re patuit, the power of eloquence was 
shown by the result. 

pater, patris, m. father ; ancestor. The 
title is often used of the gods, especially 
of Jupiter, pater omnipot6ns, etc. 

paternus, -a, -um, [pater] of a father^ 
fatlur''s, paternal. paternum, patri- 

patiens, -entis, partic. adj. capable qf en- 
during (flammae, labOris) ; patient. 

patienter, adv. patiently, with patience. 

patientia, -ae, f . patience, endurance. 

patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, endure, 
bear ; permit. 




patria, -aOi f . native land, home. 

patriuB, -a, -nm, qf afalher.fatherU. 
patri(is annOSi his/ather's years^ dura- 
tion of life. 

Patroclns, -I, m. Patrodus, son of Me- 
noetius, frieud of Achilles, killed before 
Troy by Hector. 

patmSlig, -e, [patruuB] of an undejrom 
an uncle. patrufilis orlgO, descent 
from an unde, cotisinship. Sabst. pa- 
tmfilis, cousin. Adj. <f a cousin, 

patrunB, -I, m./o/A^V brother, (paternal) 

patulus, -a, -mn, [pate8j open; wide- 
spreading (arbor), troad. 

panel, -ae, -a,/<?w ; somey a few. 

paulStinii adv. gradually, little by little. 

paulonii adv. a little, a little while. 

pauloB, -a, -nm, little. paulO (with 
Comp.), a little. 

pauper, -eris, adj. poor, not rich. 
nee pauper voluntSs, and abundant 
good-vM, Juarty welcome. 

paupertSs, -StiB, t. poverty. 
pav6n8, -entiB, partic. adj. awed,frigM- 
ened, tretnUing with fear. 

payeS, -6re, pfiyi, tremble with fear, be 
afraid, dread. 

paviduB, -a, -um, trembling tdth fear, 
fearful; anxious. 

pSz, pScis, f . peace. 

pecc5, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, sin, do wrong. 

peeten, -inis, m. comb; rake (rfiruB, 

pectus, -oriB, n. breast, heart ; sense, in- 
telligence, understanding, mind. sine 
pectore, ignorant, stupid. 

ipecllnia, -ae, f. [peeuB] m4)ney. 

1, peouB, -oriB, n. catUe (collectively); 
herd, flock ; especially sheep. 

2. peeuB, -udis, f. a head of cattle (one of 
the number) ; especially, a sheep. PI. 
flocks, fierds. 

peior, see mains. 

pelagus, -I, n. sea. 

Pelasg^, -Orum, tn. Pelasgians, an ancient 
people who inhabited Greece ; hence 

PelasgUB, -a, -urn, Pelasgian ; Grecian. 

Pfileus, -eX, m. Peleus, son of Aeacos, hus- 
band of the Nereid Thetis, father of 
Achilles, and king of Phthia in Thessaly. 

pSlez, see paelez. 

1. PeliSs, -ae, m. Pelias, uncle of Jason. 
Medea persuaded his daughters to kill 
him and cut him to pieces that he might 
be restored to youth. 

2. Pelias, -adis, adj. f. Pdian, from 
Pelion, a mountain in Thessaly. 
P6lias hasta, the Pdian spear, tlve spear 
qf Achilles, cut on Mount Pelion. 

P6lld68, -ae, m. son qf Peleus, i.e. Achilles. 

pellis, -is, f. skin, hide ; doak of skin. 

pellS, -ere, pepuU, pulsum, strike, beat ; 
push away, drive away, banish; of 
musical instruments, strike, play. 

Penfttfis, -ium, Pi. m. the Penates, the 
househjold gods, gods of the family and 
the home ; by Metonymy, house, home. 

pendeS, -6re, pependl, hang,be suspended, 

pend5, -ere, pependl, pSnsum, weigh; 
pay. poenam pendere, pay the penr 
aUy, atone fm\ 

pendulus, -a, -urn, [pendeS] hanging. 
PSnelopS, -fis, f. Penelope, wife of Ulysses, 
penes, prep, with Ace. with, in the power 
qf, in the hands of. 

penetrSlis, -e, inner, interior, innermost. 
Subst. penetrSle, -is, and Pi. pene- 
trSlia, -ium, n. the place where Vie gods 
stand, the innermost part qf the house 
or temple ; temple, holy qf holies. sl- 
gnum penetrSle Mlnervae, the statue 
of Minerva which was kept in the inner- 
most part of the temple; the sacred 
statue of Minerva (the fateful Palladium), 

penetrS, -Sre, -fivl, -fitum, penetrate^ 
enter; arrive at, reach. 

penitus, adv. deep, far below. penitUB 
penitusque,/ar,/ar below. 

penna, -ae, f. feather; wing. oeler 
pennS, awift qf wing, running swiftly 
by use of his vnngs. 

p6ns$, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, balance, com- 
pensate; buy, pay, atone for. pfinsan- 
dum reddite, give as a compensation. 
laudem eum sanguine pfinsSre, bal- 
ance the honor toith the blood of hu 

patria— pte. 


daug?Uer^ pay for his position with his 
child's life, saaifice his child for the 
sake <if<ifflce. 

pfinsam, -X, n. [pendS] originally, amount 
of iDOoi weighed out for a day's spinning; 
hence, to«t, day'^s labor. 

peperl, see pari5. 

per, prep, with Ace. through^ over^ in; 
during ; by means qf^ by ; in oaths, by^ 
in the name qf, per tantTun IfLmen, 
in so great light, per m6 hand impUne, 
not without punishment at my /lands. 
per 86, <if one's own accord. 

per-ag5, -ere, -Sgl, -Sctuni, carry out^ 
accomplishy^nish^ complete. 

per-dpid, -cipere, -e6pl, -ceptain, f«- 

ceive, gather^ caieh (anrSs) ; hear. 

per-cutiS, -cutere, -ciusl, -cnnum, 
[qnatid] stiike hardj strike^ beat. 

per-dO, -dere, -didi, -dltum, [dO] destroy, 
ruin, kill; waste, lose. 

per-dom6, -Sre, -nl, -itnm, thoroughly 
conquer, overcome, subdue. 

peregrlnaB, -a, -nm, foreign, strange. 
SvLlMtfore'tgner, stranger. Blcaniam 
pereg^Ina col6, / inhaMt Sicily as a 

perennis, -e, [annus] lasting the whole 
year, perennial, everlasting, inexhaust- 

per-e$, -Ire, -il, 'itvJBDLyi)ei^sh,pass away, 
be lost, faU, die. peritlLms, about to 
perish, destined to fall (Pergama). 

per-errS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, wander 
through, wander over. 

per-fer5, -ferre, -tnlX, -iStnm, bear to 
the end, hold out, persevere, endure, 

per-fioi5, -ficere, -fBcI, -fectnm, Jlnish, 

perftdia, -ae, f. faithlessness, perfidy, 

perfidns, -a, -nm, IfLSM^faitJdess, treach- 
erous, perfidious. 

per-flS, -fire, -SvX, -fitnm, blow over, blow 

Pergama, -Omm, Pi. n. Pergamum, the 

citadel of Troy; TV-oy. 
Pergna, -I, m. Fergus, a Sicilian lake near 


perldnm, see perlonlnm. 

perlcninm, -I, n. danger. Bna traetfire 
perfola, that he was handling Viifkgs 
which would prove dangerous to hini. 

per-imS, -ere, -Onl, -Smptnm, destroy, 

perittrinm, -X, vl. false oath, perjury. 

perillms, -a, 'WCi^faUe, perjured. 

per-mane$, -«re, -mfinsl, -mfinenm, re- 
main to the end, remain, last, continue. 

per-mfttfir68c5, -ere, -mfttflrni, beeoms 
fully H])e, become ripe, 

perOsne, -a, -nm, [OdI] thoroughly hating, 
despising, detesting, hating; disgusted 
with, tired qf (Cr6t6n). 

per-petior, -petl, -pesina Bnm, [patior] 
endure to the end, endure, suffer, permit. 

perpetnnB, -a, -nm, uninterrupted, con- 
tinual, perpetual, everlasting. 

Penephonfi, -68, f . = Proserpina, daughter 
of Ceres. 

per-eeqnor, -eeqnl, -eeefltns enm, fol- 
Uno, pursue. 

Perseus, -el, m. Perseus, son of Japiter 
and Dana€. He slew Medasa and with 
her head tamed the giant Atlas into 

persQna, -ae, f . mask (of an actor). 

per-sonS, -fire, -nl, sound, resound. 

per-spiciS, -spioere, -spezl, -spectnm, 
look at thoroughly, view, examine. 

per-8t6, -stfire, -stitX, remain firm, hold 
out, continue, persist. r6m6mm in 
▼erbere perstant, continue to j)ly the 
oars. si perstfis certSre, if you per- 
sist in contending with me. 

per-territns, -a, -nm, thoroughly fright- 
ened, terrified. 

per-tim68c6, -ere, -timni, become very 
much cfraid, become terrified; fear, 

per-veni5, -Ire, -v6nl, -ventnm, arrive ; 
come to, reach. nOn pervenientia 
contrS, which did not reach the opposite 

per-vigil, -is, adj. very wakeful, watch- 
ful, never-sleeping. 

pervins, -a, -nm, [yia] admitting pas- 
sage, penetrable, open. 

p68, pedis, m. foot (of man, beast, bird, 
tible, etc.). retrO pedem tnlit, she 
turned back. 



pessimuB, see malnB. 

pet5, -ere, -lyl (-iX), -Itum, seeky strive 
for ; aim att cUtcuik ; make for^ set out 
fOTy set saU for^ go to; desire^ ask fovy 
ask, beffy sue for. petit astra, pro- 
jects toward the stars, petere terrSS) 
sink toward the horizon, laevam pe- 
tere, saU to the left. dXversa petere, 
sail in the opposite direction. 

Phaeficins, -a, -nxii, Phaeacian. Phae- 
ficia tellfLs = Coreyra (Corfa), where 
Tibullas was sick. 

PliaSthOn, -ontis, m. PhaSthon^ eon of 
Phoebas (Sol, the Sun) and Clymene, 
who afterwards became the wife of the 
Ethiopian King Merope. PhaSthon, 
donbting his divine origin, went to his 
father and asked the privilege of driving 
the San^s steeds for a single day. The 
request was reluctantly granted and re- 
sulted disastrously to Phafithon, who lost 
his life in his vain effort to manage the 

pharetra, -ae, f . quiver. 

pharetrStos, -a, -um, quiver-bearing. 

PharsSlia, -ae, f . Pharsalia^ a district in 

phSsfilos, -X, m. liffht boat, barX. 

PhSsiacns, -a, -um, of the PhasiSy a river 
in Colchis. 

PhSsis, -idee, m. PhasiSy a river in Col- 

PMlSmOn, -onis, m. Philemony a pious 

PhilippX, -Onun, m. Philippic a city in 

PMloctfitfis, -ae, m. Philoctetes, the Gre- 
cian hero, who, on his way to Troy, was 
left by his companions on the desolate 
Island of Lemnus on account of a noi- 
some sore on his foot, but was afterwards 
brought to Troy by Ulysses, because it 
was found that Troy could not be taken 
without the arrows of Hercules, which he 
possessed. He was the son of Poeas, 
hence Poeantia prOlSs, PoeantiadSs. 

Philomfila, -ae, f . Philomelay daughter of 
the Attic king Pandion and sister of 
Procne, the wife of Tereus. Deceived 
and cruelly treated by her brother-in-law, 
she finally succeeded in communicating 
with her sister, and the two took ven- 

geance upon the man by killing his little 
son Itys and serving him as food to his 
father. Philomela was transformed into 
a nightingale, Procne became a swallow, 
and Tereus became a hoopoe. 

PhllyridSB, -ae, m. son of Philyroy i.e. 

PhlegOn, -ontiB, m. Phlegony one of the 
Sun's horses. 

phOca, -ae, f . sea-calf seal. 

PhOcSuB, -a, -tun, Phociany from Phocis, 
a district in central Greece. 

PhOcifl, -idis, f. PhociSy a district in cen- 
tral Greece. 

PhoebS, -M, f. Phoebey Dianay sister of 
Phoebas (Apollo), and goddess of the 
moon and of the chase. 

PhoebfiivB, -a, -nm, (f Phoebusy sacred to 

PhoebSns, -a, -um, ofPhoebusy (^Apollo. 

Phoebus, -X, m. Phoebus y ApoUOy god of 
the sun and of prophecy ; by Metonymy, 
sun. sub utrOque PhoebS, under 
each sun (rising and setting), in the east 
and west. 

pboenXx, -Xcis, m. phoenixy a fabulous 
bird. There was only one of the species 
at a time. When it cremated itself, an- 
other sprang from the ashes. 

PhrizSus, -a, -um, ofPhrixus. 

Phrizus, -X, m. Phrixusy brother of Helle. 
These two fled from their stepmother 
on a golden-fleeced ram. As they were 
crossing the Hellespont, Helle fell off 
and was drowned, giving her name to 
the water. Phrixus reached Colchis and 
there sacrificed the ram to Jupiter. The 
skin was preserved and was the object of 
the Argonautic exx>edition. 

Phrygia, -ae, f. Phrygia, a country in 
the northwestern part of Asia Minor. 

Phrygius, -a, -um, Phrygian; Trojan. 

Phryx, Pbryg^, m. Phrygian; Trqjan. 

PhtbXa, -ae, f . Phthiay a city in Thessaly, 
the home of Achilles. . 

Phylacides, -ae, m. descendant of Phyla- 
cu8y i.e. ProtesUaus. 

piceus, -a, -um, [piz] pitchy y pitch-black. 

pictus, -a, -um, [ping^] bright-colored y 
variegatedy spotted; richly adomedy em- 



Plerides, >iun, f . the Mutes (the origin of 
the word is doabtfal ; perhaps from 
Pieria, a district in Thessaly). 

PlerinB, -a, -nm, Pierian^ qf tfie Muses. 

pietSSt -StiSi f • piety ^ devotion to the gods; 
devotion to parents or oth^r members of 
the, family^ filial affection, brotherly love^ 
etc.; love^ devotion^ faithfulness^ loyalty. 

pig^r, -gra, -gnun, lazy^ slow., sluggish. 
frigore pigi^a, stiff with cold. 

piget, -6re, -nit, grieve, vex. mS piget, 
I am sorry. 

plgnuB, -oris and -eris, n. pledge, surety; 
proof; especially, dear one, child. 

plneus, -a, -uxn, of th- pine or fir, pine-. 

pixig6, -ere, pinxl, pictum, paini ; em- 

pinguis, -e,/o<, rich. 

pinna, -ae, t.fin (of a fish). 

pinns, -fls, f. pine, fir; by Metonymy, 
tordi; ship. 

Piritlions, -I, m. Pirithous, faithful friend 
of Theseus. 

Pisa, -ae, f. Pisa, a city of Elis, in the 

Pisaens, -a, -nm, Pisaean, of Pisa, from 

PXsander, -dri, m. Pisander, one of Pen- 
elope's suitors. 

piscStor, -Oris, m. fisherman. 

pisois, -is, pisce vehl, ride on 
a fish. 

pins, -a, -nm, (8eepietSs);>iou«, righteous; 
faithful, dutiful, true, loving, affection- 
ate, kind. orScnla pia snnt, oracles 
are righteous. Subst. pinm, i-ighteous- 

piz, picis, f. pitch. 

plScStns, -a, -nm, [plfio5] appeased, rec- 
onciled, peac^ul, friendly. 

placed, -6re, -nl, -itnm; j)lease, give 
pleasure, satitfy. sibi placfire, have 
a good opinion of one^s self, pacta pla- 
oent, they like the plan, abide by the 
agreemsnt. plaoet, it is decided, it is 

plaoidns, -a, -nm, peaceful, calm, friend- 
ly, gentle, mente placidS, with resig- 

placitns, -a, -nm, [placeS] pleasing, 

plSci, -Sre, -Svl, -fttnm, pae%fy, appease, 
placate, satisfy. 

1. plaga, -ae, f. l. district, region. 3. 

2. plSga, -ae, f . blow, stroke, thrust. 

plang5, -ere, planxl, planctnm, beat, 
strike ; cspecir.ily as a sign of mourning, 
beat (the breast, arms, etc.)- 

plangor, -Oris, m. [plang6] beating (of 
the breast, etc., as a sign of mouniing) ; 
sound of mourning, loud lamentation. 

planta, -ae, f. 1. plant. 2. sole qf the foot. 

planstmm, -I, n. wagon. planstmm 
BoOtae, Charles's Wain, t/ie Oreat Bear. 

plSbs, pl§bis, f. common peoj^, crowd; 
oomtnon soldiers. 

PlSias, -kdis, f. Pleiad. The Pleiades 
were the seven daughters of Atlas and 
Pleione and were transformed into the 
constellation Pleiades. 

plfinns, -a, -nm, full, com/ilete ; satisfied. 
plSna rosSmm,/u/2 of roses. 

plfimmqne, adv./o/* the most part, mostly, 

plOrS, -fire, -fivl, -Stnm, bewail, lament. 

plUma, -ae, f.feat/ier; plumage. 

plnmbnm, -i, n. lead ; water-pipe of lead. 

plus and plOrimns, sec mnltus. 

plnvia, -ae, f. rain. 

plnvifilis, -e, rainy, rain-bringing, rain-. 

plnvins, -a, -nm, rainy, rain-bringing. 

pOcnlnm, -I, n. cup. 

Poeantiades, -ae, m. son of Poeas, i.e. 

Poeantins, -a, -nm, of Poeas. Poeantia 
pr0l6s, son of Poeas, i.c. Philoctetes. 
Subst. Poeantins = Philoctetes. 

poena, «ae, f. penalty, punishment. 
poenSs dare (solvere, etc.), pay the 
j}enalty, suffer punisJiment. 

Poenicens, -a, -nm, [Poenns] Punic, 
P/ioenician. Poenicenm pOmnm, 

Poenns, -a, -nm, Punic, Carthaginian, 
African. Subst. Poenns, Carthaginian. 

po6ta, -ae, m. poet. 

poUSns, -entis, partic. adj. [polle6] 
mighty, powerful. 

pollez, -iois, m. thumb. 



polUoeor, -Sri, -itiu Btim, ptvmise. 

pollicittuxi, -I, n. promise. 

pollicitus, -a, -um, [polliceor] promised. 

poluB, -I, m* pole ; heavens^ sky. poluB 
cOnspicuus, the visible pole^ the north 

Polybns, -X, m. Polybus^ one of Penelope^s 


pOmSriom, -I, n. [pOmns] orchard. 

pompa -ae, f . procession. pompam ftl- 
neriB Ire, go in a funeral pix)cession. 

pOmum -I, n. fruit ; especially, apple. 

pondus, -erif, n. weighty burden^ h^vy 
mass; importance., significance; fv{fll- 

pOnS, -ere, posnl, positum, place^ pyt^ 
set^ laj/, arrange^ station; lay aside^ 
give up., cast away^ lose. vfistlgia 
cUvO pOnere, dinib up the hill, posi- 
tus, placed^ situated^ lying. 

1. Ponticus, •!, ni. PonticuSy a Homan epic 

2. FonticoB, -a, -um, Pontic^ pertaining 
to (he Pontus. 

pontifez, -icis, m. [pOns, faciS, lit. 
bridge buUder] priest, high priest. 

1. pontus, -X, m. sea. 

2. PontUB, -I, m. Pontus : 1. the Black 
Sea. 2. a kingdom in the northern part 
of Asia Minor, near the Black Sea. 

popolor, -Sri, -StuB Bum, lay waste, 
ravage, destioy. 

1. populuB, -I, m. people; mass, crowd. 
levSB popull = spirits of the dead. 

2. pOpuluB, -I, f. poplar. 

porta, -ae, f • gate, door ; entrance. 

portitor, -Oris, m. [portS] ferryman; 
especially, Charon, who ferried the 
spirits of the dead over the Styx. 

port», -are, -Svl, -fitnm, carry, bHng. 
sSctim portSre, bring with one's self. 

portuB, -lis, m. harbor, port ; refuge. 

pQBCO, -ere, popQscI, demand, request, 
ask for; coil for, challenge. pOscimur, 
they are asking for us. 

positUB, see pOn5. 

possideS, -9re, possfidl, poBBesBtim, pos- 
sess, hold. 

poBBldi, -ere, p<Mw6dI, poBBesBom, take 
possession of, seize, occuiry. 

pOBBom, pOBBO, potui, [potls, Biim] be 
aMe, can. nOn possum nOn, I cannot 
but, I must, perdere posse sat est, to 
be able to destroy is enough, posse pati 
volul, lu^ished to be able to bear it. 

post, 1. prep, with Ace. behind, offer. 2. 
adv. (tfterucards. 

posteritSs, -Stis, f . [posterus] subsequent 
time ; posterity. 

posterus, -a, -um, [post] following, sub- 
sequent, next. poBterior, later. 

postis, -is, m. post, door-post. PI. door. 

postmodo, adv. after a Utile while, soon. 

poBtquam, conj. after. 

p(totul5, -Sre, -ftyl, -Stum, demand, re- 

potGns, -entis, adj. [possum] powerful, 
mighty, influential ; pfffent, (ffective. 

petentia, -ae, f. power, might, strength^ 


potes, potest, etc., see poBBum. 
potestfis, -fitis, f. power, might, sway. 

1. potior, -Irl, -Itus sum, get possession 
of, acquire, obtain ; possess, have. [No- 
tice that Ovid uses some forms of the 
third conjugation as poterfimur]. 

2. potior, -ius, adj. preferaJble, superior^ 


potius, adv. rather, prtferably. 

prae, prep, with Abl. in comparison with., 
b^ore ; of the preventing cause, foi\ on 
account of 

praebeS, -fire, -ul, -itum, [habeS] fur^ 
nish, afford, offer, give. 

praeceps, -cipitis, adj. [caput] headlong, 
headforemost; sw^ft, rapid, rustling^ 
violent. Subst. praeoepB, steep place., 
preciifice. in praeceps, headlong, ex 
praecipiti, from a dangerous place, 

praeceptum, -I, n. precept, instruction, 

prae-cipi5, -cipere, -c6pl, -ceptum, in- 
struct, direct. 

praeoipitS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, hurl head- 
long. Passive : rush. ItLx praecipi- 

' tStur aquls, day sinks abruptly into the 

pollicMr— prUMn. 


praecipuTU, -a, -nm, highly distinguished. 

praecordia, -Ornm, n. [oor] diaphragm ; 
by MetoDjmj, breast^ heart (aa the seat 
of feeling and of thought). 

praeda, -ae, f . booty, prey, prize. 

prae-dlc5, -ere, -dizl, -dictun, foretdl ; 
proclaim, announce. 

praedO, -Onis, m. [praeda] robber. 

praedor, -Sri, -Stus sam, plunder, rob ; 
make prisoner, capture, captivate, 

praefectus, see praeficiS. 

prae-ferS, -ferre, -tnll, -IStum, place be- 
fore, prefe^\ praelSta puelUs, su- 
perior to the girls, surpassing all the girls. 

prae-flci6, -flcere, -fSoI, -fectun, place 
over, put in charge qf. Baorls prae- 
feota marltis, who presides over mar- 
riage rites. 

prae-fodiS, -fodere, -fOdI, -fossum, bury 

prae-mediefitui, -a, -nm, anointed be- 
forehand, protected by medicines or 

praemium, -X, n. retoard, prize. 

prae-mone5, -Sre, -nl, -itmn, forewarn, 

praemonitHB, -fLs, m. forewarning, warn- 

prae-pOnS, -ere, -posul, -positum, place 
b^ore, prefer ; put in c/iarge qf. sibi 
praepOnere, place above one's self, con- 
sider superior. 

prae-nunp6, -ere, -rtLpI, -mptnm, break 
off in front, break to pieces. 

prae-mptus, -a, -um, broketi off: abrupt, 

praesaepe, -is, n. stall, stable; manger. 

praeBSgium, -i, n. foreboding, presenti- 
ment; pivphecy. 

praesSgiiB, -a, -tun, foreboding ; foretell- 
ing, prophesying. 

praeecius, -a, -tun, foreknowing, pre- 

praesfins, -entis, adj. [praegtun] present ; 
effective, Julpful. praesentior, nearer. 

praeses, -idis, m. protector, defender, 

praestSns, -antis, partic. adj. [praestd] 
surpassing, excellent, distinguished, pre- 

1. prae-8t8, -fire, -etitl, surpass; fUr^ 
nish, bestow, give. 

2. praestO, adv. at hand, present, ready. 
praestO olbiectAf placed btfore your eyes. 

prae-stun, -esse, -fnl, be over, be in charge 

prae-tendS, -ere, -tendl, -tenttun, stretch 
b^ore, hold <nit. praetendSns ctilpae 
splendida verba ttiae, concealing your 
toeakness under high-sounding words. 

inraeter, prep, with Ace. 1. except, save. 
2. by, along. 

praetereS, adv. besides, moreover. 

praeter-ei, -Ire, -iX, -ittim, pass by; 
pass over, neglect, omit; of time, pass 
by, pass. 

praetezta, -ae, f. the praeiexta, toga 
(ontcr garment) with purple border worn 
by Roman magistrates and citizens of 

prStum, -X, D. meadow. 

precor, -firl, -Stus stun, pray, beg, be- 
seech, precantia verba, prayers. 
iUsta precor, myjirayer is just. 

prebendS, -ere, prebendX, prebtostun, 
seize, grasp, (preben- is usually synco- 
pated into pren-). 

premS, -ere, pressi, pressnm, press; 
press upon, lie on, rest on, sit on ; dasp, 
hold tightly (terga) ; load, burden ; oc- 
cupy (axes); cover (dapSs); hem in 
(lituntun). neo preme cturtun, 
neither drive too low. pressa Ara, the 
low-lying Altar (constellation near the 
horizon). prOposittun premit, clings 
to his purpose. 

prend5, sec prebendS. 

pr6ns5, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, (frequentative 
of prendS) grasp, seize. 

prenstLB, see prebend6. 

pressus, see prem6. 

pretiOsns, -a, -tun, precious, valuable. 

pretitun, -I, n- value, price; prize, re- 
ward, in pretiO esse, be valued, be 

[prez, precis], f. prayer, entreaty, request 
(Nom. and Gen. Sing, not used). 

Priamides, -ae, m. son of Ptiam. 

FriamiLS, -X, m. Priam, king of Troy. 

prXdem, adv. for a long time. iam ibi- 
dem, already for a long time. 



prlmO, adv. atfiraU in the beginning. 

prlmum, adv. firsts for the first time^ at 

primus, -a, -urif first, prima via, the 
first part of the way. prtml annl, 
youth, primi vldifltis amantte, ye 
lovers were the first to see. primus 
lifirSs, nearest heir. 

prlnceps, -cipis, adj. [capiS] first, chief. 
Sabst. rulery leader, chief. 

prlncipium, -I, u. beginning. prln- 
d^^iHf first. 

prior, prias, adj. Comp. sooner, earlier ; 
former : first (of two). prior vfinl, 
I came first. 

prlscus, -a, -am, of venerable antiquity, 
ancient, old time, of the olden time, for- 
mer, pristine. 

prius, adv. Comp. sooner, earlier, before. 
prins— quam, b^ore. 

1. pr5, prep, with Abl. b^ore ; for, in de- 
fense of, in behalf qf: for, in return for ; 
instead qf, in comparison with. prO 
corpore mSgnus, large in comparison 
loith the body, flsiim prO mllnere, 
loan, not a gift. 

2. prO, Interj. 0. 

proavns, -I, m. great-grandfather, ances- 
tor. T]. forefathers, ancestors. 

probitSs, -fitis, f. honesty, fidelity. 

prob6, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, [probus] test, 
prove; approve, approve of, praise. 
fictum probfivit crtmi&ii^ furnished evi- 
dence in support of the trumped-up 
charge, prober esse, I am proved to 
be. m.9 probat, esteems me. 

prO-c6d5, -ere, -cSssI, -cSssum, go for- 
ward, advance. 

procella, -ae, f . storm. 

procellOsus, -a, -um, stormy, storm- 

procerSs, -um, m. chiefs, leaders, princes. 

Procu6, -6s, f. Procne, daughter of the 
Attic king Pandion and wife of Tereus. 
She and her Bister Philomela were tamed 
into the swallow and the nightingale for 
taking vengeance on the wicked Tereus 
by slaying Itys, the son of Procne and 
Tereus. According to another account 
it was the mother of Itys that was 
changed into the nightingale. 

procul, adv. far off, far away, far, 
procul esse, be far away. 

prO-cumb5, -ere, -cubul, -cubitam, 
faU, sink. 

procus, -I, m. suitor. 

prOd-e6, -Ire, -il, -itum, come forth, ap- 

prOdigus, -a, -um, wasttful, j)rodigal, 
extravagant. sanguiids et animae 
prOdige, wast^ul qf blood and lye 
(Gallus committed suicide). 

prOditiO, -Onis, f . treachery, treason. 

prO-dO, -dere, -didi, -ditum, [d6] bring 
forth, produce, show ; disclose ; betray ; 
abandon, desert, leave in the lurch. 

prO-d11o5, -ere, -dtlzl, -ductum, lead 
forth, bring forth; IgnSs ad flammSs 
prOdHcere, make the fire blaze. sSmen 
in aristSs prOdlLcit, makes ears qf 
grain out of the seed, virum prOdtLcet, 
v}iU entice the man. 

proelium, -I, n. bcUtle, fight, contest. 

profSuS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, desecrate. 

profectO, adv. certainly, surely, truly, in- 

prO-fer5, -ferre, -tuU, -iStum, bring 
forth; stretch out, extend; raise, ^ft up. 

prO-fici5, -fioere, -fBcI, -fectum, [|aci6] 
accomplish, effect. nOn prOficientia, 
accomplishing nothing, ineffectual. 

profugus, -a, -um, fieeing, ready for 
fiight; exiled, banished. Sabst. pro- 
fugus, «xi/«- 

profundus, -a, -um, deep. Sabst. pro- 
fundum, -I, n. the deep, the sea. summO 
profundO, on the top of the §ea. 

prOgeniSs, -M, f . qffspring, progeny, de- 
scendant, son, child, 

Progn6 = ProcnS. 

pro-liibeS, -Sre, -ul, -itum, hold of, keep 
off; hindei% prevent. quO prohiben- 
tux y from which they are shut out, where 
they are not admitted. 

prO-ici6, -icere, -iOcI, -iectum, cast forth, 
throw away; banish. 

pr0l6s, -is, f. offspring; child, eon, 

PromfitbldSs, -ae, ni. eon qf Pfometheus, 
i.e. Deucalion. 

prO-mitt6, -ere, -misl, -missum, promi#0. 

prlm5— pUgirns. 


prOmissam, -I, n. thcU which has been 
promised; promise. 

1. prOmptUB, -a, -urn, [prOm6] ready, at 
hand. prOmptum est, it is easy. 
prOmptior ad arma, readier to take up 

2. prOmptus, -Us, m. readiness. in 
prOmpta est, it is easy. 

pronepOe, -Otis, m. great-grandchild. 

prOnus, -a, -um, inclined, descending, 
sloping downward, precipitous (via); 
inclined, ready ; flat, flat on one^s face. 
prOnas haml, fiat on the ground. 

propfig^, -inis, f- shoot (of a vine) ; off- 
spring, descendant, son. 

prope, 1. adv. near, almost, 2. prep, with 
Ace. near. 

properS, -Sre, -fivl, -fitnm, hasten. 
properfitus, hasty, too early, untimely, 
premature (fSta, death), quickly acquired 

Fropertins, -I, m. lyopertius, a famons 
Roman el^ac poet (49-16 b.c.) some- 
what older than Ovid. 

propinquus, -a, -am, near, neighlforing, 

propior, -us, adj. Comp. [prope] nearer. 

prO-pOnS, -ere, -posul, -positum, set up 
as a prize (arma) ; propose, purpose, in- 

prOposi^um, -I, n. intention, purpose, 
plan. prOpositmn premit, clings to 
his plan. 

propter, prep, with Ace. near; on account 

prOra, -ae, f.prow, bow (forepart of a ship). 

prOrae tILtOla, the officer of the prow. 

FrOreos, -el, m. Proi'eus, a sailor. 

prO-sequor, -sequi, -secflttLS sum, ac- 
company, attend, escort. 

FrOserpiua, -ae, f. Proserpina (Perseph- 
one), daughter of Ceres, carried off by 

prO-speotS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, look forth 
upon, lookout at (pontum). 

prO-spicio, -spicere, -spexl, -spectum, 

look out, look forward to, look forward 
at (occ&slls) ; examine; see, behold. 

pr0-8titu$, -uere, -ul, -Htum, prostitute 

prO-sum, prOdesse, prOfal, avail, be of 
advantage, be ustful, help. prOdesse 
in causam, be of advantage in the ease. 

prO-tegS, -ere, -tOxI, -tOctum, cover, 

protervns, -a, -um, violent, boisterous 
(ventl) ; bold, impudent. 

FrOteus, -el, m. Proteus, a sea-god who 
had the power of assuming various 

prOtinus, adv. straightway, immediately. 

prO-veniS, -venire, -vOnI, -ventum, 
come forth, spring up, arise, appear. 

provincia, -ae, f . province. 

prozimitSs, -fitis, f. nearness; nearness 
of kin, kinship. 

proximus, -a, -um, [prope] nearest, next, 
very near. 

prlldOns, -entis, adj. prudent, cautious, 

prtLdentia, -ae, t. prudence, wisdom, cun- 

prulna, -ae, f. frost, dew. 

pruInOsus, -a, -joi^ frosty, dewy. 

prtlnum, -I, n. plum. 

Prytanis, -is, m. Prytanis, a Lycian, 
slain by Ulysses. 

psittaous, -I, m. parrot. 

pUblicus, -a -um, public, common, of all. 
Of tlie state. ad pUblica commoda, 
to the advantage qf all. 

pudet, -Ore, -uit, cause shame. mO 
pudet, lam ashamed. 

pudlcus, -a, -um, modest, virtuous. 

pudor, -Oris, m. sense qf shame, shame, 
modesty ; disgrace, shame. pudOre 
positO, without sham£. digna pudOre, 
shameful deeds. Personified, Pudor, 

puella, -ae, f . [puer] girl, maiden ; young 

puellSris, -e, qfagirl, girlish. 

puer, -eri, m. boy, youth. 

puerllis, -e, of a boy, boyish, youthful. 

pflgna, -ae, f . fight, battle. 

pOgnSx, -fids, sdj. fond of fighting, war- 
like. Subst. fighter. 

pILgnO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, fight, contend. 
pILgnus, -I, m.fist. 



pnlcher, -clira, -dmun, beautiful, fine ; 
noble, honorable (vnlnera). 

pulluB, -a, -am, dark, 

pulsd, -Sre, -fivl, -fitum, [pellO] strike 
violently y strike, beat. 

pulvernlentiui, -a, -noi) dusty. 

palYXmis, -I, m. cushion, pillow. 

pulvis, -eris, m. dust. 

pttnieeiu, -a, -nm, Punic, Phoenician ; 
reddish, red, purple. 

pfLniciU) -a, -nm, Punic, Phoenician; 
purple, purpU-red. 

pappifl, -IB, f . stem (of a Bhip) ; ship. 

purpura, -ae, f . purple. 

pnrpnreaB, -a, -am, of prurpU, purple; 
red, rosy. 

pllras, -a, 'VJHyPure, clean ; sincere. 

patS, -Sre, -fivl, -fitom, think, believe, 

Fyladfis, -ae, m. Pylades, trae friend of 

Pylias, -a, -am, Pylian, of Pylus, a city 
in Ells, the home of Nestor, the aged 
warrior. Also ^z of the Pylian, <f Nestor. 

FyloB, -I, f . Pylus, a city in Elis, home of 

pyra, -ae, f. funeral pyre. 

Pyramas, -I, m. Pyramus, a Babylonian 

PyrolB, -entis, m. Pyrois, one of the Son's 

pyrOpas, -I, m. pijroptts, a gold-bronze 
mixture which sparkled like fire. 

Pyrrha, -ae, f. Pyrrha, daughter of the 
Titan Epimetheas and wife of Deucalion. 

Pyrrhos, -I, m. Pjrrhus (also called Keo- 
ptolemas), Bon of Achilles. 


quS, adv. by which way, where ; as far 
as. qaS cava sunt, on the inside. 

qafioumque, adv. by whatever way, 
wlierever ; however far. 

qoSdriiagl, -Sram, m. team of four 

quadrapSfl, -pedis, adj. four-footed. 
Subst. quadruped, especially, horse. 

qoaerS, -ere, qoaeslvl, qoaesltam, seek, 

search, look for; ask. 

qafilis, -e, of what sort, such as. tSlis 
— qafiliB, such^as. 

qafiliflcomqae, qoalecomqae, adj. of 
whatever sort, no matter Jiow insignifi- 

qaam, adv. how much, how, as; after 
comparatives, than. qaam prlmom^ 
as soon as poesiUe. qaam— tarn, as — 
so {as), while— yet. 

qaamlibet, adv. however much, however. 
qoamlibet ezig^as, however small. 

qaamqoam, conj. with Indic. or (later) 
Subjv. although. 

qaamvls, adv. however much ; conj. with 
Subjv. or (later) Indic. although. 

qoandS, adv. interrog. when f indef . evtfr. 

qaandOcamqae, adv. rel. when^et. 

qaantoB, -a, -am, how great, how large, 
how much/ as great as, how, as. 
qoantO, by how much, how. qaantos 
erat, wholly. Correlative : tantos. 

qaft-rS, adv. on which account, wher^ore; 

qaftrtos, -a, -am,/our^A. 

qtiasi, adv. as if. 

qaassi, -fire, -fivl, -fitom, [qaati5] shake 
violently, shake, shatter. 

qaassas, -a, -am, [qaati6] shattered, 

qaater, adv. four times. 

qaati6, qaatere, qaassam, shake. 


-que, conj. and, but, or. -qae . . . -qae, 
both... and. 

qaerSla, -ae, f. complaint, lamentation, 

queror, qaerl, qaestas sam, complain, 
latnmt, mourn; dulce qaerontor av6s, 
the birds make sweet complaint, sing 
touching songs. 

1. qui, quae, quod, pron. rel. who, which, 

2. qal, quae, qaod, adj. interrog. and 
quis, quid, pron. interrog. wJw ? which f 
what ? what sort off quid, why f 

8. qal, quae and qua, qaod, and qais, 
qaa, quid, indef. adj. and pron. any, 
any one. 

4. qal, adv. how. 

quia, conj. because. 

pnlcher -raptum. 


quICTimque, quaeoumque, quodoumque, 
whoever^ whichever^ whatever. quJ- 
dunque liabit&tiB, leOnes, all ye lions 
ihcU dwell. 

quXdam, qaaedam, quoddam and quid- 
dam, a certain^ some. 

quidem, adv. indeed^ qf course. n6— 
quidem, not even. 

quite, -Stis, ' . gitiet^ rest; sleep. 

quiSsoS, -ere, quiSvI, rest; be silent. 

quietuB, -a, -nm, guiet^ calm, peac^ul, 

qnllibet, quaelibet, quodlibet, any that 
you please, any. 

qnln, 1. adv. nay. quLi etiam, nay 
even. 2. conj. that not, but, from ; thai. 

Qnlnqiifitrfls, -anm, f- the Qulnguairus, 
festivals of Minervaf the greater of which 
was celebrated from March 19 to 83 in- 

qnlnque, Jive. 

qolppe, conj. for. 

QuirlniU, -X, ni. Quirinus, the deified 
Rom alas. populuB Quirlnl, i.e. the 
Jioman peoj^e. 

1. quia, quid, see 2. qui or 3. qtiX. 

2. qnis = qnibns (1. qui). 

quisquam, quaequam, quioquam or 
quidquam, pron. indef. anyone, any- 

quisque, quaeque, quidque and quod- 
que, each, every ; each one, each thing. 
ut quaeque altissima, telllls, the 
earth, according as each part was 
highest, i.e. all (he highest parts of the 

quisquis, quicquid(quidquid), whoever, 
whatever. quicquid mortfile oreS- 
mur, all of us mortal creatures. 

qulYlB, quaevis, quodvis and quidvis, 

any you j^ease, anyone you please, any- 
thing you please. 

qu5, l.pron. rel. (Abl.) by how m>uch; with 
coaiparatives, the—. Used as a conj., 
especially with comparatives, to intro- 
duce clauses of Design, that the, in order 
that the, that, in order that. 2. pron. 
interrog. (with accusative force), to what 
placet whither, where? 8. pron. rel. to 
w/iich place, whither, where. 

quOoumque, adv. whithersoever, to what- 
ever place, wherever. 

quod, conj. because^ that^ the fact that. 

quodsl, conj. but if. 

quOUbet, to whatever place you please, 
wherever you please. 

quondam, adv. once, formerly ; in com- 
parisons, sometimes. 

quoniam, conj. since, whereas. 

quoque, adv. also, even. nunc quoque, 
even now. 

quot, how manyf as many, tot— qnot, 
as many— as. 

quotiSns, adv. 1. interrog. how qftenf 
2. rel. as often as. 

quotus, -a, -um, what part of, wJiat frac- 
tion qf, what, quota pan, what 

raoSmifer, -fera, -ferum, duster-bearing, 

racOmuB, -I, m. duster (of grapes). 

radi6, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, beam, shine. 

radius, -I, m. spoke (of a wheel); ray, 
beam, sunbeam, (PI.) crown of rays (of 
the San-god), halo. 

rSdIx, -Icis, f . root ; radish, 

r&d6, -ere, rfisl, rSsum, shave, scrape, 
scratch, touch. 

rSmfile, -is, n. [rSmus] branch, twig; 
PI. brushwood. 

rSmOsus, -a, -um, having (many) 
branches, wide-spreading. 

rSmus, -I, m. branch, bough, limtf. 

rapSx, -fiois, adj. [rapiS] plundering, 
greedy, destructive. 

rapiduB, -a, -um, [rapiS] carrying off; 
eager for prey, gi'eedyj burning, con- 
suming, devouring, destructive (flam- 
ma) ; swift, rapid. 

raplna, -ae, f . plundering, pillage, rapine ; 
carrying off, abduction. 

rapi6, -ere, rapul, raptum, carry qf, ab- 
duct; seize, plunder. 

rapt6, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, [rapiS] carry 
off, drag away, abduct. 

raptor, -oris, m. robber, abductor. 

raptum, -I, n. [rapiO] robbery, plunder. 



rSrO, adv. seldom^ rarely. 

rfiruB) -a, -qiH) thin^far apart^ rare ; ed- 
dom. rSms peoten, wide-toothed rake. 

rSBtmm, -I, n. rake^ mattock^ toothed hoe. 

ratiS, -Snis, f. calculation^ consideration^ 
reason^ understanding^ cleverness ; toay^ 
mannet\ method. qufi ratiOne, in 
what way t 

ratia, -is, f. raft ; crafty boat, ship. 

ratuB, -a, -nm, [reor] fixed, certain, true, 
reliable, ratified, verified. 

raaonB, -a, -ujii) hoarse, harsh, rough, 

rebellis, -is, masc. adj. rebelliotis. 

reo-cid6, -ere, reccidi, [cadS] fall back, 
return, fall. 

re-c6d6, -ere, -cOssI, -cSssum, go back, 

withdraw, recede, retire. 

reoSns, -entis, adj. recent, fresh, new, 

receptuB, -Us, m. [reoipi5l retreat. 
receptflB canere, give the signal for 

re-cing6, -ere, -cinxl, -oinctum, ungird, 
unfasten, loosen. 

re-cipi6, -oipere, -c6pl, -ceptuni, [capiS] 

take back, obtain again, recover; re- 
ceive. b6 reoipere, mthdraw, reti^ai. 

recitS, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, recite, read 

re-condO, -ere, -condidl, -conditum, put 

away, hide away, hide deep. 

recorder, -Sri, -fitUB sum, recall, recollect. 

rSctfi, adv. rightly, well. 

rOCtor, -Oris, m. guide, manager ; driver ; 
helfnsnian, ]nlof ; ruler. 

rfictmn, -I, «• right, uprightness, honesty, 

rSctus, -a, -um, straigld ; right, upright, 
fio nest, just. 

recaryuB, -a, -um, bending backward, 
curved, crooked. aera recurva, i.e. 

recQsS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, refuse ; ot^ject, 
struggle against ; deny (bona). 

red-dd, -ere, reddidi, redditum, [dS] 
give back, return ; restore ; give up ; 
givfy bestow, qffer, assign. 

red-e6, -Ire, -il, -itum, return, come back. 

red-igS, -igere, -8gl, -Sotum, [agS] 
drive back, bring back ; reduce. 

reditus, -Us, m. [redeS] return^ return- 
ing, going home. 

red-ole6, -ol6re, -olul, be fragrant, be 
redolent qf. 

re-d11o5, -ere, -dtlzl, -ductum, bring 
back, lead back. 

reduz, reducis, adj. returned, at home 

re-fer6, -ferre, rettull, relStum, bring 
back, carry back ; bring back word, re- 
late. s6 referre, withdraw, retreat. 
pedem referre, step back, retreat. 

rSfert, rSferre, rStulit, it concerns, re- 
gards, is qf importance. nOn rSfert, 
it makes no difference. 

refertus, -a, -um, stuffed, filled full. 

re-flciS, -ficere, -fBcI, -fectnm, [faci6] 
make again, restore. 

refugUB, -a, -xaiyfieeing, receding. 

rSg^a, -ae, f. royal palace, palace. 

regimen, -inis, n. guidance; rudder (of a 

rSglna, -ae, f. queen. 

regiO, -Onis, f. region, district, land; 

r6gius, -a, -um, royai, regal, kingly, of 
the king. 

rSgnS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, rule, reign. 

rOgnum, -I, n. rule, reign, power, might ; 
kingdom, province. 

reg5, -ere, r6xl, rectum, direct, guide; 

rule, regulate. 

re-lSbor, -ISbl, -iSpsus sum, glide back, 
sink back; return.. 

re-lax6, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, open, loosen, 
push back (olaustra). 

relSgStus, -I, m. one sent away, dismissed, 
a privileged escile. BelOgStiO was a 
modified form of banifihment, leaving the 
accused in possession of his property and 
civil rights. 

re-leg^, -ere, -I6gl, -lOctum, reaa again, 

re-IevS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, make light, 
lighten; quench, satisfy (famem) ; mem- 
bra relevSre, rtfresh one^s sdf, rest. 

relictus, see relinquS. 

re-linqu5, -linquere, -UquI, -lictum, 

rSr5— refluplniu. 


leave bekindy leave; abandon^ desert^ 
have in the lurch ; give up^ surrender ; 
leavey bequeath. 

re-mane^, -fire, -mfinBl, -mfinsiim, re- 
main behindy remain; continue. 

rOmex, -igiS) m. [r6miu, ag6] rower. 

rSmigium, -I, n. oars; wings. 

reminlscor, -I) recally recollect^ remember. 

re-initt6, -ere, -misl, -missnm, send 
back^ return; let loose^ let go. 

re-moll6so6, -ere, become soft. 

re-moror, -Sri, -fitus sum, delay; trane- 
itive : hold back^ detain^ delay. 

remStuB, -a, -um, removed^ distant. 

re-moveS, -Ore, -mOvI, -mOtum, mave 
backt throw back; remove^ drive away 
(Ignte). DiomSde remOtO, without 
Diomede. 1116 removeS, I retire. 

rSxniis, -I, m. oar. 

re-nlde$, -Ore, shincj beam. 

re-novS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, renew, make 
fresh; plow, break up. 

reor, rfirl, ratus sum, think, believe, sup- 
pose, imagine. 

repSgnla, -Omm, n. bars. 

repandoB, -a, -am, curved backwards. 

reparSbilis, -e, reparable. 

re-parS, -Sre, -Svl, -fitom, repair, make 
good, restore. 

re-pellS, -ere, reppull, repulsum, drive 
back, repel; drive away; push back 

re-pendS, -ere, -pendl, -pSnsum, pay 
back, pay t make compensation for. 

repente, adv. suddenly. 

re-per-cuti5, -ere, -cussl, -cussom, 
[qaati6] thivw back, reflect. reper- 
CTiBSO FhoebO, from the reflection of the 

re-peri$, -Ire, repperl, repertum, find 
again, ^nd out, find, discover. 

repertor, -Oris, m. inventor, discoverer. 

re-pet5, -ere, -IvI, -IttLm, seek again, go 
back to, return to, visit again; bring 
forth, Tuave (stLspIria) ; go over again, 
repeat. repetltus, repeated. 

re-ple6, -Are, -5vl, -etum, fi^ again, re- 
fill. Passive : fill itself again , become full 


re-pOnO, -ere, -posoX, -positum, lay 

aside; restore, bring back. 

re-ptLgnS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, struggle 
against, oppose. 

repolsa, -ae, f . [repellS] refusal, repulse, 

requiSs, -Otis, f. rest, r^reshm^nt. 
locum reqniemqae, a resting place. 
Notice Ace. requiem. 

re^quiSsoS, -ere, -quiSvI, -quiStum, rest, 
' repose, sleep. 

re-qnlrS, -ere, -qaXsIvI, -qulsltum, seek 
again, seek, look for ; ask for, inquire 

rCs, rel, t. thing, affair, mxiiter, circum- 
stance, condition ; fact, event, result ; 

re-sorlbS, -ere, -scrlpsi, -scrlptom, 
write back, answer. 

re-8eo5, -Sre, -secuX, -sectum, cut off. 

re-servS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, reserve. 

re-siliS, -Ire, -Bilul, leap back, spring 
back ; contract. 

re-8ist6, -ere, -stitl, stop, stand still ; re- 
sist, oppose. 

re-solvS, -ere, -solvl, -sollltnm, loosen ; 

re-sonS, -Sre, resound, echo; sound, 

re-8orbe$, -6re, suck back, swallow again. 

respectas, -lis, m. 9'egard, respect. re- 

spectIL mel, out qf regard for me, for 

my sake. 

re-sperg5, -ere, -spersi, -spersum, 

re-spiciS, -ere, -spezi, -spectam, look 
back at, look at ; have regard for, look 
at, consider. 

re-spendeS, -6re, -spondl, -spOnsum, 

answer ; correspond to, fit. 

respOnsum, -I, n- answer ; oracular re- 

re-stituS^ -ere, -stitul, -stitfttum, 
[statuo] restore. 

re-stS, -Sre, -stitl, l. resist, oppose. 2. 
remain standing ; survive ; remain, be 

resupInxLS, -a, -um, lying on one^s back, 
fiat on one's back. resuplna natant, 
fioat on thHr backs. 



re-sorgS, -are, -turrSzi, -BnrrOotiini, 
riee again. 

rSte, -is, Q' n*t (for fishing or hnnting). 

re-t6g6, -ere, -tSxX, -tSetum, uncover^ 
open^ expose, disclotte^ lay bare. 

re-tez5, -ere, -tezul, -teztmn, unweave^ 
unravel (tSlam) ; reverse, annul (Ata). 

re-tinei, -6re, -tinal, -tentnm, keep 
back,, /lold back^ detain^ hold, keep. 

re-trahi, -ere, -trfizi, -trSotnm, draw 

retrO, adv. backwards, back. 

retrOyersus, -a, -um, turned back. 

rettull, see referS. 

reus, -I, m. t/ie accused. neo esse reus 
meml, I have not deserved the blame. 

re-vell$, -ere, -Telll, -Yulsuin, pluck 
away, tear away, tear loose, tear out. 

re-vertor, inf. revertl, Perf. revertl, 
return, come back. 

re-YOo6, -fire, -fiyl, -Stum, call back, re- 

re-volv6, -ere, -volvl, -Yomtam, roll 
back, sink ba^k. 

rflx, rSgis, m. king, ruler. 

Khfinus, -I, m. the Rhine. 

Bhteus, -I, m. Rhesus, a Thracian king, 
ally of the Trojans, slain in his camp at 
night by Ulysses and Diomede. Accord- 
ing to an oracle, if his horses had tasted 
Trojan grass and water, Troy coald not 
have been taken by the Greeks. 

Rhodopfi, -6s, f. Jihodope, a mountain- 
range in Thrace. 

BhodopSius, -a, -tun, of RJiodope, Rliodo- 
peian; Thracian. BhodopSins vStSs, 
the Bard of Mount Rhodope, tJie Thra- 
cian Singer, Orpheus. 

rictus, -Us, m. open mouth; mauth,Jaw3. 

rlde5, -Ore, risl, rXsnm, laugh, smile; 
laugh at. 

rigeS, -Are, -rigal, be hard, be stiff, be 
rigid; of the hair, stand on end. 
CereSlia dOna rigfibant, i.e. t/ie bread 
was of gold. 

rig6so6, -ere, rignl, become stiff, become 

rigidus, -a, -um, stiff, hard, rigid. 

rig6, -fire, -fivX, -fitum, water, tvet. 

rigor, -Oris, m. hardness^ firmness (p9- 
nere, lay aside, lose). 

riguus, -a, -um, [rigS] well-watered. 

rima, -ae, f. crack, crevice, split, open- 
ing, fissure. rXmam dILoere, rXmam 
agere,/orm a crack, become cracked. 

rlpa, -ae, f. bank. 

rite, adv. in due form, properly^ rightly, 

rlvus, -I, m. brook, stream, 

rOblgO, -inis, f . rust. 

rObur, -oris, n. oak; strength, might. 

rOd6, -ere, rdsl, rOstim, gnaw. 

rogSlis, -e, of the funeral pyre, funereal. 

rogS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, ask, beg, entreat; 

rogus, -I, rci. funeral pyre; death. 

BOma, -ae, f . Rome. 

SQmSnus, -a, -um, Roman, qf Rome. 
Subst. Roman. 

rOrS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, [r9s] sprinkle; 
drip, be wet. 

rOs, rOris, m. dew. 

rosa, -ae, f . rose. 

rosfirium, -I, n. rose-garden. 

rOsoidus, -a, -um, detoy. 

rOstrum, -I, n. [rOd6] beak. 

rota, -sLe, f. wheel; chariot. 

rubefaciS, -faoere, -fBcI, -factum, red- 
den, make red. 

rubSns, -entis, partic. adj. red, reddish. 

rube6, -Ore, -ul, be red, blush. 

ruber, -bra, -brum, rtd. 

rubSscS, -ere, rubul, become red, redden, 

rubSta, -Qrum, n. [rubus] blackberry 
thickets, blackberry bushes (dtlra, briary). 

rubus, -I, m. blackberry bush (dflrus, 

rudSns, -entis, m. rope, cable. 

rudis, -e, rude, rough, unpolished, un- 
finished. ^ 

rfLga, -ae, f • wHnkle (especially as a sign 
of old age). 

rUgOsus, -a, -um, wrinkled; full qf 

ruXna, -ae, f . [ru6] downfall ; faU., ruin, 


ruInOsus, -a, -um, ruined, in n^ns. 



rllmor, -Oris, m. rumor, talk. 

rumjA, -ere, rilpi, ruptnm, In-eak^ break 
to pieces^ break through, cut through^ 
split; strike violently^ strike. gilentia 
nunpere, break the silence, speak. 

ni8, -ere, ml, (ruittbnu), rush, hasten ; 
/all, /all down. 

rfiLpSs, 'iSf t. [niiiLp5] cliff, rock. 

rtlricola, -ae, adj. [rfls, C0I61 cultivating 
t/u fields ; inhcMting t/ie country. 
r^colae Phryges, Phrygian peasants. 
bovSs rtLiicolae, plow-oxen» Sabst. 
peasant, /arrner. 

mniiB, adv. again, anew. 

rfls, rfiris, n. field, land, country. 

rfLsticuB, -a, -urn, o/ the country, country- 
ish, rustic ; c/ a countryman. Sabet. 
r1l8tiou8, countryman, peasant. 

rutiliiB, -a, -um, red, reddish. 


sacer, -era, -enim, sacred. Sabst. eaora, 
-Oram, n. sacred things ; holy rites, re- 
ligious ceremonies; /estivals. 

sacerdOs, -Otis, m. and f. priest, priestess. 

saecaltim (laeclum), -I, n. age, genera- 
tion (about 33^ years) ; century. Also 
personified, Saecilla, the Centuries. 

saepe, adv. o/ten,/requently. 

saepSs, -is, f . hedge. 

saeviO, -Ire, -IvI, -Itnm, rage, storm, be 

gaevtu, -a, -nm, raging, wUd; fierce, 
cruel, terrible. 

Bagfix, -fiois, adj. keen-scented ; 0/ keen 

sag^tta, -ae, f. arrow. 

bSI, salis, m. salt. 

BaUg^us, -a, -tun, [salix] 0/ zoillow, 

BaliS, -Ire, -uI, Baltnin, leap, jump, hop, 

Balix, -iois, f . willow. 

saltern, adv. at least. 

1. Baltus, -flB, m. [saliS] leaping ; leap, 
spring,jump. saltUs dare, give leaps, 

2. BaltoB, -Hb, m. wooded hill, woodland, 
/orest pasture ; pasture. 

BalflB, -UtiB, f. health, wel/are^ sa/ety, 
li/6 ; greeting. 

BallLtS, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, greet, salute. 
este BalHtStl, be saluted, /arewell. 

BalvttS, -a, -tun, sa/e, sound, well, unhurt. 

SaxniiLB, -I, m. Samian, inhabitant of 
Same, an island near Ithaca. 

Samos, -I, f. Samos, an island in the 
Aegean Sea sacred to Juno. 

sfinctiLS, -a, -am, sacred, holy; pure, 

Bangoineos, -a, -am, 0/ blood, bloody. 

sangtiixiolentaB, -a, -um, bloody. 

sangais, -inls, m. blood; bloodshed; 
race,/amily ; child. 

BSnoB, -a, -am, sound, sensible. male 
BSnos, mad, beside one's set/. 

BapiOns, -entis, adj. iinse, sensible. Subst. 
loise man, counsellor. 

sapienter, adv. iHsely. Comparative, Ba- 

Bapientia, -ae, f . wisdom, 
Bapor, -OriB, m. taste. 
Baroina, -ae, f . burden, load. 

SardSB, -iam, f. Sardis, a city in Lydia 
on the river Pactolas. 

SarmatiB, -idis, fem. adj. Sarmatian. 
The Sarmatians were a Slavic people 
who dwelt near the Black Sea, 

SarpSdon, -oniB, m. Sarpedon, leader of 
the Lycians and ally of the Trojans. He 
was killed by Patroclus. 

Bat, adv. = BatiB. 

Bata, -Omm, n. [Ber$] crops, 

BatiB, adv. enough, sufficient ; quite. 

Batar, -a, -am, satiated, /uU. 

SStornias, -a, -am, 0/ Saturn, Safurnian. 
Subst. SStarnias, son 0/ Saturn, espe- 
cially Jupiter. SStarnia, daughter 
0/ Saturn, especially Juno. 

SStarnaB, -I, m. Saturn, who was chief of 
the gods and ruler of the world daring 
the Golden Age, but was afterwards sup- 
planted by his son Jupiter and sent to 

BattiB, see BerS. 

BatyrxiB, -I, m. a Satyr, The Satyrs were 
rural divinities, attendants of Bacchus. 
Their closeness to nature and the lower 



animals was indicated by their having 
horns, feet like goats, and tails like 

BauoiS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, wound, hurt ; 
teart scratch ; cultivate. 

sanciiui, -a, -uxn, wounded^ injured ; cul- 

Bazeas, -a, -urn, o/ stone, petrified. 

Baxam, -I, n. stone, rock. 

Bcamnuiii) -I, n. stool. 

BcelerfituB, -a, -mn, [sceltus] accursed, 
wicked. Subst. scelerfttuB) wicked 
man, sinner, miscreant. 

BeeloB, -eris, n. wickedness, sin, crime, 

BOSptmxn, -I, n. sceptre, royal staff. 

BcHicet) adv. clearly ; of course ; forsooth. 

BoindS, -ere, scidi, sclBBom, split, divide. 

Bci6, BCire, sclvl, scltimi, know, learn. 

BdrpetiB) -a, -am, qf i-ushes. 

BCOpulllB, -I, m. c'jff, rock, 

Bcrlb6, -ere, scrlpsi, Bcrlptnm, write. 

Bcrlptum, -I, n. [8crlb6] writing, work. 

BcUtum, -I, n. shield: 

Soylla, -ae, f. ScyUa: 1. a sen^monster, a 
maiden v^hose lower limbs were replaced 
by doge. She dwelt in a cliff opposite 
Charybdis and snatched the sailors from 
their ships as they passed by. 2. daughter 
of Nisus. She fell in love with her 
father^s enemy Minos, and for his sake 
cut from her father's head the single 
purple hair upon which his life depended. 
Nevertheless, she was not welcomed by 

SoyroB, -I, f. Scyrus: 1. an island north- 
east of Euboea, where Achilles was con- 
cealed in woman's clothes, that he might 
' not be sent to the Trojan war. Here his 
son Pyrrhus lived. 2. a city in Phrygia, 
captured by Achilles. 

Soythia, -ae, f ■ Scythia, a country north 
of the Black Sea. 

BecS, -Sre, Becul, sectuin, cut, cut off 
(partem); cut a way thwugh, follow, 
fUm in (vada). 

Bector, -firl, -Stus Bum, [Bequor] follow, 

B6-cabi, -Sre, -cubol, lie alone, sleep by 

seeimdaB, -a, -urn, [Bequor] following ; 
second; inferior: favorable, prosperous. 
rSB Beeundae, prosperity. Beoundae 
mSuBae, dessert. 

BScftruB, -a, -um, [cflra] free from care, 
untroubled, peaceful. 

Bed, conj. but, yet. 

sedeS, -6re, B0dl, BeBsum, sit. 

B6d6B, -is, f . seat; place, position, location; 
abode, home. BolidlB BSdibuB, on 
firm ground. 

Bedfle, -Ib, n. secU, chctir. 

86-d11c8, -ere, -dlLxI, -ductum, lead aside, 
put aside, set aside (vlna) ; separate. 

BSduluB, -a, -um, busy, industrious, ener- 
getic, stirring. 

BegeB, -etie, f. grain in the field, field of 

grain, crop. 
Bemel, adv. once, one time. 

BSmen, -ixiiB, n. seed. BSmen venae, 

grains of m^tal. 

BSnuadapertuB, -a, -um, haif-opened. 

BSmianimiB, -e, lialf-dead. 

SemlramiB, -idiB, f. Semiramis, a famoas 
queen of Assyria who surrounded Baby- 
lon with a high brick wall. 

sSmisepultuB, -a, -um, haif-buried. 

semper, adv. always, forev^. 

BenStuB, -11b, m. [Benez] senate. 

senecta, -ae, f • old age, age. 

seneotUs, -fltiB, f • old age. 

Beu6Bc5, -ere, bbuuI, grow old. 

Benez, eeniB, adj. old, aged. Subst. 
Benez, Benior, old man. 

Benllis, -e, of an old man. anni BenflOs, 
advanced years, great age. 

senior = Benez. 

bSubub, -Hb, m. feeling, sense, conadous- 
ness. bSubIIb convalufire, conscious- 
ness returned, senses came back. 

sententia, -ae, f . [BentiS] opinion, view ; 
decision, determination, judgment ; ad- 

sentiS, -Ire, bSubI, t^^iOAVLBLy fed, perceive, 
notice, appreciate (honOrte). 

B6-par5, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, separate. 

sepeliS, -Ire, -IvI, Bopultum, bui'y. 

septeni^uUB, -a, -um, seven-fiotoing, seven- 



Beptemplez, -pliciB, adj. sevenfold, con- 
eistlng of seven layers, of seven hides. 

BeptSz&I, -ae, -a, seven each^ seven. 

BeptimuB) -a, -um, seventh. 

sepiilcrSlis, -e, pej-taining to burial, fu- 
nereal, funeral, sepulchral. 

sepalcmiii, -I, n. [gepeliO] buHal place, 
tomb, grave, sepulchre. condere se- 
pnlcrO, put in a grave, bury. simiilScra 
fHncta sepulcrls, fpirits of the buried. 

seqaor, sequi, sectLtus bjuxLj follow, jmr- 
sue; accompany, attend. 

BOra, -ae, f. bolt, bar (for fastening a door). 

BorSnos, -a, -um, bright, dear, serene; 
bringing clear \oeather (ventl), 

BeriSs [-SI] , f . row, series; line qf ancestors, 
family tree. 

sermO, -Qnis, m. talk, conversation: re- 
port, rumar. 

1. 86r0, adv. late, too late. sSriiui ant 
citins, sooner or later. 

2. Ber6, -ere, sSvI, Batuin, sow, plant. 
Passive: spring up, arise (aetSs). 
BatUB (with Abl.), sprung from, bom of, 
son of. Snbst. sata, n. crops. 

1. BorpSns, -entis, f. and m. [serpO] ser- 
pent; dragon. 

2. SerpSns, -entis, f. the Serpent, a con- 

BorpO, -ere, serpel, serptum, creep, crawl, 

Borta, -Onun, n. wreath, wreaths, gar- 

Bfirns, -a, -um, late, too late. sSrior 
aetSs, Jtosterity. 

Bervid, -Xre, -IvI, -Itnm, serve, be a slave. 

8ery$, -5re, -£vl, -Stum, save, preserve ; 
watch, guard. 

Bervus, -a, -um, serving, slavish. Subst. 

Beu, see sive. 

BOTSruB, -a, -um, earnest, strict. 

Bez, six. 

8l, conj. if, in case ; if really, if indeed ; 
if, whether. 

BibilO, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, hiss. 

bIc, adv. 80, thus, in this way. ut— Bic, 
though— yet. 

Sicania, -ae, f . poetic word for Sicily. 

Sloanius, -a, -um, Sicilian. 

8icc5, -fire, -ftvl, -fitum, dry, make dry ; 

siccus, -a, -um, dry. 

Siculus, -a, -um, Sicilian. 

Sicut, adv. just as. 

sIdO, -ere, 86dl, take a seat, take a place, 
sit down. 

sIduB, -eris, n. star. sidera, stars; 
heaven, the heavens. 

SigSius, -a, -um, Sigean, of Sigeum, a 
promontory near Troy. 

Signified, -Srei -Svl, -fitum, [signum, 
faciO] make a sign, mark out, indicate. 

BignS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, mark, inscribe; 
mark of (humum). 

Bignum, -I, n. mark, sign, indication; 
signal ; track ; statue ; star, especially 
the stars of the Zodiac. 

silSns, -entis, partic. adj. silent. Subst. 
PI. the shades (of the dead). 

silentium, -I, n. silence. 

SllSnus, -I, m. Silenus, a Satyr, foster- 
father and attendant of Bacchus. 

siled, -6re, -ul, be silent, be quiet. 

silez, -icis, m.^int, rock, stone. 

silva, -ae, t. forest, wood. 

silvestris, -e, of the forest, of the wood. 
silvestre baculum, a staff from the 

similis, -e, like, similar. simillimus, 

very like. 

Simols, -entis, m. the Simois, a river near 

simplez, -icis, adj. simple; tJwughtless, 

simplicitfis, -fitis, f . simplicity, innocence. 

simul, 1. adv. at t/ie same time, together. 
2. conj. cu soon as. 

simulfic, simulatque, conj. as soon as. 

simulScrum, -I, n. image, picture, like- 
ness, semblance; shade (of the dead), 

BimulSns, -antis, partic. adj. imitative, 
skilled in imitating. 

simulS, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, [similis] 
make like, imitate, disguise one^s self as ; 



BincOnU) -a, -tun, sincere^ genuine ; pure^ 
chmte (Minerva) ; vninjured, sound. 

Bine, prep, with Abl. without. 

singnll, -ae, -a, each^ single^ alone. 

Bingnltns, -tLs, mrsobbing^ tob. 

sinister, -stra, -strnm, left, on' th^ left, 
from the left ; ill-omened, vnfavorable, 
unpropilious. sinisterior, too far to 
the lift. (The left was the side of bad 
lack in the «yes of the Greeks and later 
Romans. In early Rome the contrary 
was the case.) 

sinistra, -ae, f. l^t-hand. 

sin6, -era, slvl, sitnm, lay down, place ; 
nsiially, permit, allow, lei, 

sinu6, -are, -Svl, -fitnm, bend, curve. 

sinus, -fU, m. fold (of a garment, espe- 
cially over the breast); bosom, breast, 

Slqnis (etc.) = si quis (etc.), if anyone. 

sistO, -ere, stiti, statnm, cause to stand ; 
put, place, land ; stop, hinder ; calm ; 
put an end to, c^ase ; of birds, alight, 

Sistram, -I, n. the sistrum, a noisy Egjp- 
tlan instrument (a kind of rattle), used 
in the worship of Isis. 

SXsyphius, -a, -um, of Sisyphus. SI- 
syphiO sanguine crfitus, born qf the 
blood of Sisyphus. This so-called son of 
Sisyphus was Ulysses. 

Sisyphus, -I, m. SiFyphus, a robber who 
was punished in Tartarus for his pest 
sins by being compelled to try constantly 
to roll a huge stone up a hill. When it 
approached the top, it always rolled back. 

sitis, -is, f. tUrst. 

1. situs, -a, -um, [sinO] laid down, 
placed, situated. hlC situs est, here 

2. situs, -lis, ra. lying, lying for a long 
time, inactivity ; especially, mould, flth, 
dirt, discoloration. 

sive, seu, conj. or if, or. sive— sive, 

wlteiher—or, 'f—or if. 

smaragdus, sec zmaragdus. 
sObrius, -a, -um, sober, steady. 
socer, -eri, m. father-in-law. 
sociSlis, -e, of marriage, nuptial. 
sooius, -a, -um, united, bound together. 

common. Snbst. socius, sharer, part- 
tier; companion, friend, comrade. 

SOdSlis, -is, m. boon companion, intimate 
f fiend, comrade. 

sodSlicius, -a, -um, of a comrade, of 
friendship. Subst. sodSlicium,/ri«n^- 
ship, comradeship. 

1. sSl, sOlis, m. sun; sunshine, light, 
heat. sOiSs, sunny days. 

2. S61, SSlis, m. Sol, the Sun-god, identified 
with Phoebus Apollo. 

sOlScium, -I, n. solace, consolation, com- 

sole6, -6re, solitus sum, be accustomed^ 
use. solitus, customary, usual, 

BOlidus, -a, «-um, [solum] Jliyn, hardy 

solium, -I, n. throne. 

sollenmis, -e, yearly; usually, festive^ 
suited to a merry occasion. 

SOllers, -tis, adj. clever, skilful, inventive^ 
cunning, ingenious. 

sollertia, -ae, f. cleverness, cunning, skill 
in intei'preiing. 

sollicitS, -fire, -ftvl, -Stum, shake, dis- 
turb, tixmble, excite. sollicitor pu- 

sollioitus, -a, -um, excited, troubled, un- 
easy, anxious. 
solum, -I, u. ground, soil, earth, land. 
s51us, -a, -um, alone, only; lonely, solitary. 

solvO, -ere, solvl, sollLtum, loosen, un- 
fasten, release, free; dissolve, relax; 
open; pay, fulfil, grant, give. ieitnia 
solvere, bi'eak a fast, data mllnera 
solvere, take back tJve favor which had 
been given, iasta solvere, pay wfiat is 
due, perfoi^m the funeral rites, alta 
quiSs liominSs solverat, deep sleep 
Md men (lit. had relaxed). 

somnus, -I, m. sleep; dream. 
sonSns, -antis, partic adj. sounding, re- 
sounding; murmuring. 

80n5, -fire, -ul, -itum, sound, resound, 

echo, ring, rattle. 
sonus, -I, m. sound, tone; ringing, rattling, 


BophooWus, --a, -um, of Sophocles, a 
famous Athenian tragic poet. 

s5pi8, -Ire, -IvI, -Itum, put to sleep. 



lopor, -9riB, m, sleep. 

8orbe5, -ere, -ul, Borptnm, suck in; 

BordiduB, -a, -nm, dirty, JUthi/; blackened 
with smoke (terga buIb) ; smeared, 
sprinkled (ealcStto ILyIb, toith the juice 
cf trodden grapes). 

Boror, -OriB) f. sister; cousin. 

Bon, -tiB, f . lot, chance ; /ate ; lot, condi- 
tion, position ; oracular response, proph- 
ecy. Borte, by lot. Bortem meam 
vOviBtis, you prayed that the lot might 
fall on me. 

Bortior, -Irl, -ItuB buhl, oMain by lot; ob- 
tain, receive. 

BOBpeB, -itiB, adj. s(tfe, sound, unharmed, 

Bparg6, -ere, BpaiBl, Bpanimi, scatter, 
strew; sprinkle, wet. 

SpartS, -68, f- Sparta, a famous city of 

Bpatior, -firl, -StuB Bum, wander about, 
walk; spread out. 

BpatiOBUB, -a, -um, [Bpatinm] roomy, 
large, broad, long (of time and place), 

Bpatinm, -I, n. room, space ; size, extent, 
length; distance, interval; time, period. 

BpeciSs, -61, f. appearance, a^iect, like- 
ness; form, shape; beauty, in speciem, 
after the appearance of, like. 

BpeciOsnB, -a, -nm, having a good appear- 
ance, brUliant, handsome, beautiful. 

Bpectfibilis, -e, visible; qf striking ap- 
pearance, remarkable. 

Bpect6, -Sre, -Svl, -fitnm, look at, view ; 
see, belwld; examine, inspect; test, prove. 
Bp6Ct6mnr agendo, let us be tested by 

specnlor, -Sri, -fituB Bum, reconnoitre, 
spy out, explore, get secret information. 

Bpecnlnm, -I, n. mirror, locking-glass. 

BpemS, -ere, Bpr6Yl, Bpr6tnm, spurn, 
r^ect, despise, disregard. 

8p6r5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, hape; hope for, 
look for, long for, expect. 

Bp68, Bpel, f. hope, expectation; thing 
hoped for, hope. 

Bpica, -ae, f . ear (of grain). 

spIcenB, -a -nm, (conslBting) (^ ears qf 

Bplenlnm, -I, n. dart, arrow, 

Bplna, -ae, f. l. thorn, ihombush, 2. 
spine, back. 

BpIritnB, -11b, m. breath ; breath of life ; 
soul, spirit ; life. 

Bplende6, -6re, shine, be resplendent. 

BplendidnB, -a, -nm, shining, brilliant, 
glittering, gorgeous. 

Bpoli5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, rob, plunder, 
despoil ; eepecially, take the armor from 
a slain enemy. 

Bpolinm, -I, n. booty ; armor (taken from 
a slain enemy). 

Bponda, -ae, f. bedstead, frame (of a 
conch or sofa). 

[spOnB], BpontiB, f. firee will. snS 
BpontejOfone^s own accord, voluntarily. 

BptUnSnB, -antifl, partic. ad}, foaming. 

BpUmiger, -gera, 'gemmf foam-bearing, 
foaming, foamy, 

BqnSle6, -6re, be covered with dirt, un- 
kempt, uncaredfor, neglected. 

BqnSlidnB, -a, -nm, dirtij, unkempt, of 
neglected appearance, squalid; espe- 
cially as a sign of mourning, so = in 
mourning attire, in mourning. 

BqnSma, -ae, f . scale (of a fish). BqnSmSB 
trahere, become scaly. 

BqnSmenB, -a, -nm, scaly. 

Btabnlnm, -I, n. stable, stall. 

BtSgnS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, be flooded, be 
covered with water. 

BtSgnnm, -I, n. standing water, pool, 

BtatiO, -OniB, f . [BtS] place, post, outpost, 

BtatnS, -nere, -nl, -atnm, place, fix; 
agi'ee, decide, determine. 

Btella, -ae, f. star. Btella oomSnB, 

Bterilis, -e, sterile, barren. 

BtemS, -ere, BtrSvI, BtrStnm, strew, 
scatter, spread; stretch upon the ground, 
knock down, lay low, level. 

Btnii, -Sre, -Svl, -Stnm, drip, 

BtimnlnB, -I, m. goad (for driving horses, 



Btips, Btipis, t gifty donation, 

stipnla, -ae, f. straw. 

Btlrpe, BtirpiB, f. trunk (of a tree); 
racey family^ descent; descendant^ son, 

Btlva, -ae, f . piow-handle. 

BtO, BtSre, stetl, Btfitum, standt stand 
up ; stand by, aUde by (pactO) ; abide, 
last ; stand stiU, stop. 

BtoliduS) -a, -waif foolish, stupid. 

BtrfigSfl, -Ib, f . overthrow, destruction. 

BtrSmeii) -iniB, n. thatch, straw. 

BtrSnauB, -a, -nm, active, energetic. 

BtrepitUB, 'fLBy m. noise, dash, din, mur- 

BtrldeS, -ere, Btrldl, hiss. 

BtrlduliiB, -a, -Qxii) hissing, cracking. 

BtringS, -ere, Btrinzl, Btrictum, graze, 
touch lightly ; of a weapon, draw. 

Btrix, BtrigiB, f . screech-owl. 

BtruS, -ere, BtrtLzI, BtrUctnm, build, 
build high ; pile up, heap up. txaidiSs 
Btruere, prepare an ambush. 

BtudiOBUB, -a, -um, zealous, eager ; studi- 
ous; devoted, friendly, BtudiOsa 
pectora = kind readers. 

Btaditun, -I, n. ze<U, eagerness, pursuit, 

BtultS, &dy. foolishly. 

Btoltitia, -ae, f. folly. 

BtnltUB, -a, 'HitLf foolish, stupid. 

Btlipe6, -fire, -uI, be astounded, be amazed, 
be lost in wonder ; stand still (from sur- 
prise), stop. 

BtuppeoB, -a, -urn, of hemp, hempen. 

StygiuB, -a, -tun, Stygian, of the Styx (a 
river in the Lower World) ; ill-omened, 
deathforeboding (btlbO). 

Styx, Stygis, f. the Styx, tlie sluggish 
stream of the Lower World by which the 
gods were wont to swear. 

Bu5de6, -6re, BaSsI, BU&Biim, advise, 

BUb, prep. 1. with Abl. under, beneath ; at 
the foot of; down in, in; of time : a^xyut, 
at, in, during. 2. with Ace. to a place 
under, under, beneath, into, up to, to ; of 
time : about, just before. Just after, dur- 
ing. I 

Bub-d5, -dere, -didi, -ditnm,;m/ under, 
place underneath. caput font! Bub- 
dere, plunge your head in the source. 

gub-dHoS, -ere, -dtlzl, -daotTun, take 
away, withdraw; diminish. 

Bub-eS, -Xre, -il, -itum, go under, go down 
into, enter ; come up, approach ; come to 
Vie mind, occur; take the place qf; under- 
go, suffer. 

BUb-ioiS, -ieere, -iScI, -iecttun, throw 
underneath, piace under. 

BubitO, adv. suddenly, unexpectedly. 

BubituB, -a, -ani, sudden, unexpected; 
suddenly appearing, suddenly arisen. 

Bub-levS, -fire, -fivl, -fitrun, lift up, raise; 
prop, support. 

BubllmiB, -e, raised high, lifted up, high, 
lofty, tail; in the air, in the sky. 

Bub-mergS, -ere, -menl, -merBuin, dip 
under, cover toith water, overwhelm. 

Bub-move6, -Ore, -mOvI, -mOtain, re- 
move, drive away, banish; ward off. 

Bub-pOnS, -ere, -poenl, -poBitum, place 
underneath, put under. 

Bub-ripi6, -ripere, -ripul, -reptum, take 
away, carry off; steed. 

Bnb-BcrlbS, -ere, -BcrlpBl, -Borlptum, 

subscribe, agree to, assent to, approve. 

Bub-BldS, -ere, -a0dl, -BesBum, sink down, 
settle down, sink, fall, lull (yentC 

Biibter, prep, with Ace. and Abl. under^ 
underneath, below. 

Bnb-trabS, -ere, -trfixl, -trSctnm, with- 
draw, take away. 

Biic-c6dS, -ere, -oSbsI, -oOBsnm, go under^ 
go down into, plunge into (aquae) ; Join 
(DanalB) ; succeed, follow ; succeed, be 

Buo-cendi, -ere, -ceudi, -cSuBum, kindle, 

BUCoOsBOr, -OriB, m. successor, Tieir. 
nostrO (clipeO) est BuocfiBsor haben- 
duB, i.e. I must get another in itsj^ace. 

buccSbbub, -flB, m. success. buccSbbII 

Buo-cingS, -ere, -oinzl, -cinctum, gird 
up, fasten up, tuck up. Bucoincta, 
tvith her skirt tucked up, that she might 
not be hindered' by it in her work. 

8UC-or6Bo6, -ere, -or6vI, -crStum, grow 
vp, rise, increase. 

stips— S;ittplSgadM, 


suc-cumbS, -ere, -cubol, -cabitam, »uc- 
cumd, yield. 

snc-eurrS, -ere, -eorrl, -CTmum, come to 
the assistance ofy succor^ aid. 

8ac-ciiti6, -catere, -otusI, -cussum, [qua- 
ti8], shake vp; throw ^ hurl^ toss. 

BftcoB, -I, m. Juice: rnedicine. 

sal, sibi, b6, refl. pron. self, one's se^f, 
himself, /lerself, itseif, themselves. 
per b6, voluntarUi/, of one's own accord. 

salcd, -fire, -StI, -Stum, 2)low. 

silicas, -I, m. furrow. 

SulmO, -Snis, m. Sulmo, Ovid's native 

stLlpur, -oris, n. sulphur. 

Bulpureus, -a, -am, sutphttrous, 

sam, esse, fdl, be ; exist, live. 

somma, -ae, f. the highest part, most im- 
portant part, substance, sum total, mm. 
somma soSptrl, th£ sovereignty of the 
sceptre, the command-in-chief of the 

summam, -I, n. highest part, upper part ; 
border, edge. caell samma, the high- 
est parts of the sky. 

sammas, -a, -am, highest, uppermost, 
top ; highest part of, top of, summit of 
surface of, point of 

sflmS, -ere, stUnpsI, stUnptam, take, 
seize, grasp ; take up, put on, assume ,• 
get, acquire. 

sfimptiu, -Us, m. [stLmS] expense. 

super, 1. fy^y. above, over ; besides, more- 
over, in addition, satis saperque, 
enough and more than enough. 2. prep, 
with Ace. and Abl. above, over, on. 

saperSbilis, -e, conquerable. 

saperbia, -ae, f. pride. 

saperbas, -a, -am, proud, haughty, vain. 

AiScI saperbam, an honor for AJax. 
8aper-8mine$, -6re, surpass. 

saper-In-iciO, -icere, -iscl, -iectam, 
throw over. 

saperS, -Sre, -Svl, -Stam, [super] be 
higher than : surpass, excel ; overcome, 
conquer ; be over, be l^t, be abundant. 

superstes, -Stitis, adj. surviving. 

super-sum, -esse, -ful, be left over, be left, 

Buperus, -a, -um, upper, above, supera 
5ra, the Upper World. Sabst. superl, 
the gods. 

suplnus, -a, -um, bent backwards, up- 
turned. manfLs suplnae, upturned 
palms, in attitude of prayer. 

8up-ple6, -ere, -Svl, -Btum, M up, jui 
again, complete. 

supplex, -plicis, adj. suppliant, humbly 
begging, entrecUing. 

supplidter, adv. humbly. 

supplicium, -I, n. punishment, execution ; 


suppOn6, see subpOn6. 

SuprS, adv. and prep, witiu Ace. over, 

suprOmum, adv. for the last time. 

suprOmus, -a, -um, uppermost, higfiest, 
extreme, last. 

Burgd, -ere, surrOzI, surrSctum, arise, 
stand up, get up. 

sUs, suis, m. and f. fiog, swine. 

sus-cipiO, -cipere, -c6pl, -ceptum, under- 
take, attempt. Snbet. suscepta, under- 

sus-citS, -ttre, -Svl, -Stum, stir up, 

suspendium, -I, n. hanging. 

sH-spiciS, -ere, -spexl, -spectum, look up 
to (or at). 

sUspicor, -Sri, -Stus sum, suspect. 
sfLspIrium, -I, n. sigh. 

sus-tiae$, -6re, -tinul, -tentum, hold 
up, hold, bear ; hold out, endure, suffer^ 
withstand ; bring one's self to, dare. 

susurrO, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, whisper. 

suus, -a, -um, his, her, hers, its; their, 
theirs ; one's own, his own, etc. ; natural, 
proper, Jilting ; favorable, friendly. 
sul, one's family and fiends. 

SymplSgades, -um, f. the Symplegades, 
two cliffs at thie entrance of tlie Blacl^ 
Sea, whichi, according to the myth, 
would close up bo that a ship, caught 
in the passage, would be crushed. But 
after the Argo passed, they stood still 



tabella, -ae, t. [tabula] writing tablet ,* 

tfibSs, -is, f. wasting away^ decline^ dis- 

t£b68c6, -ere, tfibuX, waste away, melt 
away^ melt^ perish. 

tabula, -ae, f. boards plank; table. 

tabnlfirium, -I, n. arcMve^ place for the 
preservation of writings. 

taceS, -fire, -uI, -itnm, be silent, keep 
sUent, become silent, hush, say nothing. 

taoitu8, -a, -um, concealed, secret ; silent, 
quiet, gentle. 

tSctus, -Us, m. [tangSl touch. 

taeda, -ae, f. torch, especially, marriage' 
torch; tnarriage. 

taedimn, -I, n. disgust, weariness. 

Taenaridfis, -ae, m. the Taenarian, from 
TaeuaruB, a promontory and city in 
Laconia ; especially, Hyacinthus, the 

Taenarins, -a, -am, Taenarian, from 
Taenarus, a promontory and city in La- 
conia. Near this city was a hole, called 
the Taenarian Gate, which was sapposed 
to be an entrance to the Lower World. 

taeter, -tra, -trnm, horrid, hideous, of- 
fensive, loathsome. 

TagTUB, -I, m. the Tagtts, a river in Spain. 

tSlis, -e, such, so. tSlii— quSlis, such 
—as. tSlia, such words, as follows. 

tUus, -I, m. ankle, heel. 

tarn, adv. so. tarn— quam, so {as)— as. 
qaam— tarn, while— yet. 

tamen, couj. yet, however, nevertheless. 

tamquam, conj. as if; &dv.Just as, like. 

tandem, adv. at length, at last,Jlnally. 

tangS, -ere, tetigl, tfiotom, touch; reach, 
arrive at, enter; move, influence, maka 
an impression on. 

TantalidSs, -ae, m. descendant of Tan- 
talus; especially, Agamemnon, his great- 

Tantalus, -I, ni. Tantalus, son of Jnpiter, 
and king of Phrygia, at first honored by 
the gods bnt afterwards panished in the 
Lower World for betrayal of their se- 
crets. He was tortured with thirst and 

surrounded with water, but as often as 
he tried to drink the water receded from 
his lips. From this peculiar form of 
punisliment comes our word tantalize. 

tantum, adv. so much; only. 

tantnmmodo, adv. only. 

tantns, -a, -nm, so great, such. tantns 
— qoantxis, as great— as. Subst. tan- 
tum, so much, tanti, worth so much. 

tardS, adv. slowly; late. 

tard6, -fire, -Svl, -Stum, delay, hold back, 
hinder; in^rans. delay, be slow. n5n 
tardSre quin, not to prevent. 

tardus, -a, -um, slow, duggtsk, inactive, 
lazy, negligent; late. 

Tartara, -Orum, n. Tartarus, the Imoer 
World; death. 

tauruB, -I, m. butt. 

TSygetS, -68, f. Taygete, one of the 

tSotum, -I, n. [tegS] roqf; house. 

teg6, -ere, tSzI, tSctum, cover, hide, 
conceal; protect. 

tSgula, -ae, f. ItegS] tiU. 

tSla, -ae, f . wtb, thing taoven. 

TelamOn, -Oois, m. Telamon, father of 
the great Ajax. He was the brother of 
Pelens, the father of Achilles. 

TelamOnlades, -ae, m. son of Telamon, 


TelamOnius, -I, m. son ofTektmon, Ajax. 

TSlemacbus, -I, m. Telemachus, son of 
Ulysses and Penelope. 

TSlepbOB, -I, m. Telephus, son of Hercules. 
He was wounded by Achilles and after- 
wards healed by him with the same 

telltls, -flris, f. earth, land, soil. Per- 
sonified as the goddess Tellus (Earth). 

tSlum, -I, n. weapon; especially, dart,, arrow. 

temerftrius, -a, -um, rash, thoughtless, 

temerS, -fire, -fivl, -Stum, desecrate, pol- 

tSmO, -Onis, m. pole, tongue (of a chariot). 

temperd, -fire, -fivl, -fitum, regulate, 
moderate, control, guide, rule. 



tempestSs, -fitiSi f. period, time; 
weather, eepecially storm, tempest. 

tempestlyfi, adv. at the right time. 

tempestlras, -a, -onii at the right time ; 
suUabte; mature. 

templum, -l^n. amsecrated place ; temple. 

temptfimeU, -inis, n. attempt. 

tempt5, -Sre, -fiyi, -fitum, try, attempt, 
make an effort. 

tempos, -oris, n. 1. time, in illO tem- 
pore, during thai period, in omne 
tempos, /or aU time, tempore, in tim^ 
(Abl. of Means). 2. tempora, temples 
(of the head). 

tenfix, -ficis, adj. [teneO] holding on, 
tenacious ; firm, abiding. 

tendS, -ere, tetendl, tentom, stretch, 
stretch out, reach out, extend; tent; 
stHve, hasten ; be naturally inclined (ad 

tenebrae, -Srom, f. darkness, gloom. 

tenebrOsos, -a, -om, dark, gloomy. 

Tenedos, -I, f* Tenedus, a small island 
near Troy, conquered by Achilles. 

teneS, -6re, -ol, tentom, hold, have, pos- 
sess, occupy; hold back, restrain. 
caosam tenfire, gain a case. Diam 
tens, dij'^eci your course to Dia, 

tener, -era, -erom, tender ; young, weak, 

tentOriom, -I, n. [tendS] tent. 

tenois, -e, thin / fine, light, tender ; small, 
narrow ; gentle, low. 

teno5, -are, -Svl, -fitom, make thin, thin, 

tenos, prep, postpos. with Abl. as far as. 

tepefaciS, -facere, -f6cl, -factom, make 
warm, warm. 

tepSns, -entis, partic. adj. warm, luke- 
warm, tepid. 

tepeO, -fire, -ol, be tepid, be warm. 

tepidos, -a, -om, tepid, warm. 

ter, adv. three times. 

tergeminos, -a, -om, thre^old, three- 
headed (canis = Cerberus). 

tergO, -ere, tersi, tersom, wipe off, loipe. 

tergom, -I, n. back, side ; hide, skin. S 
tergO, in the rear, behind, post ter- 
gom, behind one's self, in the rear. 

tergos, -oris, n. back, side. 

terni, -ae, -a, three each, three. 

terO, -ere, trlvl, tritom, rub, rub off; 
touch, graze. tritom spatiom, t'le 
trodden way. 

terra, -ae, f. earth, land; country. 
orbis terrSrom, world. 

terrSnos, -a, -om, earthen, earthy, of 

terreS, -Bre, -oX, -itnmyfrighten, terrify. 

terribilis, -e, terriUe, fearful. 

terrigena, -ae, [terra, gXgn5] adj. and 
Subst. sprung from the earth, earth-born. 

terror, -5ris, m. ten'or,fear. 

tertios, -a, -om, third. tertios ab 
love, great-grandson of Jupiter. 

tSsta, -ae, f • earthen vessel, pot. 

testificor, -Sri, -Stos som, [tSstis, faciO] 
coil to witness ; testify. 

tSstis, -is, m. and f . witness. 

tSstor, -Sri, -Stos som, call to witness ; 

TGthys, -yos, f. Teihys, wife of Oceanus. 

tetigl, see tangO. 

tetricos, -a, -om, gloomy, stem, severe. 

Teocer, -cri, m. Teucer, son of Telamon, 
and brother of Ajax. 

Teocrl, -Orom, m. the Teucri = the 
TYqjans, so called from their ancient 
king Teucer. 

teztom, -I, n. thing tvoven ; cloth, cover, 

tbalamos, -I, m. room ; bridal chamber ; 
marriage, wedlock. 

Thalia, -ae, f. Thalia, the Muse of comic 
and other light poetry. 

Tbaomantias, -adis, f. the daughter qf 
Tliaumas = Lis. 

tbeStrom, -I, n. theatre. 

Tli6bae, -Srom, f. Thebes : 1. the chief 
city of Bocotia, founded by Cadmus. 
2. a city in Mysia, destroyed by Achilles. 

Themis, -idis, f. Themis, goddess of jus- 

ThersItSs, -ae, m. Thersites, the ugliest 
and most contemptible of the Greeks 
before Troy, punished by Ulysses for his 



Thfiseos, -6l and -eos, m. Theseus^ king of 
Athens, faithful friend of Pirithoas. 

ThfisSuB, -a, -um^ of Theseus. 

ThetiB, -idis, f. Thetis., a sea-goddess, 
daughter of Nereaa and Doris and mother 
of Achilles. 

Thisbfi, -08, f- Thisbe., a Babylonian girl. 

ThoSn, -dnis, m. Thooriy a Trojan, slain 
by Ulysses. 

ThrScins, -a, -urn, Thracian. Snbst. a 

Thymbreios, -a, -urn, of ThymbHus, a 

river in Phrygla. Thymbrfiios in- 

oola, dweller on the banks of the Thym- 

thjnxLBj 'If m. t?ie thyrsuSy the staff borne 

by the Bacchantes. It was wound around 

with ivy and vine-leaves. 

Tiberifl, -is, m. the Tiber^ the famous 
river which flows by Rome. 

tibia, -ae, f . Jlute. 

tibloen, -cinis, m. [tibia caii5] Jlute- 
player^ piper. 

Tibtdliis, -I, m. TibullitSf famous Roman 
el^iac poet (54-19 B.C.). 

tlgnnm, -I, n. beam^ rafter. 

tigris, -idis, m. and f. tiger. 

tilia, -ae, f. linden-tree. 

timed, -6re, -al, /ear, dread., be afraid. 

timidus, -a -am, timid^ fearful, hesitat- 
ing., cautious, cowardly. 

TimOluB, -I, m. Tinwlus, a mountain in 
Lydia, sacred to Bacchus ; also TmOllUS. 

timor, -Crifl, m.fear, terror; danger. 

ting5, -ere, tinzl, tinotnm, dip, bathe : 
wet, moisten ; dye, coUrr. aeqaore 
tingi, dip into the sea. 

tinguO, see tingS. 

TItSn, -Snifl, m. tfie Titan, especially the 

. Sun, who was the son of a Titan. The 

Titans were an old family of gods who 

fought against Jupiter and when defeated 

were banished to Tartarus. 

TItSnia, -ae, f. daugJiter or descendant 
of a Titan, especially Pyfrha, the grand- 
daughter of the Titan lapetus. 

titub5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, stagger, totter. 

titulns, -I, m. title, inscription; name, 
lionor, glory. 

Tityos, -I, m. TUyus, a giant who made 

an attack npon Latona and was punished 
ih Tartarus by having his liver constantly 
gnawed by two vultures. 

Tltyms, -I, m. Tityrus, name of a shep- 
herd in Vergil's Bucolics, and so used by 
Metonymy for the work itself. 

TlSpolemos, -I, m. Tlepolemtts, leader of 
the Rhodians in the siege of Troy. 

TmOlns, -I, m. Tmolus, a mountain in 
Lydia, sacred to Bacchus. See TimOlns. 

toga, -ae, f. [tegO] the toga, the outer 
garment of Roman civilians. toga 
libera, Uberior, the free toga, a white 
toga which Roman youths put on in their 
seventeenth year. MSrte togSqae, in 
war and in peace. 

tolerS, -Sre, -5yI, -fitum, bear, endure. 

toll5, -ere, sustull, sublStom, lift vp, 
lift, raise; take away, remove. 

Tomis, -idis, f. Tomi (or Tomis), a place 
in Moesia on the coast of the Black Sea 
near the mouth of the Danube. Here 
Ovid lived as an exile. 

Tomltae, -Srum, m. the inhabitants qf 

tondeS, -6re, totondl, tOnsum, shear, 

cut off (especially, hair). 

tonitms, -Qs, m. thunder, peal of thunder. 

torpe5, -Sre, -nl, be stiff, be dull, be in- 
active, be paralyzed. 

torp6sc5, -ere, XxxrpMXybecom^ stiff, become 
dull, lose consciousness. 

torqueS, -Sre, torsi, tortum, twist, turn; 
torture, distress. tortus, twisted. 

torre5, -6re, torml, tQstum,;>arc/^, roast, 
burn, singe. . tSsta frfix = bread. 

tortilis, -e, [torqueO] twisted, curved. 
tortus, see torqueS. 

torus, -I, m. bed, couch; especially, the 
marriage bed, hence marriage, wedlock, 

torvus, -a, -um, gloomy, ste?m, severe; 
ill-pleased, angry, defiant* 

tOstus, see torreO. 

tot, indecl. adj. so many. tot— quot, 
as many — as. 

totidem, indecl. adj. Just as many, the 
same number. 

totiSns, adv. so many times, so qften. 

tOtus, -a, -um, wJwle, entire, all. 

trabs, trabis, f. beam; tree. 

ThfiseuB— tone. 


trfictS, -Sre, -fiyi, -fitnm, [trah5] puU ; 
touchy handle^ play with. 

trfiotUB, -tls, m. line^ course, track. 

trfid6, -ere, -didi, -ditum, [trfins, d5] 
give over, hand over, deliver, intrust; 
relate, hand down; teach, instruct. 

tragoedia, -ae, f • tragedy. 

trahS, -ere, trSzI, trfictunii drag, draw, 
pull, carry alon{/; take on, acquire, re- 

trfi-ici5, -icere, -iSoI, -iectum, [iaci6] 

cairy over, tranter. 

trSmes, -itis, m. path, way. 

trfi-116, -Sre, -SyI, -Stum, swim across. 

trSns, prep, with Ace. across, over, beyond. 

trSn8-e$, -Ire, -il, -itom, go across, go 
over, pass over; pass by. 

trSnutns, -tls, m. passage, going across. 

tremebundos, -a, -urn, trembling, quiver- 

trem5, -ere, -nl, tremble, shake. 

tremor, -(iris, m. shaking; earthquake, 

tremulius, -a, -um, trembling, shaking. 

trepid5, -Sre, -Syl, •Situm.yjlutter, quiver, 
tremble, shake. 

trepidns, -a, -um, trem^ing, shaking, 
quivering; timid, fearf id. 

trBs, tria, three. 

tribulus, -I, m. thjom, thistle. 

triba5, -uere, -ul, -Utam, give, grant, be- 
stow. m6 tribuente, at my hand. 

tri-oiLspis, -idis, adj. three-pronged, tri- 
cuspis tfiltun, the trident. 

tri-dSns, -dentis, m. trident, Neptune^s 
three-pronged spear. 

trifidus, -a, -um, [find5] split into three 
parts. trifida flamma, the three- 
pronged flame = Uglitning. 

triAbmiB, -e, Jiaving three forms, triple. 

Trinacria, -ae, f . a poetic name for Sicily. 

Trinacris, -idis, fern. adj. Sicilian. Subst. 

trio, -Onis, m. threshing-ox or plow-ox; 
usually PI. septem triOnSs, the Great 
Bear, the northern constellation, also 
called the Great Dipper and Charles's 

triplex, -plicis, adj. triple, threefold; 

tristis, -e, sadt sorrowful, melancholy; 
causing sadness, disagreeable. Utter (sa- 

trlticens, -a, -um, qf wheat. 

TrItOn, -Ouis, m. Triton, son of Neptune, 
a sea-god. 

triumphs, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, celebrate a 
triumph ; triumph over, subdue. 

triumphus, -I, m. triumph, the procession 
of the victorious general on his return 
to Rome with his army, prisoners, and 

triyium, -I, n. crossing of streets, cross- 

Trivia, -ae, f. Trivia, a name for Diana, 
who was worshipped at cross-roads. 

TrOes, -um, m. t/ie Tn&ans. 

TrOia, -ae, f. Troy, a city in Asia Minor, 
besieged for ten years by the Greeks. 

TrOiSnus, -a, -um, Trqjan, qf Ttoy. 

TrOicus, -a, -um, Trqjan, of Troy. 

TrOius, -a, -um, Trqjan, qf Troy. 

tropaeum, -I, n. trophy, a sign of victory. 

truiic5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, cut off, trim. 
bolus folils truncSre, deprive the cab- 
bage of its leaves, cut qff the leaves. 

1. truncus, -a, -um, trimmed up; incom- 
plete, .truncum corpus, limbless body. 

2. truncus, -I, m. trunk, body. 

tfl (PI. vOs), pers. pron. thou, you. 

tuba, -ae, f. trumjKt. 

tubicen, -cinis, m. [tuba, can5] ti-um- 

tueor, -6rl, -itus sum, behold, look at, 
view ; look after, attend to, care for ; 
pi'otect, guard, defend. 

tum, adv. tJien, at that time. 

tumed, -6re, -ul, swell up; rage; be 
puffed up, be proud. 

tumidus, -a, -um, swelling, swollen ; 
raging, billowy. 

tumul5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum, [tumulus] 

tumultus, -As, m. noise, alarm, disturb- 
ance, uproar. 

tumulus, -I, m. hill, mound ; especially, 
funeral mound, grave. tumulO (Dat.) 
dare, tumulO (Abl.) condere, bury. 

tunc, adv. then, at that time. 



timd5, -ere, tutndl, tttxunim and ttUum, 
strike^ beiu^ especially of beating the 
breast as a sign of grief. 

tunica, -ae, f. tvnic^ Roman undergar- 

tnrba, -ae, f. noise^ disturbance^ confusion; 
crowds throng^ mass; people. tnrba 
terrSrom, all the inhdfMants qf the 

1. tiirb6, -Sre, -fivl, -fitum, [tnrba] 
throw into confusion^ disturb^ confuse^ 

2. tnrbO, -inis, m. vAnding^ twist; whirl- 
wind^ storm. 

Tnmiui, -I, m. Tumus^ chief of the Riita- 
lians, who waged war with Aeneas after 
his arrival in Italy. 

turpiB, -e, ugly^ unsightly, dirty, dis- 
colored ; mean, base, disgractful, shame- 

tnrpiter, adv. basely, sJiam^uUy, dis- 

turris, -is, f. tower. 
tartar, -oris, m. turtle-dove. 
tils, ttlriB, n. incense. 

TliscaB, -a, -am, l. Tuscan, Etruscan, 
from Etruria (a country north of La- 
tinm). 3. = Tyrrhenian (TtlscS ab 
arbe), because the Etruscans were de- 
scended from the Tyrrhenians. 

tUtSla, -ae, f . [taeor] l. abstract, ptv^«(^ 
tion, d^ense. S. concrete, protection, 
defense, protectO)\ defender, guardian, 
keeper. tUtfila prOrae, the second offlr 
cer, who had charge of the prow. 

ttltas, -a, -am, [taeor] protected, de- 
fended ; safe, secure. 

taas, -a, -am, thy, thine ; your, yours. 
tal, your family and friends. 

Tyanfiias, -a, -am, of Tyana, a city in 

TydldOs, -ae, m. son of Tydeus, that is, 

tyrannaB, -I, m. lord, m.aster, ruler. 
tyrannas Infernas, the ruler of the 
Under World (PlfltO). 

Tjrrias, -a, -am, Tyriav, from Tyre, a 
city in Phoenicia; of purple color, purple, 
bright-colored (flOrfis). 

1. Uber, -eris, n. breast, udder. 

2. fiber, -eris, adj. rich, luxuriant, fruit- 
ful; with Abl. rich in, abounding in. 

abi, 1. adv. where. 2. couj. when, as, as 
soon as, as qften as. 

ablqae, adv. everywhere. 

tldas, -a, -am, moist, damp, wet. 

alclBCor, -I, altas som, take vengeance 
on, ptmish; avenge, take vengeance for. 

TTlizSs, -is, m. Ulysses, son of Laertes, 
husband of Penelope, father of Tele- 
machus, king of Ithaca, and a prominent 
leader of the Greeks in the Trojan war. 
Voc. Ulixe. 

fillas, -a, -am, any. Subst. anyone. 
nOn— fillas, 9iot any, no, none.,- Subst 
no one, nobody. 

tUmas, -I, f . elm. sammft in ftlmO, in 
the top of an elm tree. 

Ultimas, -a, -Jim, furOiermmt, farthest, 
last (of time and place). Ultima via, 
the last part qf the way. 

alter, -dris, m. avenger, punislier. 

alttl6, -Sre, -avl, -fttfun, howl. 

alya, -ae, f . sedge. 

ambra, -ae, f . shade, shadow ; PI. shcuies 
(of the dead), spirits. 

ambrlSsas, -a, -am, shady. 

omsraa, -I, m. shoulder. 

Umidas, -a, -am, moist. 

Umor, -Oris, m. moisture, liquid. 

amqaam, adv. ever. n5n— amqaam, 


CLnS, adv. together, along vAth, in company 
with. flnS stSre, sUind by. 

ancas, -a, -am, curved, hooked. anca 
aera, brass hooks. 

anda, -ae, f • wave, billow; water. 

ande, adv. 1. interrog. whence? 2. rel. 
tvhence,from which; fo^' which reason, 

Undecimas, -a, -am, eleventh. 

andiqae, adv./nwi all sides, everywhere. 

angois, -is, m. nail (on the finger or toe) ; 

Ilnicas, -a, -am, only, sole. 

timd6— yell5. 


anquam, see umqiiam. 

tLnua, -a, -am, one, only one; soU^ only ; 
one and the satne^ same. 

nrbfiniu, -a, -nm, [nrbs] qf the city, in 
the city. 

orbs, nrbis, f. cify; especially, Urbs = 

urgeS, -0re, nnl, prees, drive on, urge on, 
. hasten, pueh. 

lima, -ae, ' • um, jar, e8i)eciall7 the nm 
containing the ashes of the cremated 

11r5, -ere, tlssl, tLstnin, bum, singe,parch, 
bum up, destroy; torture, torment; espe- 
cially of the passion of love, llror, bum, 
be vioUnUy in love. 

tUquam, adv. anywhere. nOn— tLsqiiam, 

tUqne, adv. continually, always; before 
prepositions, up to, as far as. Usque 
ade5, to such a degree, so. 

tlsiu, -tls, m. use; loan; advantage; need. 

Ut, UtI, conj. 1. interrogative and relative: 
how, as. sic— at, so—<u, though— yet. 
2. temporal : when, as soon as, after, 
since. 3. with Subjunctive of Design : 
that, in order that, to. 4. with Subjunc- 
tive of Tendency : that, so thai. 5. con- 
cessive: though, granted that, even if. 

aterqae, atraqae, atromqae, eo/ch (of 
two), both. 

ntl, see at and Utor. 

lltiliB, -e, [Ator] us^ul, serviceable, ad- 
vantageous, fitting, suitable. 

tltilitSfl, -StU, f. use, advantage, expe- 

tltiliter, adv. usefully, advantageously, 
well. Utilias stSrent, it tvould be 
better if they stood. 

atinaxn, adv. would that, oh that. 

Iltor, Utl, Qsas stun, (with the Abl.) use, 
make use of, enjoy ; have, possess. 
male Utl, m^ike a bad use of. 

Ilya, -ae, f. grapes. 

oxor, -Oris, f ■ wife. 

vacca, -ae, f ■ cow. 

vao5, -Sre, -Svl, -Stom, be empty, be 
vacant; be free from, be unoccupied 
with, be without ; be idle. 

▼acaas, -a, -am, etnpty, free, without ; 
vacant, unoccupied, deserted. 

yadimOniam, -I, n. summons; recogni- 
zance, bail, for appearance at court. 

▼fid5, -ere, vfisi, go. 

▼adam, -I, n. shallow water, shoal, ford ; 
channel, bed (of a river). 

yagor, -Sri, -fitas sam, wander about. 

yagai, -a, -Jim, fickle, inconstant, change- 

yaie (properly Imperative of yaled),/ar0- 

yalSns, -entis, partic. adj. strong, mighty, 
powerful ; effective. 

yaleS, -fire, -al, -itam, be strong, be 
powerful, be well ; excel ; prevail, be suc- 
cessful; be able, be capable, can. 
yalfire in, be strong enough for, be svffi- 
cientfor. YtAiyfarewell. 

yalidas, -a, -am, [yaleS] strong, mighty; 
violent; effective. 

yalles, or yallis, -is, f. valley. 

yalyae, -Sram, f. folding-door, door. 

ySnfiscS, -ere, vanish. 

ySnas, -a, -am, vain, empty ; ineffective, 
unsuccessful, in vain. 

yari5, -fire, -fiyl, -fitam, vary, change ; 
vaHegate, make qf different colors. 
cfini yarifibant tempera, gray hairs 
were scattered over the temples. 

yarias, -a, -am, various, manifold; 
variegated, qf various colors. 

VarrO, -Onis, m. Varro, a Roman epic 
poet, author of an Argonautica. 

yarns, -a, -am, vdde apart, wide curving, 
curved outward. 

ySstas, -a, -am, vast, ifnmense, great. 

yStfis, -is, m. and f . seer, jyropJiet ; bard, 

ye, conj. or, sometimes to be translated 
and. ye— ye, eit/ier—or. 

yectas, see yebO. 

yeh6, -ere, yexl, yeotam, bear, carry. 
Passive, be borne, ride. 

vel, conj. even; or. yel—yely either— or. 

yfilSmen, -Inis, n. cloak, garment, dress ^ 

yell6, -ere,yellIoryalsI, yalsam,p/uc£, 
break off, tear qff, pull up. 



yelluB, -eris, n. toool^JUeee ; hide, skin. 

v6l6, -Sre, -Svl, -Stum) veil, cover, clothe; 
wreaVie, encircle. 

vSlOz, -Ocis, adj. 8tD\ft,fa8t,fieeting. 

yfilum, -I, n. sail ; sail-cloth, awning. 
vSladare, «e^MZi/. 

velat, velutl, adv. as, like ; as it loere. 
Conj. as if. 

vSna, -ae, f . vein (of blood in the body or 
of metal in the groand). 

yfinfitor, -Oris, m. hunter, huntsman. 

yenCnStns, -a, -um, poisoned. 

yenSnum, -I, n. poison. 

yenia, -ae, f . pardon, indulgence. 

yeniS, -Ire, yfini, yentnm, come; come 
up, arrive, approach. yentttnu, 
coming, future. Subet. yenttlniin, the 

ySnor, -firl, -fitus sum, hunt. 

yentOsns, -a, -um, [yentuB] windy. 

yentns, -I, m. wind. 

Venius, -oris, f. Venust the goddess of love, 
daughter of Jupiter and Dione, wife of 
Vulcan, mother of Cupid (Amor) and 

yfir, ySris, n. spring, spring-time. 

yerber, -oris, n. stroke, bloic. 

yerberd, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, strike, beat. 

yerbOsiiB, -a, -tim, wordy. 

yerbum, -I, n- icord, speech. ambOrum 
yerbis, in the name of both. 

y6r6, adv. truly, realty. 

yereor, -Brl, -itns Bum, fear, be afraid, 
feel awe. 

VergiliuB, -I, m. Vergil, the famous 
Konmn poet (70-19 B.C.). 

vBr3, adv. indeed; but, Jixnoever. 

yerrS, -ere, yerrl, yersum, sweep, drag. 

yersO, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, turn, tivist. 

yersus, -lis, m. [yert8] verse, lit. turning. 

yertex, -ids, m. top, summit, head. 

yert5, -ere, yerti, yersum, turn, twist ; 
turn to, direct; change, transform. 

ySrum, conj. [ySrus] in truth, indeed; 
but, however. 

yfirus, -a, -um, true, real, genuine, well- 
founded. Subst. ySrum, truth, reality. 

yesper, -erl, m. evening. 

Vesta, -ae, f . Vesta, goddeee of the hearth 
and sacr^ fire. 

yester, yestra, yestrum, your, yours. 

yfistlgium, -I, n. sole qf the foot, foot ; 
footprint, track, step; trace; remains, 

yestis, -is, f . clothing, dress, garment. 

yet8, -Sre, -ul, -itum,/orMrf; prevent. 

yetus, -eris, adj. old, ancient, venerable; 

yetustSs, -Stis, f . age, antiquity, time, 

yetustus, -a, -um, old, ancient. 

yia, -ae, f. way, road, street, path; voyage, 

yibr6, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, brandish; dart, 

ylclnia, -ae, f. neighborhood; abstract for 
concrete, neighbors. 

ylclnus, -a, -um, neigboring, dose, near, 
by. Subet. neiglibor. 

yicis. Gen. Sing, (no Nom.) f. change, 
turn, chance, danger. 

yictima, -ae, f . vUUim, animal offered in 

yictor, -Oris, m. victor, conqueror. Adj. 

yictrix, -Icis, fem. adj. victorious. 

ylotus, -tls, m. living; food, nourishment. 

yideO, -Ore, yidl, ylsum, see, behold, look 
at, view; pei^ceive; consider. Passive: 

be seen. 

yideor, -Orl, ylsus sum, seem, appear. 

yiduus, -a, -um, widoiced, deserted, lone- 

yig^l, -is, adj. watchful, wakeful, vigilant. 
Subst. watcher, guard. 

yigil5, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, be awake, be 
watchful; pa^s without sleep, watch 

ylginti, twenty. 

yigor, -Oris, m. vigor, activity, force, 

yllis, -e, cheap, worthless, held in light 

yllla, -ae, f- viUa, country-house. 

yillOsus, -a, -um, shaggy. yillOeus 
colubrls, serpent-haired. 

yillus, -I, m. shaggy haXr, wod. 



Yfmen, -inis, n. twig, branchy especially 
of the willow for toickerwork. 

vixici6, -Ire, yinzl, yinctum, bind, 
fastenj wreathe, croton. 

yindnm, see yinonlum. 

vixic6, -ere, vicl, victum, conquer, over- 
come, surpass, be superior to ; move, in- 

yinonlum, -I, n. [yinoi5] bond, fastening; 
chain, rope. 

y index, -icis, m. and f . avenger, punisher. 

ylnfitum, -I, n. vineyard. 

yinum, -I, n. udne. 

yiola, -ae, f . violet. 

yioleatns, -a, -nm, violent, boisterous, 
stormy, ivild. 

yiol5, -Sre, -5yl, -Stum, injure, wound, 
harm; desecrate; make guilty (hanc 

yipera, -ae, f. viper, serpent. 

yir, virl, m. ma7i, hero. 

yirfins, -entis, partic. adj. green. 

yire8, -fire, -nl, be green. 

yires, see yto. 

yirga, -ae, f . branch; rod, staff. 

yirg^ens, -a, -nm, 0/*« virgin, maidenly, 

yirg^tSs, -fitis, f . virginity. 

yirgO, -inis, f • virgin, maiden. 

yiridis, -e, green ; fresh, youthful. yi- 
ridSB del, the sea-gods. 

yirHis, -e; manly, of a man. 

yirtHs, -Utis, f. [vir] manliness, bravery, 
courage; virtue, good quality, m£nt. 

vis, f. power, strength, might, force; 
violence; effect, effectiveness, vis anrea, 
the power of changing things into gold. 
Forms : vis, vim, vl ; Plural : virfis, 

vlscns, -eris, n. inwards y bowels; flesh 
and blood, child ; jfossessions, property, 

vIb5, -ere, visl, [vided] look at, examine; 

vita, -ae, f. life. 

vitiS, -Sre, -fivl, -Stum, [vitinm] ruin, 
injure, corrupt. vitiStnm facere = 


vitiOsns, -a, -nm, [vitinm] /au/^y, d^ec- 

vltis, -is, f . vine. 

vitinm, -I, n. fa/ult, d^ect ; vice, guilt, 

vlt8, -fire, fivl, -fitnm, avoid, shun, try 
to escape. 

vitnlns, -I, m. ca^. 

vIvSz, -ficis, [ylv5] long-lived. 

vlv6, -ere, vixl, victnm, live, be alive. 

vivns, -a, -nm, living, alive. vivnm 
saxnm, the living rock, {unmoved, un- 

viz, adv. scarcely, hardly. 

vocS, -Sre, -Svl, -fitnm, call, 

volfitns, -Us, m. [1 V0I6] flight. 

1. yol5, -fire, -fivl, -fitnm, ^y. 

2. V0I6, velle, volnl, wish, be willing. 
volGns, wiUing, eager. 

volllbilis, -e, [volv5] rolling; change- 
able, flckle. 

volncer, -oris, -ore, [1 void] winged; 
swift, fleeting. 8ubst. volncris, -is, f. 

volnntfis, -fitis, f. tvill, wish, desire; 

volnptfis, -fitis, f. pleasure. 

vol1lt6, -fire, -fivl, -fitnm, [volvO] re- 
volve ; consider, debate, think over, go 

volv8, -ere, volvl, volUtnm, roU; re- 

vOmer, -eris, m. plowstiai'e. 

vomS, -ere, -nl, -itnm, vomit, spit forth, 

vOtnm, -I, n. [voveS] vow ; prayer, en- 
treaty ; wish, desire ; hope. 

vove8, -6re, vOvI, vOtnm, votv, promise ; 
prayfoi', ask for, wu<h. 

vOx, vOcis, f . voice; song, trpeech, language, 
word ; sound, noise. 

VnlcfininSj -a, -nm, of Vulcan, sacred 
to Vulcan. 

Vulcfinns, -I, m. Vulcan, the god of fire 
and bhicksiuiths. He was the son of 
Jupiter and Juno and the husband of 



yiilg6, -Sre, -Syl, -Stum, spread, make 
known. TolgSXuaj famed. 

VulgUMy 'If n* crowd; common people, 
common soldiers. 

Yulnns, -eriSi q. wound, injury, hurt; 
stroke, blow. 

vnltur, -urii, m. vulture. 

ynltns, -tls, v[^.face,f€atures, eounUnance; 
look, appearance. 

ZacsmtllOS, -I, f. Zacynthus, an island in 
tlie Ionian Sea. 

lephynu, -I, vn. west wind ; gentle wind, 
zephyr. Person ifled, Zephyrus, the West 
Wind, the wind god. 

imaragdiu, -I, m. emerald, a precioos 
stone of green color. 

lOna, -ae, f. girdle, belt; zone (on the 
earth or in the sky). 











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